What makes these questions moral questions? Why have these moral questions resisted resolution? Do what’s “normal:” Ask no questions, seek no answers. Easy street “undermines your personal freedom.” Do what “feels” right. Easy street results in moral positions that are “incomplete, confused, or mistaken.” Do whatever: it doesn’t matter anyway. Easy street prohibits “moral growth.” Easy street leaves one unable to explain ones judgments and actions. How about Divine Command Theory as an ethical path? Ambiguity & Contradiction. Silence of religious texts on some issues. “Good” and God—the Euthyphro Dilemma. If I do the something because I’m told to do it, in what sense is it an expression of my moral self? “Our commonsense moral experience suggests that if a moral judgment is to be worthy of acceptance, it must be supported by good reasons” (7). “Logic requires that moral norms and judgments follow the principle of universalizability” (7). Endless opinion? What happened or is happening? What responses are possible? What can I/we/they do? What do I know? How should things be? What ought to happen? What response should I/we/they choose? What should I/we/they do? What is significant about what I/we/they know? Moral reasoning. A set of principles or a framework that guides the application of value to knowledge and directs thought toward action. How does one discover or create that set of principles or that framework? Is Ought Everyone desires a “good life.” The world has limited resources. Individuals fight for their own interests against the interests of others. Individual conceptions of “good life” and interests are determined by race, sex, country of origin, economic status, intelligence, etc. Define a society from a position of ignorance— that is, without knowledge of individual abilities, economic status, race, sex, social position, etc. Based on what “is,” what “ought” to be? Is that “just” your opinion? From behind the veil, what “is”? In other words, what do you know? No rope to tie them up. Let them go, and they could give away location of Seals to Taliban. Kill them or let them go? 100 goats, two farmers, one 14 year old boy. All unarmed. Where is value located? Where does it come from? Does it matter whether value is inherent or assigned? From where can we derive moral authority? When we claim that something is good/bad or right/wrong, what are we saying?