IE381_ES_EIS_ESS - Pohang University of Science and Technology

Report
11. ES/EIS/ESS
Rev: Feb, 2013
Euiho (David) Suh, Ph.D.
POSTECH Strategic Management of Information and Technology Laboratory
(POSMIT: http://posmit.postech.ac.kr)
Dept. of Industrial & Management Engineering
POSTECH
Contents
1
Expert System (ES)
2
Executive Information System (EIS)
3
Expert Support System (ESS)
4
Case Study
Introduction to Expert System (ES)
1. Expert System
■ Definition
– Computer-based information systems that use expert knowledge to attain high-level decision
performance in a narrowly defined problem domain
■ Features of ES
Expertise
Containing expertise that enables ES to make expert-level decisions
Symbolic
reasoning
Containing symbolically represented knowledge and
symbolic primary reasoning mechanism
Deep
knowledge
Containing complex knowledge not easily found among nonexperts
Selfknowledge
Learning from its successes and failures as well as other knowledge sources
and examining its own reasoning and providing proper explanations
3
Important Concepts in ES
1. Expert System
■ Experts
– Degrees or levels of expertise
– Nonexperts outnumber experts often by 100 to 1
■ Transferring Expertise
– From expert to computer to nonexperts via acquisition, representation, inferencing, transfer
■ Inferencing
– Knowledge = Facts + Procedures (Rules)
– Reasoning/thinking performed by a computer
■ Rules (IF … THEN …)
■ Explanation Capability (Why? How?)
4
Conceptual Architecture of a Typical ES
1. Expert System
Modeling of Manufacturing Systems
Abstract
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Expert(s)
Printed Materials
Information
Expertise
Knowledge
Engineer
Control
Structure
External
Interfaces
Inference
Engine
Knowledge
Structured
Knowledge
Knowledge
Base(s)
Working
Memory
Base Model
Data Bases
Spreadsheets
Questions/
Answers
Solutions
Updates
User
Interface
5
Application of ES
1. Expert System
■ ES Application Categories
–
–
–
–
–
Decision management
Diagnostic/Troubleshooting
Design/Configuration
Selection/Classification
Process Monitoring/Control
■ Examples of Application
– DENDRAL
• Applied knowledge (i.e., rule-based reasoning)
• Deduced likely molecular structure of compounds
– MYCIN
• A rule-based expert system
• Used for diagnosing and treating bacterial infections
– XCON
• A rule-based expert system
• Used to determine the optimal information systems configuration
6
Benefits of ES
1. Expert System
■ Capture Scarce Expertise
■ Increased Productivity and Quality
■ Decreased Decision Making Time
■ Reduced Downtime via Diagnosis
■ Easier Equipment Operation
■ Elimination of Expensive Equipment
■ Ability to Solve Complex Problems
■ Knowledge Transfer to Remote Locations
■ Integration of Several Experts' Opinions
■ Can Work with Uncertain Information
7
Limitations of ES
1. Expert System
■ Processing not available knowledge
■ Extracting expertise from humans
■ Fear of sharing expertise
■ Conflicts in dealing with multiple experts
■ Narrow domain of knowledge
■ Highly technical experts’ vocabulary
■ Rare and expensive knowledge engineers
■ Lack of trust by end-users
■ Occasionally producing incorrect recommendations
8
Critical Successful Factors (CSF) for ES
1. Expert System
■ Sufficiently high level of knowledge
■ At least one cooperative expert
■ Mostly qualitative problem
■ Problem in sufficiently narrow scope
■ High quality, friendly user interface, naturally string and manipulating the knowledge
9
Introduction to Executive Information System (EIS)
2. Executive Information System
■ Definition
– A computerized user-friendly system specially designed to meet the needs of top executives
and to eliminate the need for intermediaries
■ Capabilities
–
–
–
–
Tracking and control
Tailoring to the individual executives decision making style
Status access, namely rapid access to current information
Extensive use of data from external source
10
EIS Development Framework
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Executive
Requirement
2. Executive Information System
Development methodology (CSF)
Standard (naming convention)
External & Internal Pressure
Spread
EIS capabilities
Development skills
Cost/time
EIS DEVELOPMENT
•
•
•
•
•
Software(EIS generator, DBMS)
Hardware
Personnel
Internal & External Data
MIS environment(system config.)
11
EIS product
EIS Development Process
2. Executive Information System
STAGE
DELIVERABLE
I. Preliminary Study
Needs for EIS development
II. Application Study
General Info. for EIS
III. Prototype Construction
Design info. For Prototype
IV. System Design
Prototype
V. Final System Construction
Implementation Plan
VI. Testing
Full-systems
VII. Installation
Improved systems
VIII. Extension
Plan for extension
12
CSF for EIS
2. Executive Information System
■ Committed and Informed Executive sponsor
■ Operating Sponsor
■ Appropriate Information service staff
■ Appropriate Information Technology
■ Data management
■ Clear Links to Business Objectives
■ Management of Organizational Resistance
■ Management of the Spread and Evolution of the system
13
Expert Support System (ESS)
3. Expert Support System
■ Definition
– A computer program that uses specialized symbolic reasoning to help experts solve difficult
problems effectively
■ ES vs. ESS
Criteria
ES
ESS
Techniques
Similar
Objective
To solve problems
To help experts solve problems
Decision-maker
Machine (System)
Human-being
■ Characteristics of Problems suitable for ESS
– Unencodable problem solving knowledge
– Need for a strong user interface
– Accessibility and malleability
14
Reference
■ Euiho Suh, “DSS/EIS/DW/OLAP (PPT Slide)”, POSMIT Lab.
(POSTECH Strategic Management of Information and Technology Laboratory)
■ O’Brien & Marakas, “Introduction to Information Systems – Sixteenth Edition”,
McGraw – Hill, Chapter 10
■ Efraim Turban, Ramesh Sharda, Dursun Delen, “Decision Support and Business
Intelligence systems – Ninth Edition”, Pearson, Chapter 12, pp.530~579
■ Yunmi Lee, “DSS & ES (PPT Slide)”, POSMIT Lab.
(POSTECH Strategic Management of Information and Technology Laboratory)
■ Ralph M. Stair, George Walter Reynolds, “Fundamentals of Information Systems – Third
Edition” – Thomson/Course Technology, Chapter 6
■ Jaimee Swiercinsky, Matt Kipp, “Expert Systems (PPT Slide)”
15

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