Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin Chapter 1 Cognition, 8e by

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Cognition, 8e
by Margaret W. Matlin
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
Cognition, 8e
Chapter 1
An Introduction to
Cognitive Psychology
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Origins of Cognitive Psychology
Aristotle
empirical evidence
Wilhelm Wundt
introspection
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Origins of Cognitive Psychology
Early Memory Researchers
Ebbinghaus
Mary Whiton Calkins
recency effect
first woman president of APA
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Origins of Cognitive Psychology
William James
Principles of Psychology
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Behaviorism
Watson
Skinner
operational definition
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Origins of Cognitive Psychology
The Gestalt Approach
gestalt
insight
Frederic C. Bartlett
memory as active, constructive process
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology
1956
"cognitive revolution"
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology
Factors Contributing to the Rise of
Cognitive Psychology
• disappointment with behaviorist approach
• linguistics; Noam Chomsky
• human memory research
• children's thought processes; Jean Piaget
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology
The Information-Processing Approach
a) Mental processes are similar to the
operations of a computer.
b) Information progresses through the
cognitive system in a series of stages, one
step at a time.
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology
The Information-Processing Approach
Atkinson-Shiffrin model
• sensory memory
• short-term memory (working memory)
• long-term memory
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Current Status of Cognitive
Psychology
• more complex models
• widespread influence on the discipline of
psychology
• applications of the cognitive approach in
therapy
• issues of ecological validity
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
Cognitive Neuroscience
Techniques
cognitive neuroscience
social cognitive neuroscience
Brain Lesions
Positron Emission Tomography (PET
scan)
Functional Magnetic Resonance
Imaging (fMRI)
Event-Related Potential Technique
(ERP)
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
Additional Areas that Contribute
to Cognitive Psychology
Artificial Intelligence
The Computer Metaphor
structures and processes
Pure Artificial Intelligence
efficiency
Computer Simulation
computer modeling
take human limitations into account
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
Additional Areas that Contribute
to Cognitive Psychology
Artificial Intelligence
The Connectionist Approach
• parallel distributed processing (PDP)
approach
• neural network approach
• cerebral cortex
• serial processing
• parallel processing
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
Red Riding Hood
Network
Big Ears
Run Away
Wolf
Scream
Big Eyes
Big Teeth
Grandma
Look for Woodcutter
Kiss on Cheek
Kindly
Wrinkled
Handsome
Woodcutter
Approach
Offer Food To
Flirt With
Matlin 1Chapter 1
Cognition, 8e by MargaretCognition
W. Matlin 7e, MargaretChapter
Additional Areas that Contribute
to Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Science
• interdisciplinary—cognitive psychology,
neuroscience, and artificial intelligence
PLUS philosophy, linguistics,
anthropology, sociology, and economics
• focus on internal representations
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
An Overview of Your
Textbook
Preview of the Chapters
Five Themes in the Book
Theme 1: The cognitive processes are
active, rather than passive.
Theme 2: The cognitive processes are
remarkably efficient and
accurate.
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
An Overview of Your
Textbook
Five Themes in the Book
Theme 3: The cognitive processes
handle positive information
better than negative
information.
Theme 4: The cognitive processes are
interrelated with one another;
they do not operate in
isolation.
.
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
An Overview of Your
Textbook
Five Themes in the Book
Theme 5: Many cognitive processes
rely on both bottom-up and
top-down processing.
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1
Cognition, 8e
by Margaret W. Matlin
Cognition, 8e by Margaret W. Matlin
Chapter 1

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