“The Cask of Amontillado”, by Edgar Allen Poe PHRASES, SENTENCE TYPES, & CAPITALIZATION/PUNCTUATION A SENTENCE is… A group of words with a subject and a predicate which expresses a complete thought. A SUBJECT is the object that is doing the action. Including all of the describing words and phrases A PREDICATE is the action. Including all of the describing words and phrases “unredressed” means uncorrected. A wrong / is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. “A wrong” is the SUBJECT- it’s the thing doing the action (being “unredressed”) “…is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser,” is the PREDICATE, the action. A “fragment” Is a group of words that does not express a complete thought. “when retribution overtakes its redresser” Why is this a fragment? A run-on… Is two or more complete sentences running together without punctuation. Edgar Allen Poe wrote The Cask of Amontillado he also wrote The Raven which is a poem a poem is a text that sometimes rhymes and contains meter or measured rhythm not all poems have to rhyme. Eeek! Can you even take a breath? A phrase… A group of words, without a subject and a verb, that functions in a sentence as one part of speech. There are 7 types of phrases… Prepositional Adjective Adverb Appositive Participial Gerund Infinitive A Clause is… A group of words with a subject and a verb. There are 2 types of clauses: INDEPENDENT SUBORDINATE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB AND CAN STAND BY ITSELF AS A COMPLETE SENTENCE. HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB BUT CANNOT STAND BY ITSELF AS A COMPLETE SENTENCE. “I can stand on my own two feet…” “…with my feet helping me balance.” 4 Structures of Sentences Simple- a single independent clause. Compound- 2 or more independent clauses. Complex- One independent clause and one subordinate clause Compound-Complex- Two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Simple Sentence- a single independent clause. EXAMPLE These orders were sufficient. An independent clause is… A group of words that has a subject ad a verb and can stand on its own as a sentence. Compound- 2 or more independent clauses. EXAMPLE The wine sparkled in his eyes and the bells jingled. The wine sparkled in his eyes. The bells jingled. Both clauses can be combined into one sentence OR stand on their own as two sentences. Complex- One independent clause and one subordinate clause EXAMPLE My own fancy grew warm with the Médoc. My own fancy grew warm… (is an independent clause because it can stand on its own) …with the Médoc. (is a subordinate clause because it doesn’t make any sense when it stands on its own) Compound-Complex- Two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. EXAMPLE I hastened to make an end of my labor, so I forced the last stone into position plastering it up. I hastened to make an end of my labor… I forced the last stone into position… …plastering it up. Both are independent clauses and can stand on their own. Is a subordinate clause because it does not make sense on its own. For each piece of text underlined, can you identify if it is an INDEPENDENT or SUBORDINATE clause? It was about dusk, one evening during the supreme madness of the carnival season, that I encountered my friend. He accosted me with great warmth, for he had been drinking much. 1. Independent 2. Subordinate 3. Independent 4. Subordinate For each sentence, can you identify the sentence type? I took from their sconces two flambeaux, and giving one to Fortunato bowed him through several suites of rooms to the archway that led into the vaults. I passed down a long and winding staircase, requesting him to be cautious as he followed. Re-write this paragraph by changing the types of sentence. There were no attendants at home; they had absconded to make merry in honour of the time. I had told them that I should not return until the morning and had given them explicit orders not to stir from the house. These orders were sufficient, I well knew, to insure their immediate disappearance , one and all, as soon as my back was turned.