Phrases, Sentence Types, & Capitalization/Punctuation

Report
“The Cask of Amontillado”, by Edgar Allen Poe
PHRASES, SENTENCE TYPES, &
CAPITALIZATION/PUNCTUATION
A SENTENCE is…
 A group of words with a subject and a
predicate which expresses a complete
thought.
 A SUBJECT is the object that is doing the
action.
 Including all of the describing words and phrases
 A PREDICATE is the action.
 Including all of the describing words and phrases
“unredressed” means uncorrected.
A wrong / is unredressed when retribution
overtakes its redresser.
“A wrong” is the SUBJECT- it’s the thing doing
the action (being “unredressed”)
“…is unredressed when retribution overtakes its
redresser,” is the PREDICATE, the action.
A “fragment”
 Is a group of words that does not express a
complete thought.
 “when retribution overtakes its redresser”
 Why is this a fragment?
A run-on…
 Is two or more complete sentences running
together without punctuation.
 Edgar Allen Poe wrote The Cask of Amontillado he
also wrote The Raven which is a poem a poem is a
text that sometimes rhymes and contains meter
or measured rhythm not all poems have to rhyme.
 Eeek! Can you even take a breath?
A phrase…
 A group of words, without a subject and a
verb, that functions in a sentence as one part
of speech.
 There are 7 types of phrases…
 Prepositional
 Adjective
 Adverb
 Appositive
 Participial
 Gerund
 Infinitive
A Clause is…
 A group of words with a subject and a verb.
 There are 2 types of clauses:
INDEPENDENT
SUBORDINATE
HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB
AND CAN STAND BY ITSELF
AS A COMPLETE SENTENCE.
HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB
BUT CANNOT STAND BY
ITSELF AS A COMPLETE
SENTENCE.
“I can stand on my own two feet…”
“…with my feet helping me
balance.”
4 Structures of Sentences
 Simple- a single independent clause.
 Compound- 2 or more independent clauses.
 Complex- One independent clause and one
subordinate clause
 Compound-Complex- Two or more
independent clauses and one or more
subordinate clauses.
Simple Sentence- a single independent clause.
EXAMPLE
These orders were sufficient.
An independent clause is…
A group of words that has a subject ad a verb
and can stand on its own as a sentence.
Compound- 2 or more independent clauses.
EXAMPLE
The wine sparkled in his eyes and the bells
jingled.
The wine sparkled in his eyes.
The bells jingled.
Both clauses can be combined into one sentence
OR stand on their own as two sentences.
Complex- One independent clause and one
subordinate clause
EXAMPLE
My own fancy grew warm with the Médoc.
My own fancy grew warm… (is an independent
clause because it can stand on its own)
…with the Médoc. (is a subordinate clause
because it doesn’t make any sense when it
stands on its own)
Compound-Complex- Two or more independent
clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.
EXAMPLE
I hastened to make an end of my labor, so I
forced the last stone into position plastering
it up.
I hastened to make an end of my labor…
I forced the last stone into position…
…plastering it up.
Both are
independent
clauses and can
stand on their
own.
Is a subordinate clause because it does not
make sense on its own.
For each piece of text underlined, can you
identify if it is an INDEPENDENT or
SUBORDINATE clause?
It was about dusk, one evening
during the supreme madness of the
carnival season, that I encountered my
friend. He accosted me with great
warmth, for he had been drinking
much.
1.
Independent
2.
Subordinate
3.
Independent
4.
Subordinate
For each sentence, can you identify
the sentence type?
I took from their sconces two flambeaux,
and giving one to Fortunato bowed him through
several suites of rooms to the archway that led
into the vaults. I passed down a long and
winding staircase, requesting him to be cautious
as he followed.
Re-write this paragraph by
changing the types of sentence.
There were no attendants at home; they had
absconded to make merry in honour of the time. I
had told them that I should not return until the
morning and had given them explicit orders not to
stir from the house. These orders were sufficient, I
well knew, to insure their immediate disappearance
, one and all, as soon as my back was turned.

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