Bellringer • What are the dates for each of the Egyptian Kingdoms? • Put completed Bellringers in the tray • Complete your survey for Yearbook • Continue working on your Egyptian Kingdom Posters Bellringer • Who was Hatshepsut (Pg. 70-71, Menes (Pg. 68), and Thutmose III (Pg. 70-71)? • http://www.discoveringegypt.com/hatshepsut .htm Section 1 Review 1. How did the Nile River affect the lives of the early Egyptians and Nubians? Annual flooding provided fertile land to farm 2. How did trade develop in various places along the Nile? Nile was natural highway for Egyptian boats to go to other countries for trading Section 2: Egypt’s Powerful Kings and Queens Egypt’s God-Kings • Hatshepsut was one of the many famous Egyptian pharaohs, or king, to rule Egypt • The history of ancient Egypt is the history of each of its dynasties- series of rulers from the same family • Had 31 dynasties until it was conquered by the Greek ruler Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. • Historians group Egypt’s dynasties into three main time periods called kingdoms: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, & New Kingdom Egypt’s God-Kings Cont. • Gaps between kingdoms were times of troubles--wars, invasions, weak rulers • Egypt’s first dynasty began when a king named Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt • This king wore two crowns symbolizing Upper and Lower Egypt • The united of Egypt began one of the most stable civilizations in history that lasted for more than 2,500 years All-Powerful Pharaohs • Pharaohs had absolute power over their people • Whatever the pharaoh decided became law • Pharaoh was also a religious leader • Egyptians believed the pharaoh provided his people with the Nile’s yearly floods and the harvests that followed Two Thousand Years of Power • Egypt grew and prospered during its first six dynasties during the Old Kingdom • Had stable rulers and a well-run system of government • Pharaohs kept peace with Nubia and sent merchants to eastern coast of Mediterranean to find timber • Timber was used to build houses, boats, and furniture Two Thousand Years of Power Cont. • Near the end of the Old Kingdom, governors in the provinces began to challenge the power of the pharaohs • Egypt’s unity crumbled and the dynasties grew weak • Early dynasties of the Middle Kingdom restored order and united the kingdom • Pharaohs spent money on irrigation projects and built a canal between the Nile and Red Sea • Egypt grew even richer • Less stable rulers followed and they lost control to foreign invaders Two Thousand Years of Power Cont. • Egyptian princes became strong enough to drive out the invaders around 1550 B.C. • This event marks the start of the New Kingdom • First pharaohs of New Kingdom wanted to build an empire • Pharaohs created huge armies of foot soldier, mounted warriors, warrior chariots, bronze swords and body armor make Egypt nearly unbeatable A Powerful Queen, a Great Pharaoh • Around 1500 B.C., a child named Thutmose III became pharaoh • Because of his age, his stepmother was appointed regent-someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to rule • His stepmother was Hatshepsut who had herself proclaimed pharaoh • She ruled Egypt for almost 22 years • When Thutmose III grew up, she refused to give him the throne • He took over when she died and had all of her statues destroyed A Powerful Queen, a Great Pharaoh Cont. • Thutmose III was one of the greatest pharaohs of the New Kingdom • He led his army in wars against Syria and Phoenicia • Egyptian troops advanced as far east as the Euphrates River and south into Nubia • Unlike other rulers of his time, he treated defeated people with mercy • The New Kingdom began to decline around 1075 B.C. • Civil war left Egypt weak and poorly defended • Alexander the Great conquered Egypt follow by the Romans • Egypt did not govern itself again for almost 2,000 years Section 2 Review 1. How did Egypt’s rulers govern their empire? Pharaohs had total power over the government, economy, and military of Egypt 2. Describe some of the accomplishments of the Old Kingdoms. Time of peace and prosperity. Near end, governors challenged pharaohs and kingdom grew weak 3. Describe some of the accomplishment of the Middle Kingdom. Restored order, united the country, and completed irrigation projects 4. Describe some of the accomplishments of the New Kingdom. Drove foreigners out of the country, created huge armies, and began building an empire Activity • Each student will get a blank sheet of computer paper and create a poster that lists the accomplishments made during each of the three kingdoms • Posters should be divided into the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom with the title Egyptian Kingdoms at the top • Put the dates of each Kingdom under the appropriate section • Look throughout Section 2 and your notes for information to put on your poster • Must have 4 facts and 1 picture for each Kingdom • Must have COLOR!!!