Cell Chart Review

Report
Cell Chart
Review
•“little organs”
•each one performs a specialized
function that enables the cells to
survive.
•found only inside eukaryotic cells
Embryonic Stem Cells
Eukaryotic cells, found in animals.
In early development these cells have
the potential to become any cell in the
body.
Currently stem cells can be harvested
from embryos, cord blood, and now
some adult cells can be induced to turn
back the clock and become stem cells.
Stem cell research may hold the
answer to many questions about
human health and disease.
It can be controversial due to the
harvesting of cells from human
embryos.
Cell Membrane
Regulates what goes in and
out of the cell “doorman”
Selectively permeable
Fluid-mosaic model of the cell
membrane
Proteins
Cell Wall
 protects the PLANT cell and maintains its shape
located outside of the cell membrane
made of cellulose in plants
NOTE: prokaryotes and fungi have a cell wall
too!
Cytoplasm
suspends
organelles
“jelly-like”
Nucleolus
Makes ribosomes
Located inside the nucleus
Nucleus, DNA, Nuclear
Membrane (NM)
Nucleus: houses the
cell's genetic material
in the form of DNA;
controls reproduction
and metabolism
“brain”
DNA: Gentic
material
NM: surrounds
nucleus, contains
pores
Ribosomes
Make proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
Can be Rough or
Smooth
Rough E.R.: contains
ribosomes; a system of
tubes and sacs that
transport these proteins
“highway”
Smooth E.R.
No ribosomes
builds lipid
molecules
also detoxifies
the cell of
poisons or
toxins, including
drugs or
medicine.
Golgi Apparatus and Vesicles
Golgi Apparatus:
modifies, stores, and
packages proteins and
other chemical products to
their next destinations
processing and shipping
center “UPS”
Products are “shipped” in
vesicles
Vesicles (bottom of cell chart)
“shipping
containers” move products
(proteins, water,
waste) into, out
of, and within a
cell
Organelles work together…
Vacuoles
Central Vacuole in Plants
- stores water and salts,
causes cells to expand
Animals - stores
undigested nutrients
Paramecium – Contractile Vacuole
pump out excess water that diffuses into the
cell
Lysosomes
Contain digestive
enzymes that break
down wastes or expose
food
“garbage disposal”
help destroy harmful
bacteria
“suicide sacs”
Recycle damaged
organelles
“recycling center”
Tadpoles loose their tails when the
lysosomes open at the base of their bodies
Organelles work together…
Chloroplasts
- capture sunlight and
transforms it into carbohydrates
(glucose)
- photosynthesis
- contains green pigment chlorophyll
Mitochondria
“Powerhouse” –
make energy
Cellular
respiration
occurs here to
release energy for
the cell to use
Cytoskeleton
maintains cell shape and
protects the cell
Cilia and Flagella
Cilia: short hair-like extensions
Flagella:long tail-like extenstions
Both aid in movement
Cilia in our Lungs
Centrioles
Animal cells only
Paired structures
Move chromosomes during cell division

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