Copy the objectives and agenda into your daily work organizer, then complete the Catalyst. Catalyst (Do Now): On your daily work organizer, make at least 5 observations about this picture. Use complete sentences. Observations, Inferences, and the Scientific Method August 8, 2012 Chemistry Let Your Goals Guide You… • Today is the first day of academic work. • Some of your goals are… – “to get straight A’s” – “to pass all my classes” – “do my best” – “go to college” – UCLA, USC, etc. – “become a professional…” - basketball player, surgeon, OBGYN, auto/civil/structural engineer, etc. • Remember your goals as you work hard today! Objectives • I can compare and contrast quantitative observations, qualitative observations, and inferences. • I can identify the six steps of the scientific method in sequence. Agenda • • • • • Catalyst Observations and Inferences Demonstration Introduction to the Scientific Method Scientific Method Case Study Exit Slip Observations Definition: actually witnessed • Qualitative – Use of senses (Ex: This coffee is hot.) • Quantitative – Numbers and measurements (Ex: This coffee is 160°F.) Inferences Definition: an explanation based on background information and experience. An interpretation of an observation Ex: It must be around 7 a.m. because Ms. Boon is drinking coffee. The inference that it’s around 7 a.m. is based on observations made in the past that when Ms. Boon is drinking coffee, it is the morning. Demonstration: Practice Making Observations Quantitative Observations Qualitative Observations Demonstration Debrief • Circle your observations that are actually inferences. The Scientific Method: 6 Steps 1 • Question 2 • Hypothesis 3 • Procedure 4 • Data 5 • Analysis 6 • Conclusion An every-day working method • Scenario: – You arrive at home at night, try to switch on the light and nothing happens….. • Hypothesis: – You guess that …..is going on • Experiment Procedure and Data Gathering – You come up with a plan and test your guess • Analysis – Did it work? Or not • Conclusions – And what next? Before the Experiment 1. Investigative Question: – Observation: Identify a problem interesting to you. – What do you want to know or explain? 2. Hypothesis: – What do you think will happen? – Prediction, guess an explanation for the problem – Needs to be testable The Experiment 3. Procedure: Design an experiment. • • • • Plan: How will you test your hypothesis? Materials: what do you need to test the hypothesis? Procedure: a step by step plan of your investigation Safety Rules: the precautions to be followed during the experiment 4. Data: Perform the experiment – – Follow your plan Collect and record the data After the Experiment 5. Analysis • • • Look at the data, organize them (data tables, graphs) Are the data consistent and reliable? Compare data to your hypothesis 6. Conclusions • • • • • • Reflect on your analysis Does the experiment address the problem? Do the data support or contradict your hypothesis? Can you extend your observations to other situations? Do you need more experiments to prove or disprove your hypothesis? Are there alternative explanations? What if your data do not support your hypothesis? A. The experiment was a waste of time B. The experiment had flaws, redesign it and do the new experiment C. The experiment went well, so repeat it again and again until it supports your hypothesis D. The experiment went well. Use the collected data to change hypothesis and design new experiment to test it. Practice: Scientific Method •Worksheet 1: “The Strange Case of BeriBeri” •Worksheet 2: More Scientific Method Practice •Worksheet 3 (Homework): How Penicillin was discovered Exit Slip 1: Observations and Scientific Method • Put all your materials away except for a pencil or pen. • Work silently on the exit slip. • When you are done, turn over your exit slip and wait silently.