APACHE

Report
The Apache Project
..and the transit search from the Italian Alps
M. G. Lattanzi (INAF-OATo)
On behalf of the APACHE Team
?
“La ricerca dei pianeti extrasolari in Italia”, Progetto Premiale WoW,
Roma, INAF Hq, 5-7 nov 2014
EPSC 2014, Session EX2
ECC Estoril, 9 September 2014
The Low-Mass stars opportunity:
Low-Mass, Small-Radius Planets… Especially Around Low-Mass Stars!
At Short Periods (< 50-100 d), They Are Common
Occurrence rate of Neptunes and Super Earths: 34% (Bonfils et al. 2013)
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
Wide-Field Transit Surveys:
Geographical Distribution
The APACHE Team
Project Management:
• E. Bertolini (Proj. Man. – OAVdA), M.G. Lattanzi (P.M. – OATo)
• A. Sozzetti (Proj. Scientist)
• P. Calcidese (Technical Man.)
• INAF-OATo:
– L. Lanteri, M.G. Lattanzi, R. Smart, A. Sozzetti, M. Damasso, P.
Giacobbe, L. Gioannini (Master, Physics, UniTo),
G. Ranotto (Master student, Physics, UniTo)
• OAVdA:
– A. Bernagozzi, P. Calcidese, A. Carbognani, D. Cenadelli, J.M. Christille
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
APACHE Input Catalogue
• ~3000 Northern M0-M5 dwarfs from Lepine & Gaidos (2011)
• Good visibility, no bright stars in the FoV, not too sparse
fields
• Cross-checks with some 20 catalogues to weed out binaries,
active stars, fast rotators
• Support reconnaissance spectroscopy ongoing (Asiago Red
Dwarf Survey)
• Number of Gaia transits helps to set priorities
• A subset of high-priority targets is observed in conjunction
with [email protected] as part of the GAPS Large Program
Targets are typically bright
(median V~13),
potentially
good for
follow-up
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
Kepler’s
candidates
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
The APACHE Site
1675 m a.s.l.
Lignan, Nus (Ao)
The Astronomical Observatory of the
Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley (OAVdA)
OAVdA operates as part of INAF in this extrasolar planet collaboration with OATo. This
has been formalized in a recent agreement signed by the INAF President and the
OAVdA Director (Bertolini) in 2013.
The APACHEs
Operational
Bandpass: I
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
Survey Operations
 Fully automated operations: RTS2 is the choice for the operations
control software architecture, including scheduler, pre-processing and
storing to NAS system
 Well-tested TEEPEE pipeline on site. Independent reduction with Robin
(Lanteri 1999). Quasi real-time differential photometry pipeline TSE
development completed
 Observing strategy similar to MEarth North
 Multi-TBy HP NAS system (Window Server 2008) to cope with the
(average) nightly yield of a few thousands of images. .
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
APACHE goals
Primary Goals:
 Survey largest sample possible of M dwarfs with complete
phase coverage for periods (of candidate transiting planets)
of up to few-weeks;
 The same but for the mostly G-K stars constituting the
stellar population in the survey fields
Secondary Goal:
Exploit DB for stellar (micro) variability and characterization of
M dwarfs
Status
Early Results…..
 2.2 years into survey mode
 To-date, +300 fields monitored
 Phase coverage >50% for
periods up to several days for
large fraction of these
 Typically, a dozen fields per
telescope each night
 We achieve routinely 3-6 mmag
precision
 Demonstrated survey sensitivity
to > 2 REarth planets with periods
less than a few days (first year
of data)
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
… And synergies within the Italian efforts
• With the Gaia solar neighborhood survey (see Sozzetti).
• With HARPS-N:
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INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014
Last but not least…..
 Outreach, Educational, and
promotion of science activities,
these are all OAVdA strong
points.... &
You can follow us on the Web at:
http://apacheproject.altervista.org/
Conclusions:
APACHE is already an important
contribution to the Italian efforts in
the field of exoplanet research.
Therefore….
Investments, Cost-to-Completion & Risks

Since 2008, Invested over 1 M Euro locally generated by both Institutes
(this is ‘cash’, without counting, e.g., OAVdA/OATo “in-kind”).

2.5 years more to go at current quality for APACHE to reach the primary
goals.

Program currently supported by WoW grant and OATo funds (revenues
from different contracts). The uninterrupted support of operations requires:

i.
maintain/optimize HW and SW for both imaging system and
computing/archiving facilities;
ii.
Personnel for manning the site during APACHE operations (current
regulations preventing full automation. These require two observers on
site/observing night);
iii.
Build 5 focal plane “on-off” field de-rotators to cope with mount flip during
observations;
iv.
Qualified science personnel for data reductions and data exploitation.
Risks: Current support not sufficient to complete program’s primary
goals
Premiale WoW
INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014

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