Growth & Change Pupose: What: We are learning about Growth and Change By: understanding how America expanded in the 1800’s So : we know how it affect our lives. Manifest Destiny and the Growing Nation Objectives: Social Studies •describe the changing boundaries of the United States throughout the 1800s. •analyze the causes, events, and effects of the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War. •determine the effects of manifest destiny on westward expansion in the 1800s. •evaluate the incentives for territorial expansion and the methods used to acquire these lands in the 1800s. Language Arts •deliver details, reasons, and examples to support their positions. •anticipate and answer listener concerns. Manifest Destiny and the Growing Nation Social Studies Vocabulary •Territory •diplomacy •Texas War for Independence, •annex •manifest destiny •Mexican-American War Academic Vocabulary divine, justifiable dictator A. 1. 2. 3. 4. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Manifest Destiny The phrase manifest destiny inspired great hopes and dreams among Americans. It led to a war with Mexico and it changed the map of the United States. Manifest destiny means “obvious fate.” John O’Sullivan wrote that it was the United States’ “manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent.” Americans had a divine right to settle this area and make it their own. Land Great Britain claimed part of this land known as Oregon—made no difference Mexico claimed much of the West. Americans believed that the U.S. had a duty to extend the blessings of democracy. In this chapter, you will learn how the United States tripled its size in a little more than a single lifetime. Manifest destiny took many forms. The United States expanded through treaties, settlement, and war. Was it justifiable? A. First Opportunity 1) Involved the vast territory to the west of the Mississippi River, then known as Louisiana. 2) The United States wanted possession of the port city of New Orleans so farmers could floated crops down to New Orleans then shipped to Europe or to cities on the East Coast. B. Louisiana 1) Across the Mississippi an immense region stretched from Canada to Texas and from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains. 2) First claimed by France, given to Spain return to France. 3) Napoleon had plans settle the territory with thousands of French farmers who would raise food for the slaves in the Caribbean C. “A 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) D. Noble Bargain” President sent James Monroe to France with an offer to buy New Orleans for $7.5 million. Napoleon had changed his plans because of a slave revolt in the French Caribbean colony known today as Haiti led by a slave named Toussaint L’Ouverture [too-SAN loo-verTEER] had. Napoleon no longer needed Louisiana. In addition, France and Great Britain were on the brink of war. Instead of a city, the United States had the opportunity to buy an area as big as itself. Monroe agree on April 30, 1803, he signed a treaty giving Louisiana to the United States in exchange for $15 million.” The Purchase Debate 1) 2) 3) Louisiana Purchase looked like the greatest land deal in history. It doubled the country’s size at a bargain price of just 2 to 3 cents an acre. Not everyone approved. a) large country would be impossible to govern. b) East worried that they would losing power when new states to outvote the eastern states in Congress. c) Others objected to the $15 million price tag. d) Opponents said that the Constitution made no provision for purchasing foreign territory. e) Jefferson believed it was better to stretch the limits of the Constitution than to lose the opportunity. 1. Why did Napoleon want to sell Louisiana?? A. Jefferson planned an expedition to explore western lands. B. Meriwether Lewis, who had served as Jefferson’s assistant, led the expedition. C. Lieutenant William Clark was co-leader. A. B. C. D. E. In May 1804 the Lewis and Clark expedition set out from St Louis Missouri Sacagawea, a Shoshone Indian woman, assisted group. Crossed Great Plains and Rocky Mountains; reached Pacific in November 1805. Returned to St. Louis in September 1806 Expedition learned much about western lands and paths, established relations with several American Indian groups, and collected valuable scientific information. A. B. C. Zebulon Pike led an expedition to find the source of the Red River and perhaps to spy on settlements in New Spain. Explored Rocky Mountains in present-day Colorado, climbed mountain now known as Pike’s Peak, continued into present day New Mexico and Spanish held lands, where the Spanish arrested him. After released, Pike reports that the Southwest offered good business opportunities for Americans. Important Questions 1. What region of the United States did Zebulon Pike explore? How was it acquired? Was it Justifiable? C. Florida 1) 2) 3) 4) Spain had colonized Florida Florida had a diverse population of Seminole Indians, Spanish colonists, English traders, and runaway slaves. Jefferson sent two diplomats to Spain to buy Florida. Spain’s answer was “no deal.” Over the next few years, Spain’s control of Florida weakened. The Spanish government could do nothing to stop the raids on farms in Georgia by Seminoles and ex-slaves. D. Andrew Jackson Invades Florida 1) 2) In 1818, President Monroe sent Andrew Jackson to Georgia to the raids. Jackson orders : chase raiding Seminoles into Florida. But he did not have invade the Spanish colony. 3) Despite his orders, Jackson marched into Florida H 4) He captured Spanish military posts, arrested, tried, and executed two British subjects for stirring up Indian attacks and replaced the Spanish governor 5) Spain demanded that Jackson be called back to Washington and punished for his illegal invasion E. “Govern or Get Out” 1) Fearing war, President Monroe asked for advice. 2) Secretary of State John Quincy Adams convinced Monroe to send a blunt message to Spain. The message was this: govern Florida properly or get out. 3) Equally fearful of war, Spain decided to get out. 4) In 1819, the Spanish agreed to yield Florida to the United States. I 5) In exchange, the United States agreed to pay off $5 million in settlers’ claims against Spain and United States agreed to honor Spain’s longtime claim to Texas. 6) Not all Americans were happy about leaving Spain in charge of Texas. How was it acquired? Was it Justifiable? A. Texas 1. Texas was so valuable because th region was well suited for growing cotton, the South’s most valuable cash crop B. Americans Come to Texas 1. 1821, Spanish officials granted Moses Austin a huge piece of land. 2. Moses Austin died and his son Stephen took over his father’s dream. 3. Stephen F. Austin arrived in Texas just as Mexico declared its independence from Spain. 4. Texas was a part of Mexico. 5. Mexico agreed to let Austin start his colon if: 1. 2. only moral and hardworking settlers. become Mexican citizens and to join the Catholic church. Austin agreed and so to did 297 families. A. Rising Tensions 7. By 1830, there were about 25,000 Americans in Texas, compared to 4,000 Tejanos (tay-HAnos), or Texans of Mexican descent. 8. Soon tensions between the two groups began to rise. 9. The Americans had several complaints. 6. 1. 2. 3. 10. The Tejanos had their own complaints. 1. 11. used to governing themselves, and they resented taking orders from Mexican officials. They were unhappy that all official documents had to be in Spanish, a language most of them were unwilling to learn. Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829. many American settlers came to Texas without Mexico’s permission and showed little respect for Mexican culture. Mexico closed Texas and sent troops to Texas. A.The Texas Rebel A.William Travis began calling for revolution. B. Stephen F. Austin asked the Mexico to reopen Texas to immigration and to make it a separate Mexican state. C.New head of the Mexico, General Antonio López de Santa Anna. D.A power-hungry dictator[dictator: someone who rules with absolute power, often harshly] who once boasted, “If I were God, I would wish to be more.” E. Santa Anna tossed Austin in jail for promoting rebellion. F. Texans rose up in revolt and Santa Anna marched north with some 6,000 troops. A.The Alamo A.old mission known as the Alamo. B. Davy Crockett, the famous frontiersman and former congressman from Tennessee. Sharing command with William Travis was James Bowie, a wellknown Texas “freedom fighter.” C.General Santa Anna raised a black flag that meant “Expect no mercy.” D.Santa Anna’s troops surrounded the Alamo and the Texans were vastly outnumbered, but only one man fled. E. Travis sent messengers for reinforcements and vowed not to abandon the Alamo. “Victory or death!” F. For 12 days, the Mexicans pounded the Alamo with cannonballs. G.For 90 minutes, the battle raged. Then it was all over. By day’s end, every one of the Alamo’s defenders was dead. By Santa Anna’s order, those who had survived the battle were executed on the spot. H.Santa Anna decision to kill every man at the Alamo filled Texans with rage. A.Texas Wins Its Independence A.Sam Houston, the commander of the Texas revolutionary army, understood only hope was to retreat eastward luring Santa Anna deeper into Texas, making it hard to supply his army. B. Santa Anna caught up with Houston near the San Jacinto (san ha-SIN-to) River. Expecting the Texans to attack at dawn, the general kept his troops awake all night. When no attack came, the weary Mexicans relaxed. Santa Anna went to his tent to take a nap. C.Houston’s troops staged a surprise attack. Yelling, “Remember the Alamo!” the Texans overran the Mexican camp. D. Santa Anna was captured and exchange for his freedom, he ordered all his remaining troops out of Texas. E. Texas War for Independence[Texas War for Independence: the 1836 rebellion of Texans against Mexican rule that resulted in Texas becoming an independent nation] had been won, but Mexico did not fully accept the loss of its territory. A.To Annex or Not to Annex F. Republic of Texas earned the nickname Lone Star. But Americans wanted Texas part of U.S. G.Texas remained independent for ten years. H.United States divided over whether to annex[annex: to add a territory to a country. Such an addition is called an annexation.] Texas. A. Southerners were eager to add another slave state. B.Northerners who opposed slavery wanted to keep Texas out. C.Others feared that annexation would lead to war with Mexico. I. The 1844 presidential campaign was influenced by the question and James K. Polk believed in manifest destiny A.[manifest destiny: the belief that it was America’s right and duty to spread across the North American continent]. In 1845, Texas was admitted as the 28th state. How was it acquired? Was it Justifiable? Oregon County A. A. B. C. D. E. In the 1800s, wagon trains transported thousands of families toward Oregon Country. Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. To the north Alaska, which belonged to Russia. To the south, it was bordered by Spanish California and New Mexico. In 1819, Oregon was claimed by four nations: Russia, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. Spain drop out as part of the treaty to purchase Florida. Russia agreed to limit its claim to the territory that lay north of the 54°40´ parallel of latitude. Great Britain and the United States agreed to a peaceful “joint occupation” of Oregon. Discovering Oregon B. A. B. C. D. Oregon claim was based on the Lewis and Clark expedition. The route that Lewis and Clark had followed was far too rugged. Jedediah Smith discovered a passage through the Rocky Mountains called South Pass South Pass was low and flat enough for wagons. Oregon Fever A. A. B. C. The first American settlers missionaries. Their glowing reports of Oregon’s fertile soil and towering forests soon attracted more settlers. In 1843, about 1,000 pioneers headed for Oregon. A year later, nearly twice as many people made journey. All of Oregon or Half? B. A. B. C. D. E. Along with Texas, “Oregon fever” also played a role in the 1844 presidential campaign. Polk promised he would not rest until the United States had annexed all of Oregon Country. But Polk didn’t want Oregon enough to risk starting a war with Great Britain. He agreed to a compromise treaty that divided Oregon roughly in half at the 49th parallel. That line now marks the western border between the United States and Canada. Polk got neither “fifty-four forty” nor a fight. What he got was a diplomatic settlement that both the United States and Great Britain could accept without spilling a drop of blood. How was it acquired? Was it Justifiable? A. B. C. The Mexican-American War A. Polk’s wanted California and New Mexico. He was determined to have them both—by purchase if possible, by force if necessary. B. Both were thinly settled, and the Mexican government had long neglected them. C. That was reason enough for Polk to hope they might be for sale. D. Mexican officials refused even to see Polk’s representative. War Breaks Out in Texas A. Annexing Texas was an act of war. B. Texas and Mexico could not agree on a border. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border on the south and the west. Mexico wanted the border to be the Nueces (new-AY-sis) River, about 150 miles northeast of the Rio Grande. C. On April 25, 1846, Mexican soldiers fired on U.S. troops who were patrolling along the Rio Grande. Sixteen Americans were killed or wounded. D. This was just the excuse for war. E. The Mexican-American War [Mexican-American War: the war with Mexico from 1846 to 1847 that resulted in Mexico ceding to the United States a huge region from Texas to California] had begun. The Fall of New Mexico and California A. General Stephen Kearny led the Army of the West to occupy New Mexico and then continue west to California. B. Kearny’s army took control of New Mexico without firing a shot C. John C. Frémont launched a rebellion against Mexican rule in California. D. California, declared it, was now the Bear Flag Republic. E. When Kearny joined forces with the rebels and within weeks, all of California was under U.S. control. A. B. C. The United States Invades Mexico A. General Zachary Taylor battled their way south from Texas. B. General Santa Anna had marched north to meet Taylor with an army of 20,000 Mexican troops. In February 1847, the two forces met near a ranch called Buena Vista (BWEY-nuh VIS-tuh). After two days of hard fighting, Santa Anna reported that “both armies have been cut to pieces.” Rather than lose his remaining forces, Santa Anna retreated south. The war in northern Mexico was over. C. General Winfield Scott landed at Veracruz (ver-uh-CROOZ) in southern Mexico where his troops fought their way to Mexico City, Mexico’s capital. D. Scott’s army captured Mexico City in September 1847 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo A. Early in 1848, Mexico and the United States signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (gwa-duh-LOOpay hih-DAHLgo). B. Mexico agreed to give up Texas and a vast region known as the Mexican Cession. (A cession is something that is given up.) C. This area included the present day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, as well as parts of Colorado and Wyoming. D. United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million. It also promised to protect the 80,000 to 100,000 Mexicans living in Texas and in the Mexican Cession. Most of these promises, however, were not kept. A. Some argued we had no right to any Mexican territory other than Texas B. Other wanted the Mexican Cession to include a large part of northern Mexico as well The Gadsden Purchase A. United States acquired still more land from Mexico in 1853. B. James Gadsden arranged the purchase of a strip of land just south of the Mexican Cession for $10 million to build a railroad . C. Most Americans were pleased with the new country. D. Others believed that the United States was too good a nation to bully or invade its weaker neighbors. Now they knew that such behavior was the dark side of manifest destiny. How was it acquired? Was it Justifiable?