T-6B FORMATION F1101-1105 Updated 8 Jun 2012 PURPOSE Provide instruction on the basics of formation flight to include: underlying formation principles mission preparation visual signals in-flight planning and maneuver execution radio procedures formation in-flight emergency procedures References Formation FTI, Formation Comm Supplement, Squadron SOP, FWOP. NOTE: CH 7 (Tactical Formation) of the Formation FTI does not apply to this Formation Stage. OVERVIEW Formation Principles Chairflying and Briefing the Sortie Formation Admin Formation Positions Ground Operations Sortie Profile Contingencies / EP’s Questions JPPT SYLLABUS This brief accomplishes F1101-5 F1190 Formation Exam F3101 Formation Sim F4101-4103 Basic Maneuvering Speed Brake Demo SSR on F4102 F4201-4202 Pattern Ops / ELP Safe-for-solo F1101-5 F1190 F3101 F4101-3 F4201-2 F4301 Form Solo F4301 FORMATION PRINCIPLES Why do we fly formation? Mutual support / protection Enhanced mission effectiveness Build confidence during pilot training FORMATION PRINCIPLES Formation Lead Responsibilities Stay clear of traffic, clouds/weather (unless under IFR handling) Remain within the briefed operations area Comply with local course rules and ATC instructions Execute appropriate in-flight checklists Utilize proper visual and radio communications Always know where your wingman is Be predictable (ie. adhere to your contract) STAY AHEAD OF THE AIRCRAFT! Plan maneuvers with consideration for weather and airspace. FORMATION PRINCIPLES Formation Wing Responsibilities Always keep Lead in sight Maintain proper position as directed by Lead (flight integrity) Comply with all of Lead’s signals and give a timely response Backup Lead (Navigation, Comms, etc.) Be prepared to assume the lead at anytime BE A “THINKING WINGMAN” and adhere to your contract. FORMATION PRINCIPLES Relative Motion Movement referenced between Lead and Wing in all three axis Correct for position by using the ABCs Altitude Bearing Closure/Closeness Notice LOS movement in the windscreen 3 Step Power Corrections Coordinated inputs (Pitch / Power, etc) FORMATION PRINCIPLES Pursuit Curves CHAIRFLYING How to chairfly for success Begins with a thorough knowledge of the governing documents (ie. FTI, FWOP, etc) Focus on admin items and comms Walk out the sortie as a formation pair, making all associated hand signals and head movements As Lead, think ahead of the aircraft to minimize “drone time” PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE! BRIEFING Lead is Lead for departure AND recovery (depending on training requirements) Lead should plan on briefing the sortie, but can delegate tasks to his Wingman Ensure proper preparation Weather NOTAMS / TFRs BINGO/JOKER Fuels Frequencies (primary and backup UHF and VHF tactical frequencies) Print out gradesheets (and all other data) if computer not in briefing space BRIEFING Who is the designated Section Lead? Tactical Lead? Section lead = IP responsible for flight Tactical lead = Pilot in the lead position Formation Callsign: Use the tail number of the aircraft who will initially lead out on the sortie ATC CS – Example: Red Knight 010 Flight Tactical CS: - Example: Vegas Note: ATC Callsign stays the same regardless of which aircraft is the tactical Lead at the time. BRIEFING Focus on items that apply to formation You can leave out many of the details of a Contact brief Things to cover during the brief: Joker/Bingo Fuels VHF and UHF tactical freqs On scene commander flight responsibilities Initial reactions for both a/c during emergencies If out-and-in, the plan for entering the civilian pattern If info is covered by a governing document, avoid confusion by referencing it in the brief. Ex: “Lost Sight procedures In Accordance With the FTI” **An organized brief sets the tone for the flight by clearly briefing up the sortie flow and any contingencies. Good briefings take practice!** FORMATION ADMIN RADIOS Lead will be directive with the radios. Do not switch until Wing acknowledges with “TWO” Use “rolling” frequency changes (i.e. do not un-key the mic between ATC call and directing flight to switch) EXAMPLE Check in Lead: “Vegas” (or if on VHF, “Vegas Check Victor”) Wing: “Two” Frequency Change Lead: “Vegas switch 5” Wing: “Two” Both aircraft switch to channel 5 Lead: “Vegas” Wing: “Two” Initial ATC Check in: “Red Knight 010 flight of two”. Subsequent calls to the same controller: “Red Knight 010 flight” FORMATION ADMIN VISUAL SIGNALS Clear, correct signals to avoid confusion Initiated with hand nearest wing (with the exception of the lead change) Give the signal high enough for wing to see it from the parade position Head nod to acknowledge should be big enough to be seen, but not move the airplane LEAD 1. “Wing in position” 2. “Crossunder signal” 3. Pass signal 4. Look 5. “Acknowledged” WING 1. After seeing the signal “Crossunder signal” 2. Head nod to acknowledge If Wing missed the signal, shake it off FORMATION ADMIN VISUAL SIGNALS Crossunder Cruise Breakup and Rendezvous Ops Check Speedbrake Gear Down Gear Up Climb/Descend Field in sight You Land Frequency change Lead Change FORMATION POSITIONS Parade Fixed position approximately on the 45 deg bearing line Exhaust stack below and tangent to the leading edge of the wing at the midpoint of the wing Lower UHF antenna over the inboard aileron cutout on the opposite wing Pitot tube on the prop arc PARADE PARADE INSUFFICIENT STEPDOWN PARADE ACUTE WITH POWER ACUTE WITH AILERON PARADE SUCKED WITH POWER SUCKED WITH AILERON FORMATION POSITIONS Cruise Purpose is to allow for more maneuverability for lead and better task management for wing Either side of Lead, on the 60 deg bearing line Approx 20’ of stepdown 3 to 6 Plane widths between aircraft Use turn radius instead of power to hold position Visual References Forward tip of Lead’s ventral fin over the Opposite wing’s inboard aileron cutout Exhaust stack tangent Pitot tube on the Prop Arc Note: At distances further than 3 plane widths, Lead’s exhaust stack will be hidden by the wing CRUISE GROUND OPERATIONS PREFLIGHT Set VHF Tac Freq after turning on the battery Wing may return TCAS to Stby after the TCAS check COMPLETE Before Taxi checkist CHECK IN UHF 2, VHF Tac Freq TAXI / RUN-UP (see next slide) IAW FORM FTI Stagger Taxi vs Taxi in Trail APPROACHING THE RWY At NSE, Auto Switch to Tower 200’ prior to the hold short GROUND OPERATIONS TRAIL TAXI POSITION GROUND OPERATIONS STAGGER TAXI POSITION GROUND OPERATIONS RUNUP POSITION Remain predictable Do not overlap wings Watch out for taxi edge lights Alternate Runup Technique: Leave one parking space between a/c Primary Runup Alternate Runup RUNWAY POSITION INTERVAL TAKEOFF INTERVAL TAKEOFF In position Lead will pass runup signal Both aircraft set 30% Both aircraft will inspect each other, Wing gives thumbs up and Lead returns Lead will pass kiss off signal and advance power to max, normal takeoff maintaining their ½ of the rwy Wing will time for 5 seconds then perform normal takeoff on their ½ of the rwy SECTION TAKEOFF SECTION TAKEOFF In position Lead will pass runup signal Both aircraft set 30% Both aircraft will inspect each other, Wing gives thumbs up and Lead returns Lead will raise his arm and slowly lower it to the canopy rail Upon hitting the canopy rail both aircraft will release brakes Lead will smoothly advance power to 90% within 3-5 seconds Wing will maintain position with power 75-80 knots Lead will smoothly begin rotation Wing will match rotation through lift off Safely airborne, Lead will signal for gear and flap retraction SECTION TAKEOFF DEPARTURE RUNNING RENDEZVOUS LEAD Easy to get task saturated here. Chairfly the departure Hold your contract! 160KIAS and a stable platform Monitor Wing’s closure. WING Maintain Proper Stepdown and Lateral Spacing from Lead Crosscheck your Airspeed and LOS to Determine Closure Departure If Weather Allows, Send Wing to Cruise for Departure to the Working Area FENCE/OPS CHECK FENCE CHECK Accomplish prior to beginning the area profile Wait until you have coordinated for a working block in the airspace Acknowledge with “2” THEN perform checks and report numbers. Flight will accomplish the pre-aerobatic checklist and Ops Check OPS CHECK “Angry Ops Check” “2” “Angry Two, 4.5, 870” “Angry One, 4.3, 880” Note: JPPT still requires individual Ops Checks every 20 minutes AREA PROFILE FENCE IN 4 PARADE TURNS CROSSUNDER 4 PARADE TURNS BREAKUP AND RENDEZVOUS LEAD CHANGE REPEAT FENCE OUT RECOVERY AREA PROFILE PARADE TURNS TURNS INTO Power reduction Maintain parade references Roll about Lead’s longitudinal axis VMC TURNS AWAY Power increase Match Leads roll rate Each aircraft rolls about their own axis IMC TURNS AWAY Power increase Maintain parade references Roll about Lead’s longitudinal axis TURNS INTO VMC TURNS AWAY IMC TURNS AWAY CROSSUNDER CROSSUNDER CROSSUNDER CONT’D B&R BREAKUP LEAD Signal-Acknowledge-Kiss Off Max power, G to maintain 200 kts Approx 180 deg of turn 200 kts (Approx 54%) Wing calls, Wing flash 30 deg AOB until in position WING Acknowledge 3 seconds after Lead, Max power and G to maintain 800-1000 ft After rollout, expeditiously orient in trail B&R B&R RENDEZVOUS Co Altitude, Co Airspeed 60 deg bearing line (tip of vert stab midpoint on the wing) 1-2 ship widths away, begin Joinup Phase JOINUP Establish step-down Nose-to-tail separation Stabilize directly behind Lead VMC Turn away position B&R B&R B&R ACUTE B&R SUCKED UNDERRUN (In a turn) LOWER LEVEL IDLE (As Required) SPEED BRAKE (As Required) CALL “Angry 2, underrun” Rejoin to Parade UNDERRUN (Straight & Level) LOWER IDLE (speed brake as req’d) LATERAL CALL “Angry 2, underrun” Rejoin to Parade LEAD CHANGE SIGNAL If using visual signal, Wing must be on the right side Lead will pass the signal, Wing will acknowledge LEAD Ensure lateral separation Get stepdown (visual reference of AOA probe on Orange/White) Slide back until the parade references align (approximately the 45 deg bearing line) Move up into a parade position on the left side (then TCAS & SQ Stby) WING (New Lead) Eyes forward, maintain current Alt and Airspeed Prioritize: Monitor the new Wing. Then, once Wing is in a safe position (good technique is behind your wingline), start your admin responsibilities (TCAS, SQ, ops check, etc) RECOVERY Send Wing to Cruise (if applicable) FENCE OUT Clear Wing off for ATIS CR recovery (see formation communications supplement / FWOP) When do you bring Wing back into parade? Homefield Break (3 sec break is the standard break) CONTINGENCY/EPs KNOCK IT OFF Safety of flight issues Lead or Wing: “Angry Knock It Off” Lead: “Angry One Knock It Off” Wing: “Angry Two Knock It Off” TERMINATE Complete with maneuvering Initiated by Lead: Lead : “Angry Terminate, Angry One Terminate” Wing: “Angry Two Terminate” Initiated by Wing: Wing: “Angry Two, Request Terminate” Lead: “Angry Terminate, Angry One Terminate” Wing: “Angry Two Terminate” CONTINGENCY/EPs NORDO Get Leads attention Hand signal Pass the lead to the NORDO aircraft for troubleshooting Inside VFR entry point? HEFOE Hydraulics Electrical Fuel Oxygen Engine ASSUMES NORDO! CHASE POSITION 30-60 DEG CONE OUT TO 500’ CONTINGENCY/EPs BLIND Is this an IMC or VMC procedure? Wing: “Angry Two, Blind (Altitude)” Lead: “Angry One visual, at your left 10 o’clock, low” Wing: “Angry Two visual” Lead: “Angry Two cleared aboard” Wing: “Two” Rejoin IAW B&R procedures If both A/C are blind, follow FTI procedures Lead must remain predictable and be directive to ensure deconfliction! CONTINGENCY/EPs LOST SIGHT Is this an IMC or VMC procedure? Treat as a Critical Action Item Straight & Level -Wing turns away - 30 degrees HDG (min) - 30 seconds - Parallels Lead’s HDG 2 1 Turns - Outside of turn - rolls wings level - 30 seconds - resume turn to HDG - Inside of turn - maintain AOB - turn to HDG - no less than 30 degrees HDG change SUMMARY Formation Principles Chairflying and Briefing the Sortie Formation Admin Formation Positions Ground Operations Formation Profile Contingencies/EP’s Questions QUESTIONS?