Slide 1

Report
T-6B FORMATION
F1101-1105
Updated 8 Jun 2012
PURPOSE
 Provide instruction on the basics of formation flight to
include:
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underlying formation principles
mission preparation
visual signals
in-flight planning and maneuver execution
radio procedures
formation in-flight emergency procedures
 References
 Formation FTI, Formation Comm Supplement, Squadron SOP, FWOP.
 NOTE: CH 7 (Tactical Formation) of the Formation FTI does not apply to this
Formation Stage.
OVERVIEW
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Formation Principles
Chairflying and Briefing the Sortie
Formation Admin
Formation Positions
Ground Operations
Sortie Profile
Contingencies / EP’s
Questions
JPPT SYLLABUS
 This brief accomplishes
 F1101-5
 F1190 Formation Exam
 F3101 Formation Sim
 F4101-4103
 Basic Maneuvering
 Speed Brake Demo SSR on F4102
 F4201-4202
 Pattern Ops / ELP
 Safe-for-solo
F1101-5
F1190
F3101
F4101-3
F4201-2
 F4301
 Form Solo
F4301
FORMATION PRINCIPLES
 Why do we fly formation?
 Mutual support / protection
 Enhanced mission effectiveness
 Build confidence during pilot training
FORMATION PRINCIPLES
 Formation Lead Responsibilities
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Stay clear of traffic, clouds/weather (unless under IFR handling)
Remain within the briefed operations area
Comply with local course rules and ATC instructions
Execute appropriate in-flight checklists
Utilize proper visual and radio communications
Always know where your wingman is
Be predictable (ie. adhere to your contract)
STAY AHEAD OF THE AIRCRAFT!
Plan maneuvers with consideration for weather and airspace.
FORMATION PRINCIPLES
 Formation Wing Responsibilities
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Always keep Lead in sight
Maintain proper position as directed by Lead (flight integrity)
Comply with all of Lead’s signals and give a timely response
Backup Lead (Navigation, Comms, etc.)
Be prepared to assume the lead at anytime
BE A “THINKING WINGMAN”
and adhere to your contract.
FORMATION PRINCIPLES
 Relative Motion
 Movement referenced between Lead and Wing in all three
axis
 Correct for position by using the ABCs
 Altitude
 Bearing
 Closure/Closeness
 Notice LOS movement in the windscreen
 3 Step Power Corrections
 Coordinated inputs (Pitch / Power, etc)
FORMATION PRINCIPLES
 Pursuit Curves
CHAIRFLYING
 How to chairfly for success
 Begins with a thorough knowledge of the governing documents (ie. FTI, FWOP, etc)
 Focus on admin items and comms
 Walk out the sortie as a formation pair, making all associated hand signals and head
movements
As Lead, think ahead of the aircraft to minimize “drone time”
PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE!
BRIEFING
 Lead is Lead for departure AND recovery (depending
on training requirements)
 Lead should plan on briefing the sortie, but can
delegate tasks to his Wingman
 Ensure proper preparation
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Weather
NOTAMS / TFRs
BINGO/JOKER Fuels
Frequencies (primary and backup UHF and VHF tactical frequencies)
Print out gradesheets (and all other data) if computer not in briefing space
BRIEFING
 Who is the designated Section Lead? Tactical Lead?
 Section lead = IP responsible for flight
 Tactical lead = Pilot in the lead position
 Formation Callsign:
 Use the tail number of the aircraft who will initially lead out on the sortie
 ATC CS – Example: Red Knight 010 Flight
 Tactical CS: - Example: Vegas
Note: ATC Callsign stays the same regardless of which aircraft is the tactical Lead at
the time.
BRIEFING
 Focus on items that apply to formation
 You can leave out many of the details of a Contact brief
 Things to cover during the brief:
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Joker/Bingo Fuels
VHF and UHF tactical freqs
On scene commander flight responsibilities
Initial reactions for both a/c during emergencies
If out-and-in, the plan for entering the civilian pattern
If info is covered by a governing document, avoid confusion by referencing it
in the brief. Ex: “Lost Sight procedures In Accordance With the FTI”
**An organized brief sets the tone for the flight by clearly briefing up the
sortie flow and any contingencies. Good briefings take practice!**
FORMATION ADMIN
 RADIOS
 Lead will be directive with the radios. Do not switch until Wing acknowledges with
“TWO”
 Use “rolling” frequency changes (i.e. do not un-key the mic between ATC call and
directing flight to switch)
EXAMPLE
Check in
Lead: “Vegas” (or if on VHF, “Vegas Check Victor”)
Wing: “Two”
Frequency Change
Lead: “Vegas switch 5”
Wing: “Two”
Both aircraft switch to channel 5
Lead: “Vegas”
Wing: “Two”
Initial ATC Check in: “Red Knight 010 flight of two”.
Subsequent calls to the same controller: “Red Knight 010 flight”
FORMATION ADMIN
 VISUAL SIGNALS
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Clear, correct signals to avoid confusion
Initiated with hand nearest wing (with the exception of the lead change)
Give the signal high enough for wing to see it from the parade position
Head nod to acknowledge should be big enough to be seen, but not move the airplane
LEAD
1. “Wing in position”
2. “Crossunder signal”
3. Pass signal
4. Look
5. “Acknowledged”
WING
1. After seeing the signal “Crossunder signal”
2. Head nod to acknowledge
If Wing missed the signal, shake it off
FORMATION ADMIN
 VISUAL SIGNALS
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Crossunder
Cruise
Breakup and Rendezvous
Ops Check
Speedbrake
Gear Down
Gear Up
Climb/Descend
Field in sight
You Land
Frequency change
Lead Change
FORMATION POSITIONS
 Parade
 Fixed position approximately on the 45 deg bearing line
 Exhaust stack below and tangent to the leading edge of the wing at the midpoint of
the wing
 Lower UHF antenna over the inboard aileron cutout on the opposite wing
 Pitot tube on the prop arc
PARADE
PARADE
 INSUFFICIENT STEPDOWN
PARADE
 ACUTE WITH POWER
 ACUTE WITH AILERON
PARADE
 SUCKED WITH POWER
 SUCKED WITH AILERON
FORMATION POSITIONS
 Cruise
 Purpose is to allow for more maneuverability
for lead and better task management for wing
 Either side of Lead, on the 60 deg bearing
line
 Approx 20’ of stepdown
 3 to 6 Plane widths between aircraft
 Use turn radius instead of power to hold position
 Visual References
 Forward tip of Lead’s ventral fin over the Opposite
wing’s inboard aileron cutout
 Exhaust stack tangent
 Pitot tube on the Prop Arc
Note: At distances further than 3 plane widths, Lead’s
exhaust stack will be hidden by the wing
CRUISE
GROUND OPERATIONS
 PREFLIGHT
 Set VHF Tac Freq after turning on the battery
 Wing may return TCAS to Stby after the TCAS check
 COMPLETE Before Taxi checkist
 CHECK IN
 UHF 2, VHF Tac Freq
 TAXI / RUN-UP (see next slide)
 IAW FORM FTI
 Stagger Taxi vs Taxi in Trail
 APPROACHING THE RWY
 At NSE, Auto Switch to Tower 200’ prior to the hold short
GROUND OPERATIONS
 TRAIL TAXI POSITION
GROUND OPERATIONS
 STAGGER TAXI POSITION
GROUND OPERATIONS
 RUNUP POSITION
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Remain predictable
Do not overlap wings
Watch out for taxi edge lights
Alternate Runup Technique: Leave one parking space between a/c
Primary Runup
Alternate Runup
RUNWAY POSITION
INTERVAL TAKEOFF
 INTERVAL TAKEOFF
 In position Lead will pass
runup signal
 Both aircraft set 30%
 Both aircraft will inspect each
other, Wing gives thumbs up
and Lead returns
 Lead will pass kiss off signal
and advance power to max,
normal takeoff maintaining
their ½ of the rwy
 Wing will time for 5 seconds
then perform normal takeoff
on their ½ of the rwy
SECTION TAKEOFF
 SECTION TAKEOFF
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In position Lead will pass runup signal
Both aircraft set 30%
Both aircraft will inspect each other, Wing gives thumbs up and Lead returns
Lead will raise his arm and slowly lower it to the canopy rail
Upon hitting the canopy rail both aircraft will release brakes
Lead will smoothly advance power to 90% within 3-5 seconds
Wing will maintain position with power
75-80 knots Lead will smoothly begin rotation
Wing will match rotation through lift off
Safely airborne, Lead will signal for gear and flap retraction
SECTION TAKEOFF
DEPARTURE
RUNNING RENDEZVOUS
LEAD
Easy to get task saturated here. Chairfly the departure
Hold your contract! 160KIAS and a stable platform
Monitor Wing’s closure.
 WING
Maintain Proper Stepdown and Lateral Spacing from Lead
Crosscheck your Airspeed and LOS to Determine Closure
Departure
 If Weather Allows, Send Wing to Cruise for Departure to the Working
Area
FENCE/OPS CHECK
FENCE CHECK
Accomplish prior to beginning the area profile
Wait until you have coordinated for a working block in the airspace
Acknowledge with “2” THEN perform checks and report numbers.
Flight will accomplish the pre-aerobatic checklist and Ops Check
OPS CHECK
“Angry Ops Check”
“2”
“Angry Two, 4.5, 870”
“Angry One, 4.3, 880”
Note: JPPT still requires individual Ops Checks every 20 minutes
AREA PROFILE
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FENCE IN
4 PARADE TURNS
CROSSUNDER
4 PARADE TURNS
BREAKUP AND RENDEZVOUS
LEAD CHANGE
REPEAT
FENCE OUT
RECOVERY
AREA PROFILE
PARADE TURNS
 TURNS INTO
 Power reduction
 Maintain parade references
 Roll about Lead’s longitudinal axis
 VMC TURNS AWAY
 Power increase
 Match Leads roll rate
 Each aircraft rolls about their own axis
 IMC TURNS AWAY
 Power increase
 Maintain parade references
 Roll about Lead’s longitudinal axis
TURNS INTO
VMC TURNS AWAY
IMC TURNS AWAY
CROSSUNDER
CROSSUNDER
CROSSUNDER CONT’D
B&R
BREAKUP
LEAD
Signal-Acknowledge-Kiss Off
Max power, G to maintain 200 kts
Approx 180 deg of turn
200 kts (Approx 54%)
Wing calls, Wing flash
30 deg AOB until in position
WING
Acknowledge
3 seconds after Lead, Max power and
G to maintain 800-1000 ft
After rollout, expeditiously orient in
trail
B&R
B&R
RENDEZVOUS
Co Altitude, Co Airspeed
60 deg bearing line (tip of vert stab
midpoint on the wing)
1-2 ship widths away, begin Joinup
Phase
JOINUP
Establish step-down
Nose-to-tail separation
Stabilize directly behind Lead
VMC Turn away position
B&R
B&R
B&R
ACUTE
B&R
SUCKED
UNDERRUN (In a turn)
LOWER
LEVEL
IDLE (As Required)
SPEED BRAKE (As Required)
CALL
“Angry 2, underrun”
Rejoin to Parade
UNDERRUN (Straight & Level)
LOWER
IDLE (speed brake as req’d)
LATERAL
CALL
“Angry 2, underrun”
Rejoin to Parade
LEAD CHANGE
 SIGNAL
 If using visual signal, Wing must be on the right side
 Lead will pass the signal, Wing will acknowledge
 LEAD
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Ensure lateral separation
Get stepdown (visual reference of AOA probe on Orange/White)
Slide back until the parade references align (approximately the 45 deg bearing line)
Move up into a parade position on the left side (then TCAS & SQ Stby)
 WING (New Lead)
 Eyes forward, maintain current Alt and Airspeed
 Prioritize: Monitor the new Wing. Then, once Wing is in a safe position (good
technique is behind your wingline), start your admin responsibilities (TCAS, SQ,
ops check, etc)
RECOVERY
Send Wing to Cruise (if applicable)
FENCE OUT
Clear Wing off for ATIS
CR recovery (see formation communications supplement / FWOP)
When do you bring Wing back into parade?
Homefield Break (3 sec break is the standard break)
CONTINGENCY/EPs
KNOCK IT OFF
Safety of flight issues
Lead or Wing: “Angry Knock It Off”
Lead: “Angry One Knock It Off”
Wing: “Angry Two Knock It Off”
TERMINATE
Complete with maneuvering
Initiated by Lead:
Lead : “Angry Terminate, Angry One Terminate”
Wing: “Angry Two Terminate”
Initiated by Wing:
Wing: “Angry Two, Request Terminate”
Lead: “Angry Terminate, Angry One Terminate”
Wing: “Angry Two Terminate”
CONTINGENCY/EPs
NORDO
Get Leads attention
Hand signal
Pass the lead to the NORDO aircraft for troubleshooting
Inside VFR entry point?
HEFOE
Hydraulics
Electrical
Fuel
Oxygen
Engine
ASSUMES NORDO!
CHASE POSITION
30-60 DEG CONE
OUT TO 500’
CONTINGENCY/EPs
BLIND
Is this an IMC or VMC procedure?
Wing: “Angry Two, Blind (Altitude)”
Lead: “Angry One visual, at your left 10 o’clock, low”
Wing: “Angry Two visual”
Lead: “Angry Two cleared aboard”
Wing: “Two”
Rejoin IAW B&R procedures
If both A/C are blind, follow FTI procedures
Lead must remain predictable and be directive to ensure deconfliction!
CONTINGENCY/EPs
LOST SIGHT
Is this an IMC or VMC procedure?
Treat as a Critical Action Item
Straight & Level
-Wing turns away
- 30 degrees HDG
(min)
- 30 seconds
- Parallels Lead’s HDG
2
1
Turns
- Outside of turn
- rolls wings level
- 30 seconds
- resume turn to HDG
- Inside of turn
- maintain AOB
- turn to HDG
- no less than 30
degrees HDG change
SUMMARY
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Formation Principles
Chairflying and Briefing the Sortie
Formation Admin
Formation Positions
Ground Operations
Formation Profile
Contingencies/EP’s
Questions
QUESTIONS?

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