Formative Review Material

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EOG REVIEW MATERIAL
EARTH HISTORY, EVOLUTION,
ENERGY TRANSFER, CHEMISTRY,
ECOLOGY
8th Grade Science
TEST TAKING STRATEGIES
The information that we will cover is all review. You have seen it before.
Today we are working on answering higher level thinking questions from past
material.
Things you need to do. You should be able to answer the questions and provide a
justification. Showing justification shows true mastery.
1.
Read the entire question
2.
Read ALL the answer choices.
3.
Highlight key vocabulary words and context clues. What is the question really
asking you?
4.
Process of elimination. You should be able to cross out at least 2 incorrect
response. This will increase your chances of selecting the correct response.
5.
Pick the best answer.
6.
If you can’t answer the question skip it and move on to the next.
7.
When you are done go back and answer the questions you did not.
8.
DO NOT LEAVE ANY BLANKS!!!!!
9.
If you finish early, please go back and check your answers.
LAW OF SUPERPOSITION
Law of superposition states that the older layer is on the bottom and
the younger is on top.
Unconformity- a layer of missing rock caused by erosion (if it takes
place) or deposition (if it is not taking place).
Deposition- addition/accumulation of new material
Erosion – the wearing away of material
According to the Law of Superposition at which dept in a multi-layered rock
formation will the oldest rock likely be found?
A.
10 m
B.
50 m
C.
300m
D.
500m
Which type of dating method can be used on rock layers by applying the law of
superposition?
A.
Relative dating
B.
Absolute dating
C.
Radioactive dating
D.
Radiometric dating
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING USES LAYERED SEDIMENTARY
ROCK TO TELL WHICH EVENTS ON EARTH OCCURRED
BEFORE OTHER EVENTS?
A.
Absolute Age
B.
Unconformity
C.
Relative Age
D.
Plate Tectonics
The diagram below shows fossils in sedimentary rocks.
Which layers most likely would provide fossil evidence of an
ancestor common to the organisms found in both layers 2
and 3?
A.
Layer 1
C. Layer 3
B.
Layer 2
D. Layer 4
CONTINENTAL DRIFT
Evidence : 1. Continents fit like puzzle pieces
2. Identical fossils found on different
continents
3. Identical rock sequence (geology)
4. Ancient climate (example topical
fossils found on Antarctica)
Continents spread apart this theory didn’t explain the forces that
moved it but The Theory of Plate tectonics did!! Convection currents
in the mantle.
A SCIENTIST FINDS FOSSILS FROM THE SAME ORGANISM IN
BOTH INDIA AND AFRICA. WHAT IS A POSSIBLE
EXPLANATION FOR THE PRESENCE OF THESE FOSSILS ON
TWO DIFFERENT CONTINENTS?
A. Adaptation
B. Continental Drift
C. Climate Change
D. Law of superposition
Some of the same species of plants are found in Africa and Australia. Which
best explains this discovery?
A.
Land bridge
B.
Continental drift
C.
Climate changes
D.
Species extinction
Which statement best explains why fossils of both ocean animals, such as
starfish, and land animals, such as insects, are found inland in Australia?
A.
Not all former life was preserved as fossils.
B.
Ocean animals migrated several miles inland.
C.
Ocean water covered the land millions of years ago.
D.
Volcanoes erupted, and the animals were preserved in the lava
Which is evidence of the separation of a supercontinent?
A.
continents located in tropical regions
B.
tracing human ancestry to several original groups
C.
mountains ranges that begin on one continent and continue on another
D.
animals that develop differently depending on which continent they live
If identical fossil remains of plants and animals that
lived 175 million years ago were found in Iceland,
Europe, Africa and Brazil, what would be the best
conclusion?
A. Iceland, Europe, Africa, and Brazil were all once
part of the mid-Atlantic ridge.
B. The breakup of an ancient supercontinent occurred
less than 175 million years ago.
C. The breakup of an ancient supercontinent occurred more
than 175 million years ago.
D. Iceland, Europe, Africa, and Brazil currently have the
sane animals inhabiting them.
EVOLUTION (MEANS TO CHANGE)
The geologic time scale is a record of earth’s history which is
categorized by major events (example 1st form of life).
Mass extinction- large amount of organisms die example of events
that can cause this are volcanoes and asteroids.
Natural selection/adaptation- organism change in response to their
environment.(Darwin’s finches their beaks matched what they ate)
The greater the diversity the greater the chances are for that species
to survive during environmental changes.
Those traits that increase survival are passed on from generation to
generation.
Which best explains why some species of animals
are found living only in certain groups of islands
and nowhere else in the world?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The islands have similar climates.
The islands are geographically isolated
There are few natural predators found there.
The food these animals eat is only found there.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Elements are made up of atoms. Elements can be found on the
periodic table (YOU WILL HAVE ONE FOR THE EOG)
Formulas
Atomic # (TOP #/smaller#) = # protons
# protons = #electrons
Mass#(bottom#/larger#)= # protons + # neutrons
*** to calculate # neutrons = Mass# - Atomic #
Subatomic Particle
Charge
Location
Proton
Positive charge
Located inside of the
nucleus
Neutron
No charge/neutral
Located inside of the
nucleus
Electron
Negative charge
Outside the nucleus
PERIODIC TABLE REVIEW
Elements in the same groups(vertical column) react and behave
similarly.
Elements are given a symbol including a capital letter and sometimes a
lower case letter. EXAMPLE C –Carbon and Co-Cobalt
Important groups: 1- alkali metal most reactive,2 alkaline metals,17halogens,18-noble gases (inert not to react).
Group 1
Alkali Metals
Most reactive
Group 2
Alkaline Metals
Reactive
Group 17
Halogens
Example Cl
Group 18
Noble gas
Inert (not to
react)
Most of the elements are metals.
Elements are :natural (occur in nature) or synthetic (man-made) synthetic elements are
the group at the bottom.
WHICH IS TRUE FOR ANY ELEMENT?
A.
Atomic number = number of protons + number of electrons
B.
Atomic number = number of protons
C.
Atomic number = number of protons + number of neutrons
D.
Atomic number = number of protons, electrons, and neutrons
WHICH IS TRUE OF ALL ELEMENTS?
A.
They have no physical properties.
B.
They are solids at room temperature.
C.
They break down during chemical reactions.
D.
They are each composed of only kind of atom.
WHAT ARE THE BASIC MATERIALS THAT FORM ALL LIVING
AND NONLIVING SUBSTANCES THROUGH DIFFERENT
COMBINATIONS?
A.
Chemicals
B.
Compounds
C.
Elements
D.
Gases
WHAT ARE ELECTRONS?
a. positively charged particles
b. negatively charged particles
c. particles with no charge
d. particles whose charge can change
WHAT DOES THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM CONTAIN?
 Bohr Model of the atom:
All of the ?
All of the
Electrons
A. PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND ELECTRONS
B. ONLY ELECTRONS
C. PROTONS AND NEUTRONS
D. ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
Element
1
2
3
4
Protons
11
22
11
11
Neutrons
11
22
23
12
Electrons
11
22
11
11
Which element represents an atom of
sodium?
A.1
B.2
C.3
D.4
ACCORDING TO THE PERIODIC TABLE, WHICH
ONE REPRESENTS A CARBON ATOM?
A
B
C
D
Metals
Metalloids Non-Metals
Most common silicon
Shiny
Yes
Sometimes
No- Dull
Malleable
(Easily
Shaped)
Yesexample
Aluminum
foil
Sometimes
No
Conducts
Electricity
Yes
Sometimes
Semi- conductors
used in computer
chips
No
Location
Left
Staircase
Right
NASA IS DEVELOPING EASILY COMPACTED MATERIALS THAT
WILL BE STORED IN THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. WHAT
CHARACTERISTICS SHOULD THESE MATERIALS HAVE?
A.
Electrical conductivity
B.
Magnetism
C.
Solubility
D.
malleability
In a sample of the element potassium,
each atom has
A.
19 protons
B.
20 neutrons
C.
39 protons and neutrons
D.
39 neutrons
Element, Compound, Mixture
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR MIXTURE?
Table Sugar
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR MIXTURE?
Copper
ELEMENT, COMPOUND, OR MIXTURE?
Rocks
PHYSICAL VS CHEMICAL CHANGE
Physical Change
Chemical change
Density
Gas-bubbles produced
Melting Point
Temperature change
Boiling Point
Color change
Phase change (solid to liquid)
Precipitate – solid forms
Specific Heat is a unique temperature for a
specific substance example water freezes at 0⁰
Celsius.
Which shows one example of a physical
change and one example of a chemical
change?
A boiling water and melting wax
B rusting iron and baking a cake
C dissolving powder and shredding paper
D freezing water and burning coal
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
Matter nor mass is created or destroyed, it can only be rearranged.
In a chemical equation the total mass in the reactants must equal the total mass
in the product
Which substance cannot be
decomposed by a chemical change?
a) NH3
b) C
c) CH4
d) H2O
How many atoms are there in one molecule
of the compound 2Al2O3?
a) 4 atoms of aluminum and 3 atoms of
oxygen
b) 5 atoms of aluminum and 3 atoms of
oxygen
c) 2 atoms of aluminum and 3 atoms of
oxygen
d) 4 atoms of aluminum and 6 atoms of
oxygen
ENERGY TRANSFER
All organisms require energy for growth, maintenance, reproduction,
locomotion, etc..
The SUN is the ultimate source of energy without it, the most basic
forms of life would not exist
Food(nutrients-proteins, carbohydrates, fats, lipids) provides molecules
that serve as fuel and building material for all organisms
Carbohydrates – provides energy for cells
Proteins – helps build and repair muscle
Fats – acts as he body's insulator protecting organs and absorbing
shocks, helps process vitamins and minerals, and provides energy
ENERGY TRANSFER
Mitosis/Meiosis- are the processes of growing and dividing to
produce new cells
Photosynthesis- Chemical reaction where green plants use water &
carbon dioxide to store the sun’s energy in glucose
Cellular Respiration- is the chemical reaction that releases the energy
stored in the chemical bonds of glucose
Where do plants get most of the energy they need
to live and grow?
A water
B soil
C air
D sunlight
Which food provides the most energy for the body in
the shortest amount of time?
A potato
B meat
C milk
D fruit
Why is protein an important part of a healthy diet?
A It is needed to change glucose to energy.
B It is needed to store nutrients.
C It is needed to repair tissue.
D It is needed to produce water.
Ecosystem- all biotic (living) factors &
abiotic (non-living) factors that interact
in an environment
Producers- Organism that make their
own food by capturing energy from the
sun
Consumers- are organisms that feed on
other organisms.
Energy flows from sun to organism to organism
The energy flow from one trophic level to the
other is called a food chain
A food chain is simple and direct
It involves one organism at each trophic level
-Primary Consumers – eat producers
-Secondary Consumers – eat the primary
consumers
-Tertiary Consumer-eat the secondary
consumer
-Decomposers – bacteria and fungi that
break down dead organisms and recycle the
material back into the environment
Ecological Interactions can affect distribution and
abundance and influence evolution.
Parasitism – one species feeds on another  enhances
fitness of parasite but reduces fitness of host
Mutualism – two species provide resources or services
to each other  enhances fitness of both species
Commensalism – one species receives a benefit from
another species  enhances fitness of one species; no
effect on fitness of the other species
Symbiosis – two species live together  can include
parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism
Kudzu vines grow by climbing and wrapping around trees. Trees covered
by kudzu can die because they are starved of sunlight. What type of
relationship exists between the trees and the kudzu growing on them?
A competition
B mutualism
C parasitism
D predator-prey
The remora fish uses suckers on its head to attach
itself to a shark. It then eats the bacteria living on
the shark’s skin. The bacteria is cleaned from the
shark and the remora fish gets a nice meal. What
type of relationship bests describes this
interaction?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism
Competition
Parasitism: One partner benefits from
the relationship and the other is
harmed.
In this example of a leech sucking the
blood of an individual:
The parasite is the ______
The Host is the ______
A CLOSER LOOK – WHERE DO YOU GET A
PATHOGEN
Direct
Contact
Indirect
Contact
Foods and water
may be
contaminated
USDA NIFSI Food Safety in the Classroom©
University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2006
Why do doctors suggest that people get a flu vaccine
each year?
A Viruses replicate more rapidly over time.
B Viruses can mutate from year to year.
C Vaccines are absorbed by the body after a year.
D Vaccines get stronger over time.
Ten people became sick with the flu after
attending a school dance. What is the
scenario that could best explain how the
people got sick?
A contact with environmental sources
B contact with an infected animal
C contact with a contaminated object
D contact with an infected person
Which is the best way to help
prevent the flu from becoming a
pandemic?
A getting a vaccination
B taking antibiotics
C eating fruits and vegetables
D washing hands often
Tigers and household
cats are members of
the same family;
however, their sizes are
vastly different. What
is the cause of this
difference?
A biochemical makeup
B behavioral makeup
C genetics
D habitat size
What do transitional fossils best
support?
A the Theory of Biological Evolution
B the Law of Superposition
C the Theory of Geological Evolution
D the Theory of Continental Drift
The similarities of the bones labeled A provide evidence that
A. The organisms may have evolved from a common ancestor
B. All species have one kind of bone structure
C. The cells of the bones contain the same types of mutations
D. All structural characteristics are the same in animals
In the winter, the fur of the arctic fox is
white. In summer, the fur darkens to a
reddish brown. What most likely causes the
fur of the fox to change color?
A the amount of sunlight present
B the fox’s habitat
C the fox’s genes
D the fox’s age
Water Pollution
Water Quality Indicators
• Turbidity
•pH
•Dissolved oxygen
•Temperature
• Nitrates (nutrients) , NH3, NO-2
• Bio-Indicators
•Hardness - amount of calcium and magnesium
Which best determines the health
of a lake used as a source of
freshwater?
A its depth and width
B its temperature and pH
C its location and depth
D its temperature and depth
Upwelling brings up tiny ocean organisms, minerals, and other
nutrients from the deeper layers of the water; without
upwelling the surface of the ocean would be nutrient deficient.
Which will most likely result if there is increased
upwelling in a coastal area?
A more aquatic life
B less nutrients in the water
C higher water temperatures
D fewer nitrates
If a body of water has high turbidity levels, what
can most likely be concluded?
A It has a low pH.
B It is unsafe to drink.
C It is too hot to drink.
D It contains a lot of chemicals.
Which factors can have the greatest
effect on the health of a river system?
A type of soil and salinity
B nitrate levels and turbidity
C human consumption and pH
D natural disasters and tidal changes
WATERSHED VS. BASIN
A basin is a large-scale watershed, such as the St.
Lawrence River basin
Which best describes the
characteristics of a river
basin?
A the land drained by a
river and its tributaries
B the land formed when
rivers create estuaries and
marshes
C the land at the mouth of a
river where water flows into
the ocean
D the land formed as a
result of a river flooding
Which is an example of
a renewable energy
resource?
Which would least likely
have an impact on
global climate changes?
A biomass
A producing energy
using hydroelectric plants
B coal
C gas
D oil
B producing energy
using coal
C producing energy
using oil
D producing energy
using natural gas
Which is a possible disadvantage of
using flowing water to produce
electricity?
A ecosystem damage and loss of land
B reduced carbon dioxide emission
C only suitable for industrial use
D creates reservoirs

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