Ocean Vocabulary - Johnston County Schools

Report
Ocean Vocabulary
Make a flip book or notecards with the words
and definitions.
You WILL need to keep these and study them
for the unit and EOG.
Wave
• The movement of energy through a body
of water.
• Most waves form when winds blowing
across the water’s surface transmit their
energy to the water.
Breakers
• A white-capped wave that is near shore that
•
crashes onto the shore.
They have increased height and decreased
wavelength.
Rip Current
• A rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea
through a narrow opening in a sandbar.
Tides
• The daily rise and fall of Earth’s waters on
its coastlines.
• Caused by interaction of Earth, moon and
sun
Spring Tide and Neap Tide
• Spring Tide - A tide with the greatest
difference between high and low tide that
occurs when the sun and moon are
aligned with Earth at the new moon and
the full moon.
• Neap Tide – A tide with the least
difference between high and low tide that
occurs when the sun and moon pull at
right angles to each other at the first and
third quarters of the moon.
Salinity - The
Current – A large
total amount of stream of
dissolved salts
moving water
in a water
that flows
sample.
through the
oceans.
Coriolis Effect
The effect of
Earth’s rotation
on the direction
of winds and
current.
El Nino
An abnormal climate
event that occurs
every two to seven
years in the Pacific
Ocean, causing
changes in winds,
currents, and
weather patterns
for one to two
years.
Climate
• The pattern of temperature and
precipitation typical of an area over a long
period of time.
Tsunami
• A giant wave usually caused by an
earthquake beneath the ocean floor.
Upwelling
• The movement of cold water upward from
the deep ocean that is caused by wind.
• Upwelling brings up tiny ocean organisms,
minerals, and other nutrients from the
deeper layers of the water.
• Without upwelling, the surface waters of
the open ocean would not have many
nutrients.
Submersible
An underwater
vehicle built of
strong materials to
resist pressure.
Sonar
A system that uses
sound waves to
calculate the
distance to an
object, and that
gets its name from
sound navigation
and ranging.
Continental Shelf
• A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor
that extends outward from the edge of a
continent.
Continental Slope
• A steep incline of the ocean floor leading down
from the edge of the continental shelf.
Abyssal Plain
• A smooth, nearly flat
region of the deep
ocean floor.
Mid-ocean Ridge
Trench
A continuous
range of
mountains on
the ocean floor
that winds
around Earth.
A deep, steepsided canyon in
the ocean floor.
Plate
• One of the major
Sea-floor Spreading
A
process
by
which
pieces of solid rock
new rock is added
that make up Earth’s
to the ocean floor
upper layers.
along the boundary
• Divergent plates - two
between diverging
plates move apart
plates.
from each other. The
space that this
creates is filled with
new crustal material
sourced from molten
magma that forms
below.
Intertidal Zone
• An area that stretches from the highest high-tide
line on land out to the point on the continental
shelf exposed by the lowest low tide.
Neritic Zone
• The area of the
ocean that extends
from the low-tide
line out to the
edge of the
continental shelf.
Open-ocean Zone
• The deepest,
darkest area of the
ocean beyond the
edge of the
continental shelf.
Plankton
• Tiny algae and animals that float in water
and are carried by waves and currents.
Nekton
• Free-swimming animals that can move
throughout the water column.
Benthos
• Organisms that live on the bottom of the
ocean or other body of water.
Food Web
• The feeding relationships in a habitat.
• Who eats who!
Estuary
• A coastal inlet or bay where fresh water from
rivers mixes with salty ocean water.
Coral Reef
• Created by colonies of tiny coral animals that produce a
•
hard structure that surrounds its soft body.
Reefs form when the empty structure stays after the
animal dies and new animals build on top of the old
structure.
Bioluminescence
• The production of light by living
things.
• Happens through chemical reactions
in the cells of the organisms
Hydrothermal Vents
• Where hot water rises out of cracks in the
ocean floor.
• Water coming from these vents carries
gases and minerals coming from Earth’s
interior. Bacteria feed on the gases and
minerals and begin the food web.
Submarine Hot
Spring
Methane Cold
Seeps
A spring of water
issuing from the
bottom of the sea.
An area of the ocean
floor where
hydrogen sulfide,
methane and other
hydrocarbon-rich
fluid seepage
occurs.
STOP!!
We are sorry that your hand is
going to fall off and that you are
bored, but you have to learn
these terms!!
YOU ARE DONE!

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