IB Costs and Curriculum Dave Eaton Past School Board Member, Minnetonka School District Sharing the experience of an IB program Background on Minnetonka School District Background on the start of IB Costs of IB Comparison of value of AP to IB Curriculum of IB’s Theory of Knowledge Profile of Minnetonka High School One of the top academic schools in the state – Approx. 2700 high school students – College preparation focus – Professional, high income community – Large, successful AP program – High 24.5 average ACT student score Understanding the costs of any school program Incremental costs vs. total costs Start-up costs vs. ongoing costs Accounting for local, state and federal tax dollars spent Costs paid by parents and students Different ways of reporting the costs of a school program What the Minnetonka school district says IB costs* What is the budget for the IB Programme. General Fund Budget Allocation for 2004-2005 Cost of replacement teacher for $24,694. IB Coord. - Includes Fringe Benefits Curriculum Development 2,200. Postage 4,000. Professional Development 3,200. Textbooks and Workbooks 1,000. Dues and Memberships 11,150. Total $46,244. * Source: Minnetonka School District, http://www.minnetonka.k12.mn.us/IB/IBQandA.htm Two of the sources used to research IB costs and curriculum Major Initial IB costs Purchase of official IBP publications Teacher training Cost of staff site visits to existing IB schools Cost of the required Diploma Program Coordinator Cost of the additional secretarial staff Office space for IB staff IB school application fee Full cost of accommodation, travel and incidental expenses of IBO staff authorization visit Major ongoing costs of IB IBO annual school basic fee Examination fees – Covered by school, state, parents Additional postal charges for sending student work overseas to be graded Required teacher training workshops, regional and heads of schools conferences IB specific classroom materials IB specific library materials Cost of additional teacher release time for the benefit of the IBO Cost of releasing teachers (including substitute teacher cost) for* – Teachers hosting training workshops – Release expert teachers to lead IBO workshops and speak at conferences – Release teachers to join authorization teams – Release teachers to sit in curriculum review meetings – Teachers to assist regional offices in negotiating or improving diploma recognition agreements with local universities – Assist regional offices in getting access to local and national government education offices and other education agencies *Page 22, Implementing the IB Diploma Programme, Cambridge Press 2004 Typical IB start-up costs for a school training 20 teachers Annual IBO application school fee $3,500 Teacher training - $40,000 Total $118,500 – $2,000 each Tuition, Airfare, Hotel, Meals – Toronto, New York, Boston, Myrtle Beach, – Potential for up to $1,000 paid by state, additional by Federal Title I tax funds Additional library materials costs $10,000+ Additional science lab costs $10,000+ Salary & overhead of IB coordinator (Half time), CAS coordinator, TOK Coordinator, Key learning area coordinators, secretary - $40,000 Staff time for site visits, curriculum development & coordination - $10,000 Initial Marketing Costs – staff time, equipment, mailing costs $5,000 Note: costs can be paid with a combination of local, state and federal taxes From: page 43-50, ‘Implementing The IB Diploma Programme’, Cambridge Press, copyright 2004 IB annual costs example for a school with 30 juniors and 30 seniors in the Diploma Program School Annual Fee - $8,000 Student Fees for 60 students - $16,440 – Per capita student fees- $4,110 – Student registration fees - $2,130 – $1,805 per student [email protected] $22 each, [email protected] $49 each Student exam fees not paid by state– $10,200 30 @ $76 each, [email protected] $61 each $108,340 per year Average of $170 per student (typically paid by parents) TOK fees - $1,300 Teacher release time $6,500 Teacher training costs not paid by state $5,000 IB coordinator $35,000 Staff development time $9,600 Curriculum Development time $6,800 Office space and postal costs, printing $3,000 Marketing materials, staff time, $2,000 Instructional Materials $7,200 Library and Media materials, IB publications $7,500 Note: costs can be paid with a combination of local, state and federal taxes MN State funding is biased in favor of IB vs. AP How state of MN funds IB in addition to local and federal taxes Each IB exam costs the state 3 times more than each AP exam Each IB exam cost the state $31.60 while each AP exam only cost the state $10.32 – $102,750 was spent subsidizing 3,251 IB exams in 2005 – $304,361 was spend subsidizing 29,480 AP exams in 2005 *All figures from MN Dept of Ed 2005 report to legislature found at: http://www.leg.state.mn.us/docs/2006/Mandated/060264.pdf IB In-depth teacher training increases costs by requiring traveling out of state No in-depth IB teacher training is available in Minnesota – IB training is only available in cities like Toronto, New York, Boston, Myrtle Beach – State pays for up to $1,000 for out of state training AP teacher training is available in state – State pays for up to $550 for in state training *All figures from MN Dept of Ed 2005 report to legislature found at: http://www.leg.state.mn.us/docs/2006/Mandated/060264.pdf With only 50% more program participants, each IB school costs the state 7 times more than AP schools Only 4% of schools offering advanced programs offer IB IB schools received on average $15,605* per school in state funding – Only 12 MN schools offer IB – Ave. of 109 IB students per school AP schools only received on average $2,010* per school in state funding – 250 MN Schools offer AP – Av. of 76 AP students per school *All figures from MN Dept of Ed 2005 report to legislature found at: http://www.leg.state.mn.us/docs/2006/Mandated/060264.pdf Each IB student costs the state 4.9 times more than each AP student* Average of $29 spent for each AP student – $542,778 in state taxes spent on 18,902 AP students in the state – 17.6% of all MN High School students Average of $138 spent for each AP student – $171,655 in state taxes spent on 1,241 IB students in the state – 2.2% of all MN High School students – Total of 122 IB diplomas earned in the state *All figures from MN Dept of Ed 2005 report to legislature found at: http://www.leg.state.mn.us/docs/2006/Mandated/060264.pdf How state IB funds flow to a local school district In 2005 Minnetonka was reimbursed $8,071 in state funding for IB – Minnetonka had 24 IB diploma candidates in ‘05 – $610 was received to subsidize 25 IB exams – $7,461 was received to subsidize IB teacher training for 6 teachers 17 other IB teacher’s trained previously would have been eligible to receive an additional $17,000 in state funding in earlier years *All figures from MN Dept of Ed 2005 report to legislature found at: http://www.leg.state.mn.us/docs/2006/Mandated/060264.pdf Comparison of AP vs. IB costs AP has lower teacher training costs – Training in MN available for teachers AP has lower administration costs – Less administration time for program AP has lower mailing costs – AP does not require mailing materials to Europe AP has lower fee costs – Fee’s paid by the school are much lower for AP AP has lower student/teacher materials costs IB is designed around IBO standards, not state and local standards “The IBO is an independent organization unfettered by individual national demands.” – pg. ix Implementing The IB Diploma, Cambridge, 2004 School boards give up local control of curriculum and grading when they sign an IBO agreement Cautions to Schools investigating IB ‘A school adopting the DP must prepare itself for significant investments in terms of time, effort and money.’ ‘Teachers salaries may well have to be revised upwards’ ‘Class size may have to shrink’ – IBO strongly recommends a limit of 25 students per class – From: page xi, ‘Implementing The IB Diploma Programme’, Cambridge Press, copyright 2004 Justification used for IB programs To differentiate the school from others – 97.5% of MN High Schools don’t have IB – Minnetonka marketing calls IB ‘prestigious’ To take away funding from other districts – $5,300 in state funding follows students that open enroll to another district – If enough students open enroll because of IB that can offset the higher costs of IB Provide an additional option for existing students Claims IB is required to give students an international perspective – AP also offers an International Program Claims IB is the way to improve the way teachers teach (adopt the IB pedagogy) Accessing IB Curriculum Criteria: Education- the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life. Indoctrination- to instruct in a doctrine, principle, ideology, etc., esp. to imbue with a specific partisan or biased belief or point of view. IBO Mission - Moral Relativism and Tolerance To create “caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect”* ..encourage students across the world to become “learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right”* – Note: differences in taste are much different than differences in morals Communities need to be able to discern the difference between: – Education (how to think) and – Indoctrination (what to think) *From the IBO website at www.ibo.org Required Theory of Knowledge (TOK) class is “central to the educational philosophy of IB”* “How do I, or how do we, know that a given assertion is true?”* “Questions are the essence of TOK…often challenging to accepted belief..”* The possible ways of knowing are: Emotion, Reason, Language or Perception ‘a philosophy course that considers the ways in which people acquire knowledge as well as the typical strengths and weaknesses of each of these ways.’ From: page xi, ‘Implementing The IB Diploma Programme’, Cambridge Press, copyright 2004 * From IBO Theory of Knowledge, October 2000 TOK class materials at Minnetonka High School Required reading materials for the key IB course – $128.49 per student IB TOK books expose students to limited ‘ways of knowing’ The Demon Haunted World – Pro-science, anti-religion, paranoid tone, advocates science replacing religion – Advocates new-age rejection of truth of the Bible, advocates that Bible is based totally on myth The Power of Myth Darkness at Noon – Novel set in Soviet Union – torture truth vs. serving his country – Novel growing up in Africa, beaten and tortured by Nazi sympathizers – Existentialist essay on how to reconcile science, religion and humanism – Perspective of brain injury patients, no testable ideas – Troubling tail of a disaffected amoral young man, involved with a pimp, kills a man, called ‘the existentialists' bible’ The Power of One Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat The Stranger Innumeracy – Impact of people not literate in math – Biased view of the bias that is in history books Lies My Teacher Told Me IB list is inferior with other lists of books on ‘ways of knowing’ Classics of the Islamic Tradition – Qur'an, 'Attar, Al-Ghazali, Ibn Khaldun. Classics of the Indian Tradition – Kalidasa,Gandhi. Classics of the Chinese Tradition and Buddhism – Mencius. Lao Tzu, Hui-neng, T'ang, Cao Xueqin. Classics of the Japanese Tradition – Murasaki Shikibu. Kamo Chomei. Kenko Yoshida. Basho, Matsuo. Classics of Western Tradition – Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates, Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Calvin, Machiavelli, Bacon, Descartes, Pascal, Locke, Hume. Rousseau, Kant ,Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Darwin, Marx, Dostoyevsky, Freud, ect. IB Theory of Knowledge class at Minnetonka “One of the key aims of knowledge theory is to identify values, beliefs, and biases underlying judgments and knowledge claims pertinent to issues. The class discusses difficult questions for which there are not absolute right or wrong answers.” From:http://www.minnetonka.k12.mn.us/IB/IB_QA.pdf#search=%22high%20 cost%20%22International%20Baccalaureate%22%22 Type of religious questions asked of IB students Taking Theory of Knowledge * “What are your religious beliefs (if any)?” “Be able to justify a personal position on the question of the existence of God” “On what basis do spiritual beliefs rest?” “Is it a set of beliefs you have come to yourself, or one that you have absorbed from your culture unquestioningly?” “What is the role of myth and religion in culture?” From: TOK Textbook, ‘Ways of Knowing’, by Michael Woolman, IB Press Two required books that address religion in the IB Theory of Knowledge class Anti-Christian bias of Joseph Campbell States as a fact that belief in the virgin birth of Jesus really originated from Greek mythology – This old falsehood was completely proved false by Machen way back in 1930 – States that all religions are just symbolic myths and purely subjective Humanist Society in South Carolina recommends parents read ‘The Power of Myth’ to their children if they ever show an interest in God When asked “Why do you think we tend to a literal interpretation of Christ in myth?” – Campbell responded, “I think it’s the result of a strong institutional emphasis in our religions in the West, and a fear of the mystical experience.” Anti-Christian bias of Joseph Campbell- Required TOK Text On page 282, Campbell ridicules the Christian belief in resurrection calling it "a clown act, really." “We know that Jesus could not have ascended to heaven because there is no physical heaven anywhere in the universe.” Page 9* “Jesus on the cross, the Buddha under the tree—these are the same figures.” Page 10* “Once you reject the idea of the Fall in the Garden, man is not cut off from his source.” Page 11* “[The serpent] is the primary god, actually, in the Garden of Eden. Yahweh, the one who walks there in the cool of the evening, is just a visitor.” Page12* “One problem with Yahweh, as they used to say in the old Christian Gnostic texts is that he forgot he was a metaphor. He thought he was a fact.” Page 13* Quotes from ‘The Power of Myth’, by Joseph Campbell Campbell repeatedly deceives students about the content of the Bible Campbell’s claim: – “I’m sure there’s not idea of a virgin birth in the (Old Testament, Jewish) tradition. The virgin birth comes into Christianity by way of Greek tradition.” Joseph Campbell, page 173 Let’s actually look in the Bible: – “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel.” Isaiah 7:14 Note, Isaiah began his ministry in 740 BC, the year King Uzziah died, hundreds of years before the New Testament was written Carl Sagan’s Anti-Religion bias Sagan says about religion, “It is better to grasp the Universe as it really is than to persist in delusion.” 1981 American Humanist Association Humanist of the Year – Keynote speaker at atheist conventions – Aside: The American Humanist Association is registered as religious charitable tax exempt organization The universe is all there is, ever was, or ever will be – Carl Sagan – In other words, there is no God, no created universe Carl Sagan in ‘The Demon Haunted World’ “The Bible is full of so many stories of contradictory moral purpose that every generation can find scriptural justification for nearly any action it proposes… and this moral multiple personality disorder is hardly restricted to Judaism and Christianity” pg.30 “If you accept the literal truth of every word of the Bible, then the earth must be flat!” page 325 TOK Materials display the ideology of IB St. Augustine’s view that humans must rely on God, not reason, to guide them to the truth is called ‘extreme’ – IB TOK Textbook, page 276 “If one looks at most Western compilations of quotations, it seems that most are attributed to dead, white European males. Why might this be so? To what extent does the identity of the author of a quotation influence how it’s content is interpreted and how seriously it’s ideas are taken? – IB Diploma Guide, TOK, March 2003, page 31 On section of the book is entitle: “The Prison of Logic” – IB TOK Textbook, page vi Questions asked of students after being required to read anti-Christian authors like Joseph Campbell and Carl Sagan* “What are your religious beliefs (if any)?” “Be able to justify a personal position on the question of the existence of God” “On what basis do spiritual beliefs rest?” “Is it a set of beliefs you have come to yourself, or one that you have absorbed from your culture unquestioningly?” “What is the role of myth and religion in culture?” From: TOK Textbook, ‘Ways of Knowing’, by Michael Woolman, IB Press AP provides more flexibility and value for students than IB IB is more expensive than AP AP is accepted at more colleges for credit – Many colleges give no college credit for SL (lower level) IB classes – More colleges accept individual AP classes than single IB classes for credit AP classes graded by local teachers, IB classes graded by IB staff in Europe Conclusions IB is more expensive than AP IB offers less value and flexibility than AP IB carries the baggage of viewpoint bias – For example, IB’s keystone TOK class censors and disparages the traditional Biblical view of the world embraced by many families in the US There are much better ways to provide a quality, cost effective education with an international understanding than IB Questions?