Linguistic Adaptation and Translation 黄怡晴 2012211058 • ⅠTheory of Linguistic Adaptation Language Using: Continuous Making of Choices Three Properties of Language • ⅡThe application of linguistic adaptation in translation ⅰ语言结构选择的顺应 1)对语言，语码，语体选择的顺应 2)对话语构建成分选择的顺应 3)对不同类型/体裁话语和语段选择的顺应 4)对话语构建原则选择的顺应 ⅱ译者对语境选择的顺应 顺应心理世界 顺应物理世界 顺应社交世界 ⅠTheory of Linguistic Adaptation • Theory of linguistic adaptation is put forward by Verschueren in Understanding Pragmatics. • Pragmatics is a general cognitive, social and cultural perspective on linguistic phenomena in relation to their usage in forms of behavior. 维索尔伦 Language Using: Continuous Making of Choices • Using language consists of continuous making of linguistic choices, consciously or unconsciously, for language-internal (i.e.structural) and/or language external reasons. • These choices can be situated at any level of form, phonetic, semantic, lexical ,syntactic, as well as the choice of language strategies. The choice of language strategies is restrained by cognitive, social and cultural elements, which in turn influence the choices of language forms. Three Properties of Language • Variability （变异性）is the property of language which defines the range of possibilities from which choices can be made. • Negotiability（商讨性） is the property of language responsible for the fact that choices are not made mechanically or according to strict rules or fixed formfunction relations, but rather on the basis of highly flexible principles and strategies. • Adaptability （顺应性）is the property of language which enables human beings to make negotiable linguistic choices from a variable range of possibilities in such a way as to approach points of satisfaction for communicative needs. • . • The three key notions are fundamentally inseparable from each other. Variability and negotiability provide possibilities and means for the language use, and adaptability give us enlightenment that language choices can be made to realize communicative needs based on variability and negotiability. • “你们俩感情好不好？” 毛主席问陈妻。 “好。”陈妻答。主席听了很高兴。 • Chairman Mao talked with Chen’s wife. He was pleased to know that they had a happy home life. ⅡThe application of linguistic adaptation in translation • The choice of language is the reflection of the translator’s mental process. Change can be made to meet social needs to some extent. • 以恰当的方式在可能的范围内作出了符合 交际需要的语言选择。 ⅰ语言结构选择的顺应 • The adaptation of language includes the choice of language, language code, language style, language discourse. • Translation consists of two parts. • The micro parts: lexical, phological.(语音， 词汇) • The macro parts: the language code translation, style.(语码转换，文体风格) 1）对语言，语码，语体选择的顺应 • In the translation process, in other words, in the choice-making process, the translator has to take his language ability, the utility of language into account. • He also has to consider the social facts, political stance, ideology and language policy. • Let’s make things better. • 让我们做得更好 • The original version is very simple, which is in accord with the requirement of ads. The translated version has the same style with the original one. The language is very colloquial, the syntax is simple. All these create a warm atmosphere.That is ,the company is willing to provide good service to customers. 2)对话语构建成分选择的顺应 • 话语构建成分是指，语音结构，词素和词 汇，分句和句子，命题以及超句结构等。 • 语音，不同的语调，重读，停顿会影响话 语的表达和理解 • 词素和词汇 使词语具有变异性和商讨性 • 句式 名词性成分之间的语义功能关系，语 序，命题结构以及段落，章节等超句结构， 对话语的结构都具有制约功能。 • “Ah!” said Joe. ”there’s another conwict off” • 乔说：“啊！又逃走了一个患（犯） 人。” • Conwict is the misspell of convict. The aim is to show Joe’s poor English. The translated version use 患 to replace 犯 to achieve the same humor effect. • Sense and simplicity • 精于心 简于形 • Alliteration and language structure is retained in the translated version. • • • • The choice is yours, the honor is ours 任君选择，深感荣幸 你的选择，我的荣耀 Antithesis(对偶) is retained in version2. 3)对不同类型/体裁话语和语段选择 的顺应 • 交际者对不同类型/体裁话语和语段选择的 顺应涉及人的认知心理因素，即存在意识 程度上的区别。有的选择可能是无意识的， 有的则可能又强烈的意图。翻译时，译者 应注意区分交际者对语言选择所表现出的 意识程度，从而恰当地表达原文的意思。 • • • • 顾客止步！ Stop! Staff only! The sign want to give warning to the customers. Stop can make the customer feel impolite. However, the 2nd version can show respect to the customers. 4)对话语构建原则选择的顺应 • 话语构建成分的选择具体体现在词汇，短语，分 句及句子上，在翻译中，译者一定要顺应译入语 的特点和表达的需要。 • 话语的构建除需要选择话语类型和建构成分之 外，还要遵循一定的话语建构原则。 • 在句法层面上，话语的构建主要依靠语法规则； • 在话语层面，要把意义的连贯性和关联性做为话 语建构的规则，因为语法规则不足以解释话语之 间的逻辑关系。 • 一肚皮的酒，几乎化成醋酸。 • The considerable amount of wine Hsin-mei had consumed earlier was burning inside and made him sick with jealousy. • 醋酸 sour vinegar, is very hard for the western readers to understand，so adaptation is made here .It’s translated into sick with jealousy.表示“妒火中烧” ⅱ译者对语境选择的顺应 • 顺应心理世界 • 顺应物理世界 • 顺应社交世界 顺应心理世界 • 大凡在官场中从前清混到民国的人，全是 比狗还下作。 • Anyone who’s meddled with officialdom for long must be lower than a snake’s belly. • Dog is a adorable pet in western countries, but in Chinese tradition, dog is not that prefered. 顺应物理世界 • How many winter days have I seen him, standing blue-nosed in the snow and east wind. • 在许多冬日里我都看见他，鼻子冻得发 紫，站在飞雪和西风中。 • East wind is cold and chilly in western countries, but it’s warm in China. 顺应社交世界 • 佳蕙听了跑进来，就坐在床上，笑道： “我好造化！” • Little Melilot came bounding in and sat down on the bed with a giggle. I’m in luck.