Grade 1: Phonemic Awareness

Report
Grade 1:
Phonemic Awareness
The material in this Institute has been modified from the Florida version of the original reading academies that
were developed by the Texas Education Agency and the Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. The
copyright to these materials is held by the Texas Education Agency.
The copyrights of individual articles included within the academies is held by the original publishers of the
articles, and they are included here with permission.
Survey of Knowledge
Handouts 1 & 2
Alphabetic principle
Phonological
Awareness
Phonemes
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Onset
Rime
Activity
Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness involves:
segmenting – pulling apart words into sounds
blending – putting sounds back together
manipulating – adding, deleting, and
substituting these sounds
Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in spoken
words
/m/
/a/
/p/
1st phoneme
2nd phoneme
3rd phoneme
Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness involves:
segmenting – pulling apart words into sounds
blending – putting sounds back together
manipulating – adding, deleting, and
substituting these sounds
Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in spoken
words
/m/
/a/
/p/
1st phoneme
2nd phoneme
3rd phoneme
Components of Effective Reading
Instruction
North Carolina Standard
Course of Study
Activity
Competency Goal 1:
The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies and
skills to read and write.
1.01 Develop phonemic awareness and demonstrate
knowledge of alphabetic principle:
Count syllables in word
Blend the phonemes of one-syllable words
Segment the phonemes of one-syllable words
Change the beginning, middle, and ending sounds to
produce new words
What We Know From Research
Phonemic awareness instruction improves
students’ understanding of how the words in
spoken language are represented in print
Phonemic awareness instruction helps all young
students learn to read
Phonemic awareness instruction is most
effective when students learn to use letters to
represent phonemes
Phonemic awareness instruction also helps
preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders
learn to spell
Phonological Awareness
Continuum
Type
Description
Examples
RHYME
Matching the ending sounds of words
cat, hat, bat, sat
ALLITERATION
Producing groups of words that begin with
the same initial sound
ten tiny tadpoles
SENTENCE
SEGMENTATION
Segmenting sentences into spoken words
The dog ran away.
1 2 3 4
SYLLABLES
Blending syllables to say words or
segmenting spoken words into syllables
/mag/ /net/
/pa/ /per/
ONSETS AND
RIMES
Blending or segmenting the initial consonant
or consonant cluster (onset) and the vowel
and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime)
/m/ /ice/
/sh/ /ake/
PHONEMES
Blending phonemes into words, segmenting
words into individual phonemes, and
manipulating phonemes in spoken words
/k/ /a/ /t/
/sh/ /i/ /p/
/s/ /t/ /o/ /p/
VIDEO
4:31
Handout 4
Rhyming, Alliteration, and
Sentence Segmentation
Rhyme
Is the match between ending sounds of words
Alliteration
Focuses attention on initial phonemes
Sentence Segmentation
Helps students to understand that sentences are
composed of separate words that are spoken in a
particular order to convey meaning
Syllable Blending and
Segmentation
Syllables
Blending syllables together
to form words and
segmenting words into
syllables
Onset-Rime Blending and
Segmentation
Onset
Initial consonant or
consonant cluster or
consonant digraph
Rime
Vowel and consonants
that follow the onset
Phoneme Blending and
Segmentation
Phoneme Blending Listening to a sequence
of individual sounds and
combining them to
pronounce a word
Segmenting Words Breaking a word into its
individual sounds
into Phonemes
Say It and Move It
Handout 5
Activity
Phoneme Manipulation
Manipulating
Phonemes in Words
Working with phonemes
(adding, deleting, or
substituting them)
Grouping for Instruction
Teach phonemic awareness in small groups.
Small-group instruction may be more effective
because students benefit from listening to their
peers and having more opportunities to participate.
Explicit, Systematic Phonemic
Awareness Instruction
Focus on types of phonemic awareness
most closely associated with beginning
reading and spelling achievement by
linking phonemes to print
Explicitly teach phonemic awareness, and
regularly schedule instruction
Handouts 7 & 8
Activity
Explicit, Systematic Phonemic
Awareness Instruction (cont.)
During a lesson, target only one type of
phonemic awareness, such as blending
phonemes or segmenting words into phonemes
Begin with easier activities and progress to more
difficult ones
Model each activity
As soon as possible, help students make the
connection between letters and sounds to read
and spell words
Ongoing Practice in Phonemic
Awareness
Handout 9
Provide opportunities to practice phonemic
awareness with teacher support.
When students practice sounds along with
the letters of the alphabet, they learn to
blend sounds to read words and to segment
sounds to spell them.
Phonemic Awareness and
Phonics
Phonemic
Awareness
=
Handout 10
Phonics
Phonemic awareness instruction focuses students’
attention on the sounds of spoken words
Phonemic awareness instruction helps children make the
connection between letters and sounds
During reading and spelling activities, children begin to
combine their knowledge of phonemic awareness and
phonics
Phonemic Awareness + Print
Many phonemic awareness activities can be
adapted to help students make the
connection between letters and sounds.
Consider Diversity:
Limited English Proficient Students
Capitalize on native language ability
Teach blending, segmenting, and
manipulating individual phonemes and
syllables
Accept oral approximations
Focus on words students already know
Taking a Closer Look
Phonemic awareness instruction is addressed in
different types of published programs.
Comprehensive core reading programs
Supplementary phonemic awareness
programs
Progress Monitoring:
Phonemic Awareness
Progress monitoring of phonemic awareness helps
to:
Verify
Handout 14
Identify
Recognize
The results of individually administered reading
inventories such as DIBELS can help you make
informed instructional decisions.
Remember . . .
Phonemic awareness “ . . . provides children with essential
foundational knowledge in the alphabetic system. It is one
necessary instructional component within a complete and
integrated reading program.”
-National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 8
“Adding well-thought-out phonemic awareness instruction
to a beginning reading program . . . is very likely to help
your students learn to read and spell.”
-National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 9

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