The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon to Christ’s Birth

The Intertestamental
Period: From Babylon
To The Birth Of Christ
Maccabean Period Part 2
Intertestamental Period
05 Mar 14 Overview
12 Mar 14 Babylonian Period (605-539 BC)
19 Mar 14 Persian Period (539-332 BC)
26 Mar 14 Greek Period (332-323 BC)
02 Apr 14 Ptolemaic (323-198 BC)
09 Apr 14 Syrian (198-168 BC)
16 Apr 14 Maccabean Part 1 (168-153 BC)
23 Apr 14 Maccabean Part 2 (153-139 BC)
30 Apr 14 Independence (139-63 BC)
07 May 14 Rome Intervenes (63 – 37 BC)
14 May 14 Herod (37 BC – 4 BC)
21 May 14 The IT Period and Christianity (4 BC – 70 AD)
28 May 14 Review
Today’s Objectives
• Review last week’s lesson
• Learn about the split in the Seleucid dynasty
and about the Maccabean role
• Learn about key Seleucid rulers during the
period from 153-139 BC
• Learn about Jonathan's role in the Jewish
• Learn about the transition of power with
• Review background information about Rome
and key events during the period
Last week’s lesson
• Reviewed last week’s lesson
• Learned about the Hasmonean dynasty
• Learned about Mattathias’ role in the Jewish
• Learned about Mattathias’ five sons
• Reviewed Judas Maccabeus’ actions
Learned about the rededication of the temple
• Learned about further oppression by
Antiochus V
• Reviewed important historical notes about
Reference Material
• KJV (w/ Apocrypha)
– 1st and 2nd Maccabbees
Josephus – The Complete Works
Herodotus – The History
Intertestamental History – Mark Moore
Ancient Rome – Simon Baker
Harding University – BNEW 112 Course Notes –
Dr. Thompson
• Intertestamental Period – John Battle
Sons of Mattathias
• Mattathias dies of old age in 167 BC, soon
after the revolt began
• He appoints his third son, Judas, as leader
• Mattathias had five sons
– John
– Simon
– Judas (or Judas the Maccabee)
– Eleazar
– Jonathan
• Three sons ruled over Judah, all five sons
suffer violent deaths
Where we left off….
• Judas Maccabeus’ treaty with Rome
• In 157 BC Roman delegate heads a
commission which arbitrates a truce
between Carthage and Masinissa
• The delegate (Cato) is awe-struck by the
power he sees within Carthage
• Further oppression under
• Three of Five Maccabean brothers have
been killed, only Jonathan and Simon live
• Jonathan becomes the leader – it’s 153 BC
Maccabean Revolt
• Was seen as a war for religious freedom to end
the oppression of the Seleucids
• Many wanted to continue the revolt and conquer
other lands with Jewish populations or to convert
their people
• Exacerbated the divide between the Pharisees
and Sadducees
– Pharisees emerging as more popular, democratic,
and successor group of the Hasidim, anti-Hellenistic
– Sadducees emerging as the party of the elite, proHellenistic, ceased to exist in 70 AD, did not believe
in the afterlife or resurrection
– Essenes emerged as a dissident group, arguing that
the Essene community was the “new Temple”
Demetrius I Soter
• Ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire
from 187-150 BC
• Rival to Antiochus V, son of Antiochus IV
– Overthrows and kills Antiochus V
• Drawn away from his conflict with the
Maccabees by external issues
– Enemies want Alexander Balas name ruler
– Roman Senate supports Alexander Balas
– Demtrius I is defeated in killed in 150 BC
Demetrius II Nicator
• Son of Demetrius I Soter
• Very young, unpopular king
• Ruled the empire two different times
– 146-139 BC (contested, at war)
– 129-126 BC
• Retook the throne of the Seleucid Empire in
147 BC, lost it to the Parthians in 139 BC
• Assisted in his efforts by Ptolemy VI of
Alexander Balas
• Rules the Seleucid kingdom from 150-146
BC, marries Ptolemy VI’s daughter
• “Discovered” by a minister of Antiochus IV
• Recognized by Roman Senate and the
Egyptians as successor to Antiochus V
• Looses the battle of Antioch in 145 BC
• Flees to a Nabataean prince and is
• Demetrius II Nicator comes to power
• Co-regent with Antiochus VI Dionysus
King Ptolemy VI
• Ruler of Egypt from 163-145 BC
• Allied with Demetrius II against Alexander
• Defeats Alexander Balas in the Battle of
Antioch in 145 BC
• Gives his daughter (Alexander’s wife) to
Demetrius II
• Helped to build Demetrius II’s power
Antiochus VI Dionysus
• Son of Alexander Balas (I Macc II)
• Born 148 BC, died 138 BC
• “Ruled” from 145 BC until he was deposed
in 138 BC
• Diodotus Tryphon, a military General
under Alexander Balas supposedly
murders him
• General Tryphon becomes the king
• In 143 BC Hasmonean rule was reinstated
in Judea in exchange for aid
• Had spent 10 years rebuilding the Jewish
base of support
• It was 150 BC and he was the de facto ruler
of Judah
• Controls all of Judah
• Syria still controls the Akra in Jerusalem
• Reassures Rome of the Maccabean
alliance with Rome (ref. 1 Macc 8, 12:1-24)
• Rules during a period of great turmoil within
the Seleucid empire
• Captured by Tryphon and killed in 143 BC
1 Macc 8:1-6
1Now Judas heard of the fame of the Romans, that they are powerful
and strong, and willingly agree to all things that are requested of them:
and that whosoever have come to them, they have made amity with
them, and that they are mighty in power. 2 And they heard of their
battles, and their noble acts which they had done in Galatia, how they
had conquered them, and brought them under tribute: They heard,
etc... What is here set down of the history and character of the ancient
Romans, is not an assertion, or affirmation of the sacred writer: but only
a relation of what Judas had heard of them. 3 And how great things
they had done in the land of Spain, and that they had brought under
their power the mines of silver and of gold that are there, and had
gotten possession of all the place by their counsel and patience: 4 And
had conquered places that were very far off from them, and kings that
came against them from the ends of the earth, and had overthrown
them with great slaughter: and the rest pay them tribute every year. 5
And that they had defeated in battle Philip and Perses the king of the
Ceteans, and the rest that had borne arms against them, and had
conquered them: Ceteans... That is, the Macedonians. 6 And how
Antiochus, the great king of Asia, who went to fight against them,
having a hundred and twenty elephants, with horsemen, and chariots,
and a very great army, was routed by them.
1 Macc 8:7-15
7 And how they took him alive, and appointed to him, that both he and they that
should reign after him, should pay a great tribute, and that he should give
hostages, and that which was agreed upon, 8 And the country of the Indians,
and of the Medes, and of the Lydians, some of their best provinces: and those
which they had taken from them, they gave to king Eumenes. Eumenes... King
of Pergamus. 9 And that they who were in Greece, had a mind to go and to
destroy them: and they had knowledge thereof, 10 And they sent a general
against them, and fought with them, and many of them were slain, and they
carried away their wives, and their children captives, and spoiled them, and
took possession of their land, and threw down their walls, and brought them to
be their servants unto this day. 11 And the other kingdoms, and islands, that at
any time had resisted them, they had destroyed and brought under their power.
12 But with their friends, and such as relied upon them, they kept amity, and
had conquered kingdoms that were near, and that were far off: for all that heard
their name, were afraid of them. 13 That whom they had a mind to help to a
kingdom, those reigned: and whom they would, they deposed from the
kingdom: and they were greatly exalted. 14 And none of all these wore a
crown, or was clothed in purple, to be magnified thereby. 15 And that they had
made themselves a senate house, and consulted daily three hundred and
twenty men, that sat in counsel always for the people, that they might do the
things that were right:
1 Macc 8:16-23
16 And that they committed their government to one man every year, to
rule over all their country, and they all obey one, and there is no envy
nor jealousy amongst them. To one man... There were two consuls: but
one only ruled at one time, each in his day. -- Ibid. No envy, etc... So
Judas had heard: and it was so far true, with regard to the ancient
Romans, that as yet no envy or jealousy had divided them into such
open factions and civil wars, as they afterwards experienced in the time
of Marius and Sylla, etc. 17 So Judas chose Eupolemus, the son of
John, the son of Jacob, and Jason, the son of Eleazar, and he sent
them to Rome to make a league of amity and confederacy with them:
18 And that they might take off from them the yoke of the Grecians, for
they saw that they oppressed the kingdom of Israel with servitude. 19
And they went to Rome, a very long journey, and they entered into the
senate house, and said: 20 Judas Machabeus, and his brethren, and
the people of the Jews, have sent us to you to make alliance and peace
with you, and that we may be registered your confederates and friends.
21 And the proposal was pleasing in their sight. 22 And this is the copy
of the writing that they wrote back again, graven in tables of brass, and
sent to Jerusalem, that it might be with them there for a memorial of the
peace, and alliance.
1 Macc 8:7-15
23 GOOD SUCCESS BE TO THE ROMANS, and to the people of the
Jews by sea, and by land, for ever: and far be the sword and enemy
from them. 24 But if there come first any war upon the Romans, or any
of their confederates, in all their dominions: 25 The nation of the Jews
shall help them according as the time shall direct, with all their heart: 26
Neither shall they give them, whilst they are fighting, or furnish them
with wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it hath seemed good to the
Romans: and they shall obey their orders, without taking any thing of
them. 27 In like manner also if war shall come first upon the nation of
the Jews, the Romans shall help them with all their heart, according as
the time shall permit them: 28 And there shall not be given to them that
come to their aid, either wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it hath
seemed good to the Romans: and they shall observe their orders
without deceit. 29 According to these articles did the Romans covenant
with the people of the Jews.
Battle for Jonathan’s Support
• Between Demitrius I and Alexander Balas
• Demetrius I is forced to withdraw the
Judean garrison
– Makes a bid for Jonathan’s loyalty
– Permits him to take an army
– Jonathan accepts and begins fortifying the city
• Alexander Balas offers even more favorable
– Appointment as the official High Priest 153 BC
– He withdraws support to Demetrius I
– Declares allegiance to Alexander Balas
Area under Jonathan’s control
• By 142 BC, two contenders remain for the
– Three year old Antiochus VI Dionysus, son of
Alexander Balas, supported by General
– Demetrius II
• Tryphon,
– Wanted Jonathan’s support but tricked him
– Invites Jonathan to Ptolemais with only 1000
men with him
– Tryphon kills all of Jonathan’s men
– Imprisons Jonathan and finally kills him
– Only Simon is left
• Makes an alliance with Demetrius II
• Demetrius II takes the throne of Syria
– Grants independence to Judea
– Grants immunity from taxation
• Jews were able to drive the Syrian garrison
out of the Akra
• Built a Hasmonean palace on its foundation
• Hasidim gave Simon the title “Leader and
High Priest Forever”
– “Until there should arise a faithful prophet”
• He is murdered in 135 BC by a son-in-law
Pre-Roman World
The Roman Republic
A “Balanced” Government
• Rome elects two consuls– one to lead army,
one to direct government
• Senate- chosen from patricians (Roman upper
class), make foreign and domestic policy
• Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make laws
for plebeians (commoners)
• Dictators- leaders appointed briefly in times of
crisis (appt. by consuls and senate)
The Roman Army
• Originally land-owners
• All citizens were required
to serve
• Army was powerful:
– Organization & fighting skill
• Legion- military unit of
5,000 infantry (foot
soldiers) supported by
cavalry (horseback)
• The uprisings in Rome's Hispanic province
• January 1st becomes the first day of the
Roman year in 153 BC
• Carthaginian debt to Rome is fully repaid
– According to Carthage, the treaty with Rome,
which was put in place at the end of the
Second Punic War, is no longer in force
• Third Punic War declared; Rome lands an
army in Africa to begin the Battle of
Carthage in 149 BC
• Carthage falls to Roman forces in 146 BC
• Phoenician’s originated from southern
Europe, along the northern Mediterranean
region around 1500 BC
• Established by Phoenician Empire 700’s BC
• Phoenician Empire fell, Carthage became
powerful, independent city-state; like the
city of Rome
• Carthage had a huge and powerful navy
• Took control of North Africa, Corsica,
Sardinia, Sicily, and Spain
Roman Empire 44 BC – 180 AD
Third Punic War
• Short war
• Rome invades Carthage because of
aggressions against a third country
• Carthage destroyed (burned down) and
most citizens sold into slavery
– 1,000,000 original inhabitants
– 50,000 remained
• Carthage so completely destroyed
archeologists have found very few artifacts
• Rome becomes the sole superpower in the
Mediterranean region for the next 700 years
• Reviewed last week’s lesson
• Learned about the split in the Seleucid
dynasty and about the Maccabean role
• Learned about key Seleucid rulers during the
period from 153-139 BC
• Learned about Jonathan's role in the Jewish
• Learned about the transition of power with
• Reviewed background information about
Rome and key events during the period

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