Cryptographic Support Facility技術計畫報告

Report
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Mobile Internet Service
鄭仁傑
網際網路軟體技術組(W000)
中華民國八十九年三月二十二日
1
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Agenda
 What is Mobile Internet Service?
 Wireless Application Protocol
Technical Overview
 WAP 產品發展現況
 CCL/ITRI Mobile Internet Project
 Mobile Commerce
 Mobile Internet Technology Outlook
2
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Internet Service
Internet
Appliance
Strategis Group統計行動數據應用的項目比率最高為訊息/電子郵件
(27%),依序為個人資料處理(15%)及上網(14%)
上網方式統計,1999年透過行動通訊器材上網之比率為16%,預估至
2005年將成長至41%
我國網路家電產業產值將由1999
年的2.35億美元成長至2002年的
13.94億美元,年複合成長率達
81%
1999年我國智慧型掌上裝置產量
22萬台(全球產量4,036萬台),產
值約為5,500萬美元,全球市場
占有率為5.45%
Wireless Application Protocol
WAP Protocol,Wireless Transport Layer Security
Mobile Internet Multimedia Application
Environment
Ubiquitous
Networks
多元化的網路型態,頻寬大且無
所不在
資訊流為中心的行動運算互連網
路應用服務
Mobile/Wireless Information
Computing
Mobile Internet
WAP-Enable Device
WAP Protocol 、Micro-Browser*
Personalize Information Service
On-Line Multimedia Information
Service
Mobile Commerce
目標
建立Mobile Internet Service所
需的應用平台設計技術
Application Gateway
WAP Gateway / Proxy Server*
Mobile Agent
Push Service
* 已進行的項目
3
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Mobile Internet Service Overview
線上資訊服務
2G & 3G
Internet
WAP Enable Device
Mobility Service
金融資訊商務
個人資訊服務
4
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Wireless Application Protocols(I)
 What is WAP?

The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is an open, global
specification that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to
easily access and interact with information and services instantly
 Which wireless networks does WAP work with?

WAP is designed to work with most wireless networks such as
CDPD, CDMA, GSM, PDC, PHS, TDMA, FLEX, ReFLEX,
iDEN, TETRA, DECT, DataTAC, Mobitex.
 What operating systems are compatible with WAP?

WAP is a communications protocol and application environment. It
can be built on any operating system including PalmOS, EPOC,
Windows CE, FLEXOS, OS/9, JavaOS etc. It provides service
interoperability even between different device families.
5
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Wireless Application Protocols(II)
 WAP 論 壇 主 要 由 ERICSSON,MOTOROLA,NOKIA,
UNWIRED PLANET等四家廠商,針對未來無線網路
的加值服務(Value-added Service)所共同成立的一個
業界聯盟,其目標有四:
 希望在手機及其他無線終端設備上建立擷取Internet
內容(Content)及數據服務的能力
 訂定一組適用所有無線網路技術的標準協定
 開發可運用於所有無線網路及其終端設備的Internet
內容和應用
 利用既有的標準及技術來發展WAP
6
WAP Architecture
Introduction and Overview
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
The WAP Architecture
Web Server
WAP Gateway
WML
WML Encoder
WMLScript
WSP/WTP
WMLScript
Compiler
HTTP
CGI
Scripts
etc.
WTAI
Protocol Adapters
Content
WML Decks
with WML-Script
Client
Etc.
8
工業技術研究
Comparison between Internet and WAP Technologies
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Wireless Application Protocol
Internet
HTML
JavaScript
Wireless Application
Environment (WAE)
Other Services and
Applications
Session Layer (WSP)
HTTP
Transaction Layer (WTP)
Security Layer (WTLS)
TLS - SSL
Transport Layer (WDP)
TCP/IP
UDP/IP
Bearers:
SMS
USSD
CSD
IS136
CDMA
CDPD PDC-P
Etc..
9
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAP specifies…
 Wireless Application Environment





WML Microbrowser
WMLScript Virtual Machine
WMLScript Standard Library
Wireless Telephony Application Interface
WAP Content Types
 Wireless Protocols





Wireless Session Protocol (WSP)
Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)
Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP)
Wireless network interface definitions
10
WAP Application Environment
WML and WMLScript
Wireless Telephony Architecture
Content Formats
Push
User Agent Profile
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAE Goals
 Network-neutral application environment;
 For narrow-band wireless devices;
 With an Internet/WWW programming
model;
 And a high degree of interoperability.
12
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAE Requirements







Leverage WSP and WTP
Leverage Internet standard technology
Device Independent
Network Independent
International Support
Vendor-controlled MMI
Initial focus on phones





Slow bearers
Small memory
Limited CPU
Small screen
Limited input model
13
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAE First Generation
 Architecture


Application model
Browser, Gateway, Content Server
 WML

Display language
 WMLScript

Scripting language
 WTA

Telephony services API and architecture
 Content Formats

Data exchange
14
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WML Second Generation
 Extensions and enhancements

Currently under development
 User Agent Profiling

Content customized for device
 Push Model

Network-initiated content delivery
 Performance Enhancements

Caching, etc.
15
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAE Abstract Network Architecture
WSP/HTTP Request {URL}
Client
Gateway
Network
Application
WSP/HTTP Reply {Content}
16
工業技術研究
Network Example #1:
WAP Gateway
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Web Server
WAP Gateway
WML
WML Encoder
WMLScript
WSP/WTP
WMLScript
Compiler
HTTP
WML Decks
with WML-Script
Client
CGI
Scripts
etc.
WTAI
Protocol Adapters
Content
Etc.
17
工業技術研究
Network Example #2:
WAP Application Server
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Client
WML
WMLScript
WTAI
WML Encoder
WSP/WTP
WMLScript
Compiler
Protocol Adapters
Application
Logic
Content
WML Decks
with WML-Script
WAP Application Server
Etc.
18
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WML
 Tag-based browsing language:



Screen management (text, images)
Data input (text, selection lists, etc.)
Hyperlinks & navigation support
 W3C XML-based language
 Inherits technology from HDML and
HTML
19
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WML (cont.)
 Card metaphor


User interactions are split into cards
Navigation occurs between cards
 Explicit inter-card navigation model



Hyperlinks
UI Event handling
History
 State management and variables


Reduce network traffic
Results in better caching
20
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WML Example
Navigatio
n
Variables
Input
Elements
<WML>
<CARD>
<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>
<GO URL=“#eCard”/>
</DO
Welcome!
</CARD>
<CARD NAME=“eCard”>
<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>
<GO URL=“/submit?N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/>
</DO>
Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/>
Choose speed:
<SELECT KEY=“S”>
<OPTION VALUE=“0”>Fast</OPTION>
<OPTION VALUE=“1”>Slow</OPTION>
<SELECT>
</CARD>
</WML>
Card
Deck
21
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WMLScript
 Scripting language:


Procedural logic, loops, conditionals, etc.
Optimized for small-memory, small-cpu
devices
 Derived from JavaScript™
 Integrated with WML


Powerful extension mechanism
Reduces overall network traffic
22
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WMLScript (cont.)
 Bytecode-based virtual machine



Stack-oriented design
ROM-able
Designed for simple, low-impact
implementation
 Compiler in network


Better network bandwidth use
Better use of terminal memory/cpu.
23
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WMLScript Example
WMLScript is very similar to JavaScript
Functions
Variables
Programming
Constructs
function currencyConvertor(currency, exchRate) {
return currency*exchangeRate;
}
function myDay(sunShines) {
var myDay;
if (sunShines) {
myDay = “Good”;
} else {
myDay = “Not so good”;
};
return myDay;
}
24
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WTA
 Tools for building telephony applications
 Designed primarily for:


Network Operators / Carriers
Equipment Vendors
 Network security and reliability a major
consideration
25
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WTA (cont.)
 WTA Browser


Extensions added to standard
WML/WMLScript browser
Exposes additional API (WTAI)
 WTAI includes:





Call control
Network text messaging
Phone book interface
Indicator control
Event processing
26
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WTA (cont.)
 Network model for client/server interaction


Event signaling
Client requests to server
 Security model: segregation


Separate WTA browser
Separate WTA port
 WTAI available in WML & WMLScript
27
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WTA Example
Placing an outgoing call with WTAI:
WTAI Call
Input Element
<WML>
<CARD>
<DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”>
<GO URL=“wtai:cc/mc;$(N)”/>
</DO>
Enter phone number:
<INPUT TYPE=“TEXT” KEY=“N”/>
</CARD>
</WML>
28
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Content Formats
 Common interchange formats
 Promoting interoperability
 Formats:




Business cards: IMC vCard standard
Calendar: IMC vCalendar standard
Images: WBMP (Wireless BitMaP)
Compiled WML, WMLScript
29
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Content Format Example
Example Use of an Image:
Image Element
<WML>
<CARD>
Hello World!<BR/>
<IMG SRC=“/world.wbmp”
ALT=“[Globe]” />
</CARD>
</WML>
30
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Push
 Push is under development
 Network-push of content


Alerts or service indications
Pre-caching of data
 Goals:





Extensibility and simplicity
Build upon WAP 1.0
End-to-end solution
Security
User friendly
31
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
User Agent Profiles (UAProf)
 UAProf is under development
 Goal: content personalization, based upon:


Device characteristics, user preferences
Other profile information
 Working with W3C on CC/PP


RDF-based content format
Describes “capability and profile” info
 Efficient transport over wireless links,
caching, etc.
32
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAE Technical Collaboration
 W3C


White paper published
Technical collaboration
•
•
•
•
CC/PP
HTML-NG
HTTP-NG
Etc.
 ETSI/MExE
 Others coming soon
33
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Summary: WAE Status
 First generation released


Implementations are in progress
Specifications include:
• WAE, WML, WMLScript
• WBMP, WTA, WTAI, etc.
 Second generation in development

Focusing on:
• Push, Interoperability, UAProf
• Telephony, Internationalization, etc.
34
Wireless Transport Protocols
Wireless Session Protocol
Wireless Transaction Protocol
Wireless Datagram Protocol
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAP Protocol Layers
Wireless Session Service Access Point
Wireless Session Protocol
Wireless Transaction Service Access Point
Wireless Transaction Protocol
Transport Service Access Point (TSAP)
Wireless Datagram Protocol
WCMP
Bearer
Bearer Bearer Service
C
Service Service
B
A
Bearer
Service
D
Physical Layer Air Link
Technology
36
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAP Transport Services
 WSP is the Session Layer Protocol
 WTP is the Transaction-Oriented protocol
 WDP is the Datagram protocol
37
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Service, Protocol, and Bearer
Example
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAP Over GSM Circuit-Switched
WAP
Proxy/Server
Mobile
WAE
WSP
IWF
ISP/RAS
WAE
Apps on
Other Servers
WSP
WTP
WTP
UDP
UDP
IP
PPP
CSD-RF
IP
IP
PSTN Subnetwork
Circuit
Subnetwork
PPP
CSDRF
RAS - Remote Access Server
IWF - InterWorking Function
PSTN
Circuit
38
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Service, Protocol, and Bearer
Example
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAP Over GSM Short Message Service
WAP
Proxy/Server
Mobile
WAE
WAE Apps on
other servers
WSP
WSP
SMSC
WTP
WDP
SMS
WTP
WDP
SMS
under development
WDP Tunnel
Protocol
WDP Tunnel
Protocol
Subnetwork
Subnetwork
39
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
WDP TUNNEL Specification
WAP context
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAP WDP Tunneling Architecture
Mobile
WAE
WSP
Wireles s
Data
Gatewa y
(messa ge
center)
WTP WDP &
Adap tatio n
Non -IP bearer
(f .I. SMS)
WAP
Proxy/Server
WAE
App s on
ot her servers
WSP
WTP WDP &
Adap tatio n
Non -IP bearer
(f .I. SMS)
Tu nnel
Tu nnel
Subn etwork
Subn etwork
de fi ne d in the WDP Sp ecifica tion
40
WAP Security
WTLS Services & Characteristics
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WTLS Services and Characteristics
 Specifies a framework for secure connections, using
protocol elements from common Internet security
protocols like SSL and TLS.
 Provides security facilities for encryption, strong
authentication, integrity, and key management
 Compliance with regulations on the use of
cryptographic algorithms and key lengths in different
countries
 Provides end-to-end security between protocol end
points
42
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WTLS Services and Characteristics

Provides connection security for two communicating
applications
• privacy (encryption)
• data integrity (MACs)
• authentication (public-key and symmetric)


Lightweight and efficient protocol with respect to
bandwidth, memory and processing power
Employs special adapted mechanisms for wireless
usage
• Long lived secure sessions
• Optimised handshake procedures
• Provides simple data reliability for operation over datagram
bearers
43
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WTLS Internal Architecture
Transaction Protocol (WTP)
WTLS
Handshake
Protocol
Alert
Protocol
Application
Protocol
Change Cipher
Spec Protocol
Record Protocol
Record protocol
Datagram Protocol (WDP/UDP)
Bearer networks
44
Wireless Interoperability Group
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Wireless Interoperability Group
WIG Mission statement
“To ensure that WAP products
are conformant to WAP specs
and interwork with each other.”
46
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
產品/服務型態
WAP
Terminal
廠商名稱
Alcatel
Ericsson
Motorola
Nokia
WAP
Gateway
WAP
應用程式
Siemens
Angelica
Apion
CMG telecom
Ericsson
Dr.Materna
Phone.com
RTS
Spyglass
Angelica
ASPIRO
Infinite Tech
Lucent
Peramon
Phone.com
Tecnomen
WAP產品發展現況
產品名稱
OneTouch View
R380
I1000+
Timeport P7389
7110
備註
GSM 手機
GSM 手機
GSM 手機
GSM 手機
預計 1999 Q4 上市
GSM 手機
Gateway 軟體
Gateway 軟體
Gateway 軟體
Gateway 軟體
Gateway 軟體
Gateway 軟體
Gateway 軟體
Gateway 軟體
S25
Angel-one
Binian
WAP Service Broker
WAP Gateway/Proxy
Materna Gateway
UP.link
Advantage
Prism
Wireless ApS
網管軟體
Fleet Manager
InterChange
E-Mail
短訊服務
SMSC
個人資訊系統(PIS)
Lexico
、
UP.Mail UP.Organizer
Unified Message
Service
產品/服務型態
WAP
發展套件
WAP
服務
廠商名稱
Alcatel
產品名稱
HomeTop
Argo Interactive
Baltimore Tech.
Certicom
Ericsson
MAZ
Melody Interactive
Nokia
Oracle
ActiGate
W/SECURE
WTLS Plus 1.0
IDESDK
VAS
MyWAP
NAMP
Project Panama
Phone.com
Digital Bridges
IDO
LG Telecom
MapQuest
Pc-plus Computing
Sorena
UCP
Virtual
UP.SDK
Online Games
EZAcess
019 EZ
MapQuest.com
IDA.wap
WAP Service
Ucphone.com
Mobile Banking
備註
Internet Portal
發展套件
Gateway 發展套件
WTLS 發展套件
WTLS 發展套件
WAP 整合發展套件
加值服務
用戶端應用程式
WAP 整合發展套件
Internet Portal
發展套件
WAP 整合發展套件
10 種線上遊戲
地圖檢索
線上目錄服務
Content Provider
資料來源:WAP Forum,1999/10,電通所IT IS整理
47
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
CCL/ITRI 計畫內容
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
項目
Java WAP Protocol Stack
設計技術
進行內容
* HTTP Translator
* Wireless Session Protocol(WSP)
* Wireless Transport Layer Security Protocol(WTLS)
* Wireless Transaction Protocol(WTP)
* Wireless Datagram Protcol(WDP)
* GSM Short Message System(SMS) Interface
* Java Cryptographic Library(Cryptix)
WAP Gateway設計技術
* WTLS to SSL Protocol Converter
* HTML to WML Converter
* WPKI Portal
* Proxy Gateway
Java Micro-Browser設計
技術
* Wireless Markup Language(WML) Language Encoder/Decoder
* Compress WML (WMLC) Encoder/Decoder
* WMLScript Language Encoder/Decoder
* Layout Manager
48
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Mobile Internet Access 內容
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Short Message Center
Micro-Browser with
*
Wireless Markup Language/WMLScript
Wireless Session Protocol
WAP Gateway
WTLS Server
Wireless Transaction Protocol *
*
HTTP
*
Connection I/F
Push
Service
*
Wireless Transport Layered Security *
Wireless Datagram Protocol /
*
Wireless Control Message Protocol
TCP/UDP/IP
RS-232
IrDA
* 進行中的項目
GSM Modem / Short Message *
49
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
技術成就
 已完成一套完整的Java Based WAP Protocol
Stack及Micro-Browser



符合WAP 1.1規格之WAP Protocol Stack(含Security module)
可處理WML/WMLC/WMLScript
目前進行System Tuning
 已完成WAP Gateway Prototype


可處理WAP 1.1規格之WAP Protocol Stack
可處理WTLS與SSL轉換處理,順利連上現有Internet上之Web Server
 後續進行項目




Micro-Browser downsizing
WAP Gateway與Internet Payment Server之連結
WPKI Portal之設計
WAP Proxy Gateway Protocol設計
50
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
未來發展方向
 WAP與Internet E-Commerce系統結合


提供Mobile Commerce之Technical Solution
彰顯WAP Gateway的獨特性
• Security Module
• Payment Gateway Solution
• WPKI Portal
 Mobile Internet Integration Environment


配合Multimedia與Mobile Computing技術的發展,進行技術研
發與應用
WAP Gateway之功能可結合Data Mining及Software Agent技術
發展
51
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
WAP與Internet E-Commerce結合
Web-Browser(merchant) E-Mail reader(merchant)
IVR Center
Web user
SSL
Internet
Web Server
WAP user
WAP Gateway
Internet WEB Server
SS
c
L
P
O
Se
Server API
Internet
S
rv
er
IVR Interface SHTTP Server
e-Shop Builder
Database
Mall Admin
WMHS/VASMD System Interface
SSL
Payment Gateway
VASMD
Dat
WMHS
ISO8583 Interface
SSL
收單銀行
S-MIME
Merchant Server
SSL
WAP WEB Server
Internet
X.25
收單銀行
aba
Billing System
Payment
Gateway
se
SmA/Si
Payment gateway
52
工業技術研究
電腦與通訊工業研究所
院
Industrial Technology Research Institute
Computer & Communication Research Laboratories
Mobile Internet Technology
Mobile
Home
Data
Terminal
Digital Cellular Network
GSM / GPRS / 3G
WAP
enabled
Monitor Camera
Security
TV Door Phone
Card Display
Mobile ISP/Agent
(WAP Gateway Server)
Multimedia Mail, PIM
WPAN
Peripherals
- Text, Voice & Image
- Personal Data
Handset
(Repeater)
Note PC
Multimedia Contents
Comm. Terminals
AV Terminals
Video
Server
Audio
DB
- Web Browsing
- Bulletin Board
- Network Game
- Ticket Reservation
- E-commerce
Home
Communicator
Intranet
PC
TV
AV Products
Security Cameras
Switcher
DSC
DVC
Internet
(Web, Mail)
DSC: Digital Still Camera
DVC: Digital Video Camera
WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network (IEEE802.15)
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
Fixed Network
Router
LAN
PSTN / ISDN / FTTH
Data & Image over LAN
Office
53

similar documents