Ingen diastitel

Report
WOOD-ENMAN
Criteria and indicators for sustainable
production of forest biomass for energy
Forest legislation, forest certification standards,
and recommendations and guidelines
for forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling
Inge Stupak Møller
Forest & Landscape, Denmark
IEA BIOENERGY EXCO58 MEETING
STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 3-5 OCTOBER 2006
WOOD-EN-MAN EU-FP5
WOOD-ENMAN
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Forest & Landscape Denmark: Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen, Morten
Ingerslev, Inge Stupak Møller, Ingeborg Callesen, Hans Peter Ravn,
Kjeld Suadicani.
Finnish Forest Research Institute: Antti Asikainen, Karri Pasanen,
Dominik Röser, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Anna Saarsalmi, Mikko Kukkola,
Pekka Tamminen.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Erik Karltun, Mats Jonsell,
Martin Schrøder, Caroline Rothpfeffer.
Skogforsk, Norway: Anders Lunnan, Nicholas Clarke, Jørn Lileng.
Lithuanian Forest Research Institute: Remigijus Ozolincius, Diana
Mizaraitė, Iveta Varnagirytė, Kestutis Armolaitis, Leonardas Kairiukstis.
Estonian University of Life Sciences: Malle Mandre, Henn Pärn, Katri
Ots.
Latvian Forestry Research Institute SILAVA:, Talis Gaitnieks, Lelde
Vilkriste, Aigars Indriksons.
BOKU, Austria: Klaus Katzensteiner.
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How to ensure that the production of
forest biomass for energy purposes is
in line with sustainable development?
What has been done?
Contents
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• Material
• Photos: Main debated environmental problems
• Current criteria and indicators (C&I)
– legislation
– forest certification
– Recommendations, guidelines, information
material
• Do present C&I meet the needs for a
sustainable production of forest biomass for
energy?
Material
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• Forest laws and regulations in the Nordic and Baltic
countries
• PEFC forest certification standards in Europe
• FSC forest certification standards in the Nordic and Baltic
countries
• Recommendations and guidelines for sustainable
extraction of forest fuel and wood ash recycling
(International, Nordic and Baltic countries, UK)
• RecAsh seminar in Karlstad, Sweden, 25-28 Sept. 2006
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Compensation or preservation
Wood ash recycling
• Wood ash compensates for:
– Mineral nutrient removals
– Acidification effects
• Not practically possible to compensate with wood
ash:
– Remote places?
• Wood ash do not compensate for:
– Nitrogen
– Organic matter
– Effects of stump harvesting
– Biodiversity, insect pests etc.
WOOD-ENMAN
Legislative criteria
Compensation measures
Wood ash recycling and fertilisation
• Notification to authorities
Separate regulation
wood ash Forestry
Fertilisation
with direct effective mineral
–forSweden:
act (§14)
recycling to the forest (Denmark)
fertilisers is prohibited (§21, Estonia)
The forest owner or lawful possessor
Fertilisation must not contradict the Law on
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Compensation
measures
shall obtain a confirmation from the
Environmental Protection and the
State Forest Service
use of ash
artificial
appropriate
acts (§14, Lithuania)
– for
wood
recycling
andstandard
fertilisation
fertilisers in forestland (§39, Latvia)
Possibility for the Ministry to issue further
Common advice to the Forestry Act §30
• Prevention of damages
byconcerning
insect pests
in of forest,
regulations
fertilisation
on preservation of the nutrient balance
and furthermore, the municipality may
residues
and compensationstored
with wood
ash and
refuse forest owners permission to fertilise
nitrogen (Sweden).
if they find it necessary to prevent major
negative effects on the environmental
values (§6, Norway).
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Prevention of damages by insect
pests
- Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, (Norway)
Stored Amounts
Dimensions of stored amounts
Distance to living stands
Storage season
Length of storage period
Treatment of the stored material
Coverage of the stored material
Forest certification documents
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• PEFC forest standards (http://www.pefc.org)
– Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK (not
all endorsed).
• FSC forest standards
– Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, (Norway),
Sweden
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Criterion 2
PEFC criteria
Lisbon)
Health (MCPFE
and vitality
Criterion 1: Maintenance and Appropriate Enhancement of
• Survey of soil parameters related to soil fertility (general)
Forest Resources and their Contribution to Global Carbon
• Extraction
Cycles of nutrients and degradation of site fertility:
– removal
of crown material
onlyEcosystem
with a certain
Criterion
2: Maintenance
of Forest
Health and
frequency
(Austria,
Sweden)
Vitality
(damages
caused
by biotic and abiotic agents,
–
or when
cannot
be avoided
changes
initsoil
nutrient
balance (Italy)
and acidity)
– the removal
should be
in relation
to soil
Criterion
3: Maintenance
andconsidered
Encouragement
of Productive
fertility, leaching
and
deposition
(Denmark)
Functions
of Forests
(wood
and non-wood)
– actions
diminishing the
growth potential
are prohibited
Criterion
4: Maintenance,
Conservation
and Appropriate
(Slovenia) of Biological Diversity in Forest Ecosystems
Enhancement
– whole-tree
harvesting
should
not be practiced
where
Criterion
5: Maintenance
and
appropriate
enhancement
of it
is likely to
have negative
(United (notably
Kingdom).
protective
functions
in foresteffects
management
soil and
water)
–
national guidelines should be followed (Sweden and
UK) 6: Maintenance of other Socio-Economic Functions
Criterion
and Conditions
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Criterion 2 continued…
Health and vitality
Fertilisation
– omission if the only purpose is increasing timber increment
(general)
– accepted in specific situations, e.g. restoration, enable
regeneration, increase vitality in case of a nutritional need
documented by soil or foliar analyses (Austria, Denmark,
Germany, Latvia, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden),
– accepted when all aspects of environment protection are taken
into account (Czech Republic).
– wood ash recycling is allowed when performed in agreement with
national recommendations (Sweden and Austria)
– sludge is allowed with certain restrictions (Latvia)
Root rot
– Stump harvesting as a control measure against the spreading the
infection of fungal diseases from a regeneration area (Finland)
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Criterion 3
Productive functions
• Intensified harvesting:
– the usage levels of products should take proper
account of the removal of nutrients (Belgium)
– The usage level should not exceed a sustainable level
(Czech Republic)
– whole-tree harvesting is completely or partly
prohibited (Germany, Italy, Luxembourg)
– the removal of tops and branches and rotten wood for
energy purposes as a supplementary harvest with
considerable environmental benefit due to
replacement of fossil fuels (Sweden)
– in tending operations, dead wood should be left if
there is no comprehensive danger (Austria)
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Criterion 4
Biodiversity
• Preservation of dead wood
– dead wood of larger dimensions should be left in the
forest (general)
– also removal of residues should be avoided - provided
that it is legally permitted to leave them due to biotic
threats as insect pests (Austria and Luxembourg)
– branches left after harvesting should not be burned
(Switzerland)
– all deadwood should be left untouched - unless there is a
documented risk of a mass propagation of insect pests with small-size logging residue however being excepted
(Sweden)
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Criterion 5
Protective functions (soil and water)
• Limiting soil preparation (relevant for stump
harvesting?)
– omit or limit the use of soil preparation
(Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Sweden)
– large-scale interventions in the forest soil
should be avoided (Austria)
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Criterion 6
Socio-economics
• Importance of the forest sector in economics
– “Proportion of renewable resources (wood,
bark, etc.) in energy supply” as an indicator
(Austria)
– “….the use of lower-value wood for energy
purposes should be promoted at the regional
level” as sub-criteria at regional level
(Slovenia)
FSC principles
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1. Compliance with laws and FSC Principles
2. Tenure and use rights and responsibilities
3. Indigenous peoples' rights
4. Community relations and worker's rights
5. Benefits from the forest
6. Environmental impact
7. Management plan
8. Monitoring and assessment
9. Maintenance of high conservation value forests
10. Plantations
FSC criteria
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2. Tenure and use rights and responsibilities
– Criteria 2.2: Local communities should maintain control
over forest operations
5. Benefits from the forest
– Criteria 5.2: Optimal use and local processing
– Criteria 5.3: Minimize waste associated with harvesting
6. Environmental impact
– Criteria 6.3: Ecological functions (biodiversity and natural
cycles that affect the productivity)
– Criteria 6.5: Written guidelines (control erosion, minimize
forest damage, and protect water resources)
– Criteria 6.6: Environmentally friendly non-chemical
methods of pest management
2.2: Local communities should have controlled access to buy firewood for own consumption at a
price not higher than average market price (Estonian indicator)
WOOD-EN5.2:
MANEfforts
to collect information about the potential buyers of timber, energy wood…. Records
of sales by forest products, including energy wood….(Finnish verifier)
5.3:Evidence of by-product use (e.g. use of cutting residues as energy wood)….(Finnish verifier)
6.3: Dead trees, high stumps and old windthrows are safeguarded. Small-dimension harvesting
residues are exempt, and so is deadwood providing breeding substrate for noxious insects
.….(Swedish indicator)
6.3: Clean ash from wood burning may be returned as a fertilizer to the ecological cycle of the
forest. …The nutrient and heavy metal content must be analysed….(Finnish indicator)
6.3: Landowners or representatives adding nutrients or extracting biofuels should demonstrate
that these operations do not conflict with the criterion.….reference to recommendations and
regulations….new research findings should be considered (Swedish indicator)
6.5: In collecting harvest slash for wood energy, the recommendations of the Forestry
Development Centre Tapio shall be adhered to (Finnish indicator)
6.6: Fertilization is not used. This does not cover the return of ash which prevents the negative
impact of removing and burning forest material. (Danish indicator)
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Recommendations & guidelines
Topics
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Policy, legislation, subsidies,
institutional frameworks
Nutrient balances, site fertility and•
wood production
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Acidification
Organic matter and carbon
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Biodiversity and wildlife
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Pest insects
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Hydrology, water quality, water
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courses
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Damages by vehicles, soil
erosion
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Silviculture
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Harvesting methods and
technology, transport, logistics
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Processing, handling, storage
Fuel quality, characteristics,
standardisation
Working environment, health and
safety
Landscape, culture, archaeology,
leisure, non-wood goods
Social values, regional development,
employment, gender
Production costs and economy
Markets, sales, competitiveness
Public participation
Establishment of energy plants
Wood firing, combustion,
gasification, plant operation
Energy distribution
Plant emissions, waste production,
noise, dust, smell etc.
Wood ash recycling
Nutrients and acidification
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1. “Site classification” according to sensitivity to forest
fuel extraction
2. Share of nutrients left in the single harvesting
operation
3. Type and number of extractions during the rotation
4. Use of compensation fertilisation
5. Spatial distribution of the left residues
6. Time for the nutrient removal and fertiliser addition in
relation to the season and stand development stage
7. Documentation
Wood ash recycling
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1. Purpose of the fertilisation
2. Classification of sites according to suitability for wood
ash application, including demands on soil quality
3. Requirements for wood ash quality
4. Methods for documentation of the wood ash quality:
sampling, chemical analysis, and frequency of
sampling.
5. Hardening methods
6. Dosage and rate of application
7. Work method, time of application in relation to stand
development stage and season
8. Need for nitrogen fertilisation
9. Documentation
Biodiversity
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Spare elements important for biodiversity
at various hierarchical levels:
1. Nature conservation areas and valuable nature types
2. Rare tree species, species especially valuable for
biodiversity
3. Other tree and bushes left for nature conservation
purposes, e.g. old trees
4. Standing or lying dead wood and decaying wood in
different stages of decomposition
5. Harvesting residues
6. Other nature objects as bird nests, anthills, fox earths
etc.
Pest insect
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1. Recognising exceptional weather conditions
2. Amount and type of material left
3. Location of stored material in relation to
living trees
4. Storage time and season in relation to
swarming periods
5. Separate handling of material with different
risk potentials
6. Coverage the of stored material
Damage by vehicles
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Avoid damages on soil, tree roots, water courses,
and paths by:
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Using best possible technology
Driving when the soil carrying capacity is highest
Using brush mats to increase soil carrying capacity
Restrictions on movements in landscape, terrain, and
stand
• Use of specialized equipment
• Planning: considering the site constraints on
harvesting at an early stage
• Developing codes of practice for specific sites and
regions (soil erosion)
Organic matter
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• Preservation - minimizing disturbance
– Herbicides rather than fire and mechanical
weed control
• Increasing site fertility
– Fertilisation
Hydrology
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• Removal of nitrogen
• Fertilisation to avoid acidification
• Zones around ditches and water courses
(harvesting, especially stumps, and storage)
• Avoiding stump harvesting in water catchments
• Avoid blocking of drains, minimization of drain
and stream crossings
WOOD-ENMAN
Do C&I meet the need for sustainable
forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?
Recommendations and guidelines
1.
Largely, all relevant generic criteria can be found in
existing recommendations, guidelines, information
materials, and certification standards
2.
Indicators and verifiers are needed for some criteria
3.
Clarification
1.
Reference to other legislation
2.
Mapping or local consultation
3.
Development of standards, setting threshold values
4.
Education and information
5.
Best available technology, technological developments
6.
More research as support for political ordering of
priorities and development of standards
7.
Forest-energy policy
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Policy, legislation, subsidies, institutional frameworks
Nutrient balances, site fertility and wood production
Acidification
Organic matter and carbon
Biodiversity and wildlife
Pest insects
Hydrology, water quality, water courses
Damages by vehicles, soil erosion
Silviculture
Harvesting methods and technology, transport, logistics
Processing, handling, storage
Fuel quality, characteristics, standardisation
Working environment, health and safety
Landscape, culture, archaeology, leisure, non-wood goods
Social values, regional development, employment, gender
Production costs and economy
Markets, sales, competitiveness
Public participation
Establishment of energy plants
Wood firing, combustion, gasification, plant operation
Energy distribution
Plant emissions, waste production, noise, dust, smell etc.
Wood ash recycling
WOOD-ENMAN
Do C&I meet the need for sustainable
forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?
Recommendations and guidelines
• Sweden and Finland: Criteria and indicators are up-todate. Continuous updates will take place.
• Denmark: Criteria and thresholds of recommendations and
wood ash regulation could be updated. Regulation for
wood ash recycling is currently being updated.
• Lithuania: Criteria and thresholds of recommendations for
wood ash recycling are up-to-date. Criteria and thresholds
of recommendations for forest fuel extraction have not
been elaborated.
• Other countries: First generation recommendations and
regulations have not been elaborated.
Very variable among countries….
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Do C&I meet the need for sustainable
forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?
Forest certification
• Criteria and indicators:
– more operational
– more systematically incorporated
• Auditing:
– more focus on indicators related to forest fuel
harvesting, cf. UPM Kymmene
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Do C&I meet the need for sustainable
forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?
Policy
Decisions in case of trade-off
Forest energy policy
Negative environmental
effect in the forest
Sustainable
development ?
Positive environmental effect globally
Intensity of the utilisation
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Do C&I meet the need for sustainable
forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?
Policy
Implementation at the appropriate level:
Available amount
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Recommendations as in Sweden and Finland?
Forest certification as suggested by CLEAN-E project?
Other certification (e.g. ISO, EMAS)?
Legislation and regulations? (e.g.: uncontaminated
wood ash should not be defined as hazardous waste,
but as a product)
Taxes & subsidies
Restrictions
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Recommendations & guidelines
References
Sweden:
– Egnell G, Nohrstedt H-Ö, Weslien J, Westling O, Örlander G. Description of Environmental Consequences of
forest fuel extraction, wood ash amendment and other nutrient compensation. 1998
– Swedish Forest Agency. Forest fuel, threat or possibility – guidance to an environmentally friendly removal of
forest fuel. 2001
– Swedish Forest Agency. Recommendations for the extraction of forest fuel and compensation fertilizing. 2002
Finland
– Forestry Development Centre Tapio. Extraction of energy wood. 2005
– Nurmi J, Kokko A, editors. The effects of intensified biomass harvesting in Forest. 2001
Denmark
– The Forest Agency. Ecological consequences of increased biomass utilisation in forests. 1985
– Pedersen LR, Hald S. Wood for energy, wood chips and fire wood. 1996
– Centre for Biomass Technology. Wood for Energy Production. Technology - Environment – Economy. 2002
Lithuania
– Ozolinčius R, Armolaitis K, Mikšys V, Varnagirytė I. Recommendations for wood ash compensation fertilizing.
2005
UK
– Nisbeth T, Dutch J, Moffat A. Whole-tree Harvesting – A guide to Good Practice. 1997
– British Biogen. Wood Fuel from Forestry and Arboriculture – the development of a sustainable energy production
industry. 1999
Austria
– Splechtna B, Glatzel G. The option to supply biomass from forests and energy plantations for energy use.
Scenarios, ecological effects, and research need. 2005
International
– Richardson J, Björheden R, Hakkila P, Lowe AT, Smith CT, editors. Bioenergy from Sustainable Forestry guiding principles and practice. 2002
– Emilsson S. International Handbook. From Extraction of Forest Fuels to Ash Recycling. First draft. 2005
– Vares V, editor. Manual for Biofuel users. 2006
(Guidelines at company level)

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