National Humanities Center Native American-European Rivalries in North America: 1690-1763 a live, online professional development seminar Focus Questions By 1690 what factors and issues dominated EuropeanNative American relationships throughout North America? How had these relationships changed by the end of the British imperial wars in 1763? How did these changes influence British America on the eve of the Revolution? How did these changes influence Native American culture and politics? Alan Taylor National Humanities Center Fellow, 1993-94 Professor of History, University of California-Davis The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution, 2006 Writing Early American History, 2005 American Colonies, 2001 William Cooper's Town: Power and Persuasion on the Frontier of the Early American Republic, 1995 Liberty Men and Great Proprietors: the Revolutionary Settlement on the Maine Frontier 1760-1820,1990 There are great plenty of Oysters all along by the seaside, as far as I Rode in the Colony, and those very good. And they Generally lived very well and comfortably in their families. But too Indulgent (especially the farmers) to their slaves: suffering [allowing] too great familiarity from them, permitting them to sit at Table and eat with them (as they say to save time) and into the dish goes the black hoof as freely as the white hand. Remarks on Connecticut, Sarah Kemble Knight (1704-05) There are everywhere in the Towns as I passed a Number of Indians, the Natives of the Country, and are the most savage of all the savages of that kind that I had ever Seen: little or no care taken (as I heard upon enquiry) to make them otherwise. They have in some places Lands of their own, and Govern’d by Laws of their own making; they marry many wives and at pleasure put them away, and on the least dislike or fickle humor, on either side, saying stand away to one another is a sufficient Divorce. And indeed those uncomely Stand aways are too much in Vogue among the English in this (Indulgent Colony) as their Records plentifully prove, and that on very trivial matters, of which some have been told me, but are not proper to be Related by a Female pen, though some of that foolish sex have had too large a share in the story. Remarks on Connecticut, Sarah Kemble Knight (1704-05) Their eternal interests are their least concern & as if salvation were not a matter of moment when they have opportunities of serving God they care not for making use thereof, or if they go to church ’tis but too often out of curiosity & to find out faults in him that preacheth rather than to hear their own or what is yet worse to slight & deride where they should be Serious. New York Considered and Improved, Rev. John Miller 1695 The Province of New York, being peopled by several nations, there are manifold & different opinions of religion among them, as to which, though there are but very few of any sect who are either real or intelligent, yet several of the partisans of Each sort have, every one, Such a desire of being uppermost & increasing the number of their own party that they not only thereby make themselves unhappy by destroying true piety & setting up instead thereof a fond heat & blind Zeal for they know not what but also industriously obstruct the settlement of the establish’d Religion of the nation which only can make them happy & have hitherto either by their craft & cunning or their money prospered in their designs & to do thus they have but too much pretence from the Scandalous lives of some Ministers . . . New York Considered and Improved, Rev. John Miller, 1695 Coming to speak of Pennsylvania again, that colony possesses great liberties above all other English colonies, inasmuch as all religious sects are tolerated there. We find there Lutherans, Reformed, Catholics, Quakers, Mennonists or Anabaptists, Herrnhuters or Moravian Brethren, Pietists, Seventh Day Baptists, Dunkers, Presbyterians, Newborn, Freemasons, Separatists, Freethinkers, Jews, Mohammedans, Pagans, Negroes and Indians. The Evangelicals and Reformed, however, are in the majority. But there are many hundred unbaptized souls there that do not even wish to be baptized. Many pray neither in the morning nor in the evening, neither before nor after meals. No devotional book, not to speak of a Bible, will be found with such people. In one house and one family, 4, 5, and even 6 sects, may be found. Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754, Gottlieb Mittelberger, 1756 The preachers throughout Pennsylvania have no power to punish anyone, or to compel anyone to go to church; nor has anyone a right to dictate to the other, because they are not supported by any Consis-torio. Most preachers are hired by the year like the cowherds in Germany; and if one does not preach to their liking, he must expect to be served with a notice that his services will no longer be required. It is, therefore, very difficult to be a conscientious preacher, especially as they have to hear and suffer much from so many hostile and often wicked sects. The most exemplary preachers are often reviled, insulted and scoffed at like the Jews, by the young and old, especially in the country. I would, therefore, rather perform the meanest herdsman’s duties in Germany than be a preacher in Pennsylvania. Such unheard-of rudeness and wickedness spring from the excessive liberties of the land, and from the blind zeal of the many sects. To many a one’s soul and body, liberty in Pennsylvania is more hurtful than useful. There is a saying in that country: Pennsylvania is the heaven of the farmers, the paradise of the mechanics, and the hell of the officials and preachers. Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754, Gottlieb Mittelberger, 1756 When the savages come to the city of Philadelphia and see the handsome and magnificent buildings there, they wonder and laugh at the Europeans for expending so much toil and cost on houses. They say that it is quite unnecessary, as one can live without such houses. Still more they wonder at the garments of the Europeans and their costly finery; they will even spit out when they see it. Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754, Gottlieb Mittelberger, 1756 The Negroes are very numerous, some Gentlemen having Hundreds of them of all Sorts, to whom they bring great Profit; for the Sake of which they are obliged to keep them well and not overwork, starve, or famish them, besides other Inducements to favour them, which is done in a great Degree to such especially that are laborious, careful, and honest; though indeed some Masters, careless of their own Interest or Reputation, are too cruel and negligent. Notes on the Present State of Virginia, Rev. Hugh Jones, 1724 Their Work (or Chimerical hard Slavery) is not very laborious, their greatest Hardship consisting in that they and their Posterity are not at their own Liberty or Disposal, but are the Property of their Owners; and when they are free, they know not how to provide so well for themselves generally; neither did they live so plentifully nor (many of them) so easily in their own Country, where they are made Slaves to one another, or taken Captive by their Enemies. Notes on the Present State of Virginia, Rev. Hugh Jones, 1724 The common Planters, leading easy Lives, don’t much admire Labour or any manly Exercise except Horse-Racing, nor Diversion except Cock-Fighting, in which some greatly delight. This easy Way of Living, and the Heat of the Summer, makes some very lazy, who are then said to be Climate-struck. Notes on the Present State of Virginia, Rev. Hugh Jones, 1724 Focus Questions By 1690 what factors and issues dominated EuropeanNative American relationships throughout North America? How had these relationships changed by the end of the British imperial wars in 1763? How did these changes influence British America on the eve of the Revolution? How did these changes influence Native American culture and politics? Final slide. Thank you.