Crew Resource Management

Report
Mission Aircrew Course
Chapter 14: Crew
Resources Management
(Feb 2005)
Aircrew Tasks

P-2028 DISCUSS CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
(S, P)
Objectives

Discuss the fundamentals of Crew Resource
Management (CRM)
 Discuss
failures and error chain. {O; 14.2}
 Discuss situational awareness. {O; 14.3}
 Discuss how to regain SA once lost. {14.4}
 Describe barriers to communications.
{O; 14.5}
 Define/discuss task saturation. {O; 14.6}
 Discuss assignments and coordination of
duties. {O; 14.8}
Why CRM?

Properly trained aircrew members can
collectively perform complex tasks better
and make more accurate decisions than the
single best performer on the team

An untrained team's overall performance can
be significantly worse than the performance
of its weakest single member

We will cover behavior and attitudes of
teamwork and communication among team
members
Why CRM?
CAP
 Aircraft accidents
 Per 100,000 hours
 A/C flight incidents
 A/C ground incidents
 Fatalities

1996
9
7.79
28
7
7
1997
5
4.16
27
8
2
1998
6
4.76
19
3
3
1999
3
2.34
12
6
2
2000
1
0.94
16
8
0
Why CRM?
MISHAP
 Taxi
 Ground
 Landing
 Other

1998
9
4
8
4
1999
4
6
8
3
2000
9
3
10
2
Failures
Parts
and equipment.
• Mechanical failures
People.
• Human failures
The Error Chain
A
series of event links that, when
considered together, cause a
mishap
Should any one of the links be
“broken,” then the mishap
probably will not occur
It is up to each crewmember to
recognize a link and break the
error chain
Situational Awareness (SA)
Know
what is going on around
you at all times
Requires:
• Good mental health
• Good physical health
• Attentiveness
• Inquisitiveness
Loss of SA
 Strength of an Idea
Hidden agenda
 Complacency
 Accommodation
 Sudden Loss of Judgement

Symptoms of Loss of SA
Fixation
 Ambiguity
 Complacency
 Euphoria
 Confusion
 Distraction
 Overload

Hazardous Attitudes
Anti-authority
Impulsiveness
 Invulnerability
 Macho
 Resignation
 Get There It-us

Regaining SA
Reduce workload: Suspend the mission.
 Reduce threats:

• Get away from the ground and other obstacles
(e.g., climb to a safe altitude).
• Establish a stable flight profile where you can
safely analyze the situation.

Remember: “Aviate, Navigate, Communicate”
How do we get it back?
Trust your gut feelings
 “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.”

• Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable
configuration, and then discuss the problem

Sterile Cockpit
• Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety.
• Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying,
approach, landing
QUESTIONS?
Barriers to Communication

Hearing
• The biological function of receiving sounds, converting them to
electrical impulses, and having the brain interpret them

Listening
• Correctly identifying what the sender has sent in their message
Barriers to Communication

Distracters
• Physical/Mental: Noise, static, simultaneous
transmissions; fatigue and stress
• Wording: Incomplete or ambiguous message,
too complex or uses unfamiliar terminology
• Personal: Boring, lack of rapport or lack of
credibility
Task Saturation
Too much information at one time
 Too many tasks to accomplish in a
given time

Usually occurs when an individual is
confronted with a new or unexpected
situation and loses SA

Task Saturation
Keep your workload to an acceptable
level
 If you feel overwhelmed, tell the others
before becoming saturated and losing
you situational awareness
 Watch your team members for signs of
saturation

Identification of Resources

External and internal
Identify your resources, know where
to find them, and how to use them to
accomplish the mission

Assignment of Duties
CAPR 60-3
 Flight-related -- aircraft commander
 Mission-related -- mission commander

Crew Coordination
Understand and execute your
assignments
 Communicate
 Question

Summary
Pay close attention to all briefings
 Understand the “big picture”
 Watch for task overload in yourself and other
crewmembers
 67% of air transport accidents occur during
17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff,
departure, approach and landing. Keep
casual conversation and distractions to a
minimum during these phases of flight.
 Begin critical communications with
instructions, then explain

Summary







Successful missions hinge on each and every
crewmember
Learn how to use the procedures and tools available
to you, and use them correctly
Never stop learning
Don’t be afraid to ask questions
Never criticize someone for asking questions
Anyone can call “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is
Stupid”
Remember that the Mission Pilot must make the final
decision based on the crew’s input.
Questions?

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