Classroom-Based Intervention for Students with Emotional

Report
Classroom-Based Interventions for
Students with Emotional and
Behavioral Disorders
Joseph Wehby
Associate Professor
Special Education, Peabody College
Overview
Interaction patterns in classrooms
Child effects on adult teaching behaviors
Academic problems associated with
emotional/behavioral disorders
Recommend treatment of emotional/behavioral disorders
in classrooms
Classroom instruction for students
with EBD
Several descriptive studies on children with or at-risk for
EBD have shown that teacher behavior may occasion
and maintain some of the problem behaviors that are
characteristic of these children.
Descriptive Classrooms Studies of Children
with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Less than 2 praise statements per hour
More engaged students received more positive teacher
behaviors, less engaged students received more neglect and
coercion from teachers, and were treated with less
consistency
Twice a many negative statement to students with or at-risk
for EBD
Over sixty percent of “to do” statements are social in nature
High risk students received more reprimands, more behavior
requests, and few opportunities to respond academically
Students rated as aggressive are twice as likely to receive
reprimands following inappropriate classroom behavior
Compared to students with EBD, students without EBD are
treated less harshly when committing similar behavioral
offenses.
Child Effect on Adult Behavior
In effective schools literature, practices highlight the role
teacher plays in directing students.
This adult focus suggests that children play a passive
role in these interactions.
However, research has shown that children may actively
influence the behavior of adults.
An Emerging Model of Deprivation within
Classrooms
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders enter
school with poor self-control, inadequate social skills,
and above average levels of inappropriate behavior.
Current classroom interactions focus primarily on
behavior (not academics); however, this focus is typically
punitive and somewhat inconsistent.
When interactions occur, most often around nonacademic issues.
Instructional interactions the teachers do initiate often
involved less challenging tasks that typically elicited
lower levels of student problem behavior.
Correct academic responses by a student does not
occasion teacher praise above chance levels.
Curriculum of “non-instruction”.
This deprivation model suggest that a molar perspective
of the causes of classroom misbehavior should be
incorporated within the more tradition molecular focus by
looking at generalized patterns of teacher-student
interactions.
A molar perspective assumes the need for assessing the
relation between problem behaviors and events that may
be seemingly unrelated (at least on a temporal basis).
How do children who exhibit significant
behavior problems behavior respond when
more consistent and appropriate teacher
interactions occur?
Behavior Toward Peers During Class
0.6
0.5
0.4
Teacher Instruction On
0.3
Teacher Instruction Off
0.2
0.1
0
Negative Behavior
Negative Verbal
Social Talk
Academic Behaviors
0.6
0.5
0.4
Teacher Instruction On
0.3
Teacher Instruction Off
0.2
0.1
0
Compliance
Academic Questions
Instructional Talk
Hand-raises
Child Removal
It appears that one solution to
addressing the relationship between
school performance and students with
EBD is to change the nature of teacherstudent interaction patterns within
classrooms.
Instructional Interactions
Teaching Behaviors Targeted for Intervention
 Instructional Talk
 Opportunities to respond
 Feedback
 Contingent Praise
Opportunities to Respond
Studies indicate increased OTR leads to
 increased academic outcomes
 increased task engagement
 decreased inappropriate behavior
Teacher Praise
Studies indicate increased praise leads to
 increased academic outcomes
 increased task engagement
 decreased inappropriate behavior
It has been suggested that ratios of praise to
reprimands should range from 3:1 to 4:1
Descriptive research indicates ratios of praise to
reprimands of 1:2 to 1:4
Possible Solutions
Determine ways to help teachers monitor
their instructional behavior toward
students who engage in problem behavior.
Self-Evaluation
Prediction
Sharing of observed rates of praise.
Examples of effective praise.
Training
Goal setting.
Total Praise
2
Mean TP per min
Treatment
No Treatment
1.5
1
0.5
0
Pretreatment
Treatment
Time (phase)
Maintenance
Total OTR
2.5
Treatment
No Treatment
Mean TOTR per min
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Pretreatment
Treatment
Time (phase)
Maintenance
Students’ Correct Responses
2
Mean CR per min
Treatment
No Treatment
1.5
1
0.5
0
Pretreatment
Treatment
Time (phase)
Maintenance
Academic Characteristics of Students
with EBD
Relationship between behavioral problems and
academic underachievement has been well documented
in research literature
Prognosis for students who have both behavioral and
learning problems is extremely poor; they experience
school failure and drop out of school at much higher
rates than any other disability group
Ineffective Classrooms As a Cause of
Antisocial Behavior
Academic failure leads to little reinforcement for
students.
School begins to take on aversive properties.
Increase in negative behavior.
Students influence teacher instructional behavior
If this cycle continues, may lead to more delinquent acts
and school failure or dropout.
With increased academic standards, an increasing
number of children who are at-risk for academic
problems may show problem behavior.
Overemphasis on behavior control
Teacher reliance on ineffective strategies
Inadequate teacher preparation and
support
Lack of an effective on academic
instruction
Conclusions from Classroom Interactions
Research
It seems clear that children with
emotional/behavioral disorders actively influence
the behavior of adults in classrooms.
Yet, when appropriate adult instructional
patterns are observed, students seem to engage
in higher levels of engagement and lower levels
of inappropriate behavior.
An unanswered question is what levels of
support are needed to maintain ‘good teaching’
when working with students who display
emotional/behavioral disorders.
Keys to Effective Support
Early intervention is key, before behavioral and
academic deficits become too pronounced.
Target both child and adult behavior in order to promote
development and maintenance of new skills.
Emphasize the importance of addressing both academic
and social behaviors simultaneously.
Provide ongoing support for both teachers and students.
Increase the frequency of critical teaching behaviors like
praise and opportunities to respond.
Interventions should be comprehensive.
Vanderbilt Behavior Research Center
The purpose of the project is to focus on
assessing the impact of a classroom- and
teacher-focused intervention. More specifically,
using research sites across three states, random
assignment of participants, and multiple
behavioral and academic measures, we will
assess the impact of an empirically-valid
classroom management program supplemented
with teacher self-evaluation, a group
contingency reinforcement system, and
academic tutoring on the social and academic
performance of students identified as having
emotional and behavioral disorders.
Intervention Components
Classroom Organization and Management Program
(COMP)
Teacher Self-Monitoring
Good Behavior Game
3-5 hours of behavior consultant in classrooms each
week.
Reading tutoring 3 times per week
Vanderbilt Behavior Research
Center
Vanderbilt University
Virginia Commonwealth University
University of Minnesota
Participants
90 elementary and special education
classrooms.
217 elementary age students



67 1st graders
81 2nd graders
69 3rd graders
83 students identified as at-risk
134 students receiving special education
students for behavior problems (e.g. emotional
disturbance, learning disabilities, mild mental
retardation)
VBRC
Intervention is designed to last 12 months
Assessment will take place at 5 time
points plus a 1 year follow-up.
Data will include evaluation of intervention
for sample as a whole as well as special
education classrooms versus general
education classrooms.

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