ADHD and Early childhood

Incidence and Interventions
Interventions that Work for ADHD
ADHD Statistics
• 4.5 million children have been identified as ADHD (2006
data from CDC)
• 3%-7% of the school population
• boys (9.5%) are more likely than girls (5.9%) to have
been diagnosed with ADHD.
There is a huge difference between a 5 year old and a 6
year old in ability to attend to task. At the beginning of a
first grade year- there are children who are almost 7 and
children who are almost 6 depending on the cut-off for
Kindergarten in your state.
Research indicates grouping children by birthdays in
classes would be best.
Consider This
• Kindergarten cut-off date in Pittsburgh is September 1.
• Johnny’s birthday is September 24
• Kindergarten cut-off date in St. Louis is July 1.
• Kallie’s birthday is June 30
• They both start first grade at the same school in Bethel, PA after being
in their previous cities.
3 weeks
being 7
Just turned six
years old 3
weeks before
school started.
State Prevalence
Center for Disease Control-2003
I don’t have time to do all this…
What would you do with this kid?
What would you do with this kid?
…or these kids?
The Gift of ADHD by Lara Honos-Webb, Ph.D.
Functional Differences
• Power performance on timed tasks
• Slower reaction time
• Slower processing time
• Lower problem solving abilities
• Less fine motor control
• Less gross motor control
• Problems with inhibitions
Brain Structural Differences
• Smaller frontal lobe and right hemisphere is about 5%
smaller than students who do not demonstrate ADHD
Living with ADHD:
A Demonstration
• Follow along as a volunteer reads from the
• following screens and reports any challenges.
• The text is from a 6th grade-level source, with
• no foreign words.
• Credit: Emily Chase, Do you use hand sanitizer?,
• Advocate, Sun Journal, Lewiston, Maine, January 9, 2008
Part 1: Read the text
• Use of hand sanitizers has become
• increasingly popular in hospitals,
• schools, day care centers, and even on
• the gangways of ships. They work well
• when soap and water are not available,
• and are a quick way to disinfect one’s
• hands.
Let’s use a Likert Scale to rate of the
difficulty reading the previous passage.
Now….Part 2:
Read the text and do NOT
include italicized words
Part 2: Read the text and do NOT
include italicized words
Hand sanitizers often stop it you are bugging
me include among their ingredients 60% or
more what he she doing there of ethyl
alcohol, isopropanol, look at that, or ethanol,
or other similar compound
If a hand where’s my pencil sanitizer contains
less shoot – I dropped it - than 60% of one of
these ingredients, it this is stupid, I quit will
not be effective in killing germs.
Let’s use a Likert Scale to rate of the
difficulty reading the previous passage.
Now….Part 3:
Read the text and do NOT
include italicized words
Part 3: Read the text and do NOT
include italicized words
A study conducted conducted recently
demonstrated the effect of of using
hand sanitizers with less than 60%
alcohol content. Students had one
hand hand covered in sanitizer with
60+% alcohol 50%? and the other hand
with less than 60% alcohol. Then each
each hand was placed in a culture plate
with germs.
Let’s use a Likert Scale to rate of the
difficulty reading the previous passage.
Thanks go to our demonstrator!
Living with ADHD: Discussion of the
101 Strategies for Classroom
Management of ADHD (or maybe 30ish)
• Display classroom rules
Concise instructions for Academic
Break up activities
• Complex assignments into smaller parts.
3 Stars and Wish
Post a Daily Schedule and Stick to It
• Tape it on the child's desk.
• Have them mark of activities as they complete them.
Kinesthetic Activities
Connect visual and auditory
• Take an ordinary rubber ball and
a permanent marking pen.
Divide the ball into sections.
Write questions all over the ball.
The students toss the ball and
where their right thumb landsthat is the question they must
The child can “phone” a friend if
The student then chooses to toss
the ball to someone else.
Plan Academic Subjects for the Morning
Watch for fatigue
• Send on an errand if they look like they are straining.
• It is very hard work to read something three times and still
not know what you read.
• Be there figit monitor
Preferred Seating
• Sit N Fit Disc or Disc’o sit
• Stadium Seat Cushions
Small Group Setting
Two Desks
Permission to move with parameters
The Hula Hoop Strategy for Circle Time
Standing work Station
Quiet Work Area
Sending on an Errand
Begin Work Cues
Secret Off Task Signal
Student Reward System
Teacher chair earned with tokens
Teacher chair and desk earned with tokens
Earn reading table as a work space with
Provide an appropriate foot rest
Provide an appropriate foot rest
Make sure the custodian clamps the ends so
they can not come loose.
Rocker Breaks
Encourage Acceptable channels for
Motor Behavior (U.S. Department of
Education, 2004).
Koosh ball on a keychain
• Velcro on bottom side of desk to rub
• Bungee cord on desk legs to bounce with
Assign tutors
• Pair students who have patience and social skills to be
their academic partner.
Negative Consequences
• Use negative consequences only after a positive
reinforcement program has enough time to become
• Deliver negative consequences in a firm, business-like
way without emotion, lectures, or long-winded

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