Chapter 5: Invasion of Privacy This chapter deals with various ethical violations of privacy. Types of invasion of privacy: • • • • Intrusion on seclusion or solitude. Public disclosure of embarrassing private affairs. Publicity that places individuals in a false light. Appropriation of an individual’s name or likeness for commercial advantage. Chapter 5: Invasion of Privacy The ethics of privacy • Decency and basic fairness • Topic must have redeeming social value • The individual’s dignity must be maintained even with the disclosure Chapter 5 Cases • • • • Case 19: The Controversial Patriot Act Case 20: Privacy in Cyberspace Case 21: A Prostitute on Page 12 Case 22: Dead Body Photo Case 19: The Controversial Patriot Act • Facts– Empirical Definition • Values • Loyalties • Principles John Ashcroft and President Bush were staunch supporters of the USA PATRIOT Act. The USA PATRIOT Act was created to avoid tragedies like September 11. • Can the government tighten security without being so intrusive? • Does the PATRIOT Act violate American rights? In what ways? • Would you rather have your privacy or your safety? Case 19: Additional links USA PATRIOT Act – Read the entire act. Justice Department – A summary of what the USA PATRIOT Act means to law enforcement and the courts. Safe and Free – ACLU database of summaries, articles and analysis of the USA PATRIOT Act. Civil Right Violations – Instances when the USA PATRIOT Act did not work. Case 20: Privacy in Cyberspace • Facts– Empirical Definition • Values • Loyalties • Principles • How much about your past are you comfortable with being accessed? • What personal information should be available to the public? • Should private investigative services be regulated by law? Case 20: Additional links Private Detectives and Investigators – An official job description Privacy Times – Learn more about right to privacy versus freedom of information Investigative Resource Center – A starting point for online investigations Case 21: A Prostitute on Page 12 ? • Facts– Empirical Definition • Values • Loyalties • Principles In just this past decade, the media has sensationalized their coverage of the murders of Jonbenet Ramsey, Nichole Simpson, and the White House sex scandal. • Identify the golden mean of news value for a community and the privacy of those personally involved. • If one applied the agape principle, what would be considered morally appropriate behavior? • Why should victims of circumstance endure punishment through a sensational account? Case 21: Additional links Missoulian – Read the paper involved. Changing the Way Violence is Reported – Studies on the effects of sensationalized reporting on readers Junk Food News – An article about telling the truth without sensationalism. Public Service or Soap Opera? – A judge decides how many details of the Peterson murder case the public needs to know. Case 22: Dead Body Photo Scanned photo here • Facts– Empirical Definition • Values • Loyalties • Principles News photographs of people mourning over 9/11, a plane crash, and the Columbine shooting. • Are photos of dead bodies cautionary of morbid? • What is the decent level of publicity for a tragedy? • Should the victim and/or the victim’s family have the ultimate say? Case 22: Additional links Californian – Read the paper that ran the picture. Code of Ethics – The ASNE requirements for photojournalists Ethics in Photojournalism – One man was dismissed for improper editing of photos.