Checkpoint Answers

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Checkpoint Answers
Test 5
Chapter 16 Checkpoint 1
• 1. Which of the following is NOT a component of respiration?
A. gas exchange
B. oxygen utilization
*C. speech
D. ventilation
• 2. Type I alveolar cells secrete pulmonary surfactant. (T/F)
• 3. The conducting zone contains all of the following EXCEPT
A. the primary bronchi.
B. the larynx.
C. the terminal bronchioles.
*D. the respiratory bronchioles.
• 4. The parietal pleura covers the surface of the lungs. (T/F)
Checkpoint 2
• 1. Intrapleural pressure __________ during expiration.
*A. increases
B. decreases
C. remains unchanged
• 2. What law states that the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely
proportional to its volume? Boyle’s
• 3. Lung compliance increases as the amount of surfactant in the lung
increases. (T/F)
• 4. According to who's law, is the pressure in a small alveolus greater than a
large alveolus as long as the surface tension is equal?
A. Boyle's law
B. Dalton's law
*C. Laplace's law
D. Henry's law
• 5. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is a condition associated with
premature babies who lack _surfactant__.
Checkpoint 3
• 1. Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles expands the thoracic
cavity. (T/F)
•
2. Quiet inspiration will _increase_ thoracic and lung volume and
__decrease__ intrapulmonary pressure.
• 3. The volume of gas inspired or expired in a quiet respiration cycle is
the _tidal volume____.
• 4. The maximum amount of gas that can be inspired after a normal tidal
expiration is the inspiratory capacity. (T/F)
• 5. The total amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration is
the _total lung capacity____.
Checkpoint 4
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1. Who's law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum
of the pressures that each gas in the mixture would exert
independently? Dalton’s
2. The presence of water vapor in the air will reduce the partial pressure of
oxygen. (T/F)
3. Who's law states that the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is directly
proportional to the partial pressure of the gas? Henry’s
4. Normal arterial PO2 is __100mmHg__.
5. Normal alveolar PO2 is __105______.
6. Normal venous PCO2 is __46______.
7. Normal alveolar PCO2 is __40______.
8. Normal venous PO2 is __40______.
Checkpoint 5
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•
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1. Blood pH is indirectly proportional to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide
in the blood. (T/F)
2. Peripheral chemoreceptors that can detect changes in blood pH are located
in the _carotid bodies_____ and _aortic bodies___
3. Central chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata directly detect changes in
the pH of the _CSF___
•
4. Hyperventilation is stimulated by
A. increased activity of the apneustic center.
B. decreased contraction of the scalenes.
*C. hypercapnia
D. hypoxemia.
•
5. The primary drive to breathe is elicited by _increased PCO2__.
Checkpoint 6
• 1. The production of hemoglobin and red blood cells in bone marrow is
controlled by a hormone called thymopoietin. (T/F)
• 2. The form of hemoglobin with iron in a reduced state and bonded to
oxygen is
*A. oxyhemoglobin.
B. deoxyhemoglobin.
C. methemoglobin.
D. carboxyhemoglobin
• 3. The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is _increased__ as the partial
pressure of oxygen is raised.
• 4. Increasing arterial blood temperature decreases the affinity of
hemoglobin for oxygen. (T/F)
• 5. In anemia, 2,3-DPG is _increased__ and oxygen affinity is
_decreased__.
Checkpoint 7
• 1. Inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes would cause a decrease in
the pH of arterial blood. (T/F)
• 2. The majority of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
as _bicarbonate ion___.
• 3. Respiratory acidosis results from hyperventilation. (T/F)
• 4. The metabolic regulation of blood pH occurs in
A. the lungs.
B. the liver.
*C. the kidneys.
D. all organs.
• 5. Respiratory acidosis would be compensated by increased retention of
bicarbonate ions in the kidneys. (T/F)
Checkpoint 8
• 1. During exercise, arterial carbon dioxide is normally
increased. (T/F)
• 2. The immediate increase in ventilation as exercise
begins can be explained through both neurogenic and
humoral responses. (T/F)
• 3. Acclimatization to high altitude results in __________
2,3-DPG in erythrocytes.
*A. increased
B. decreased C. no change in
Chapter 18 Checkpoint 1
• 1. The gastrointestinal tract generates monomers from polymers by
condensation. (T/F)
• 2. Wavelike muscular contraction of the gastrointestinal tract is
called _peristalsis___.
• 3. The movement of digested food into the blood or lymph is called
_absorption___.
• 4. Place the tunics of the GI tract wall in the correct order from superficial
to deep.
A. submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis
B. mucosa, muscularis, submucosa, serosa
C. serosa, submucosa, mucosa, muscularis
*D. serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa
• 5. The intrinsic regulation of the GI tract is conferred by the autonomic
nervous system. (T/F)
Checkpoint 2
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1. The initial phase of deglutition is a voluntary process. (T/F)
•
2. Chewing of food is called _mastication____.
•
3. Inhibiting the actions of the parietal cells would stimulate protein
digestion. (T/F)
•
4. The _ECL cells__ of the stomach and intestine secrete histamine and
serotonin.
•
5. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium associated with
*A. peptic ulcers.
B. hiatal hernia.
C. acid reflux.
D. pancreatitis.
Checkpoint 3
• 1. The brush border is a term used to describe the mucosa of the small
intestine. (T/F)
• 2. Protein digestion would decrease if lactase were not present on the
brush border. (T/F)
• 3. The mixing movement of the small intestine is called _segmentation__.
• 4. The primary function of the large intestine is
*A. water and electrolyte reabsorption.
B. mineral absorption.
C. hormone degradation.
D. degrading toxins.
• 5. The intestinal microbiota have a mutualistic relationship with
humans. (T/F)
• 6. Normal levels of intestinal microbiota help protect us from pathogenic
bacteria. (T/F)
Checkpoint 4
• 1. Bile is produced by the gallbladder. (T/F)
• 2. Blood from the digestive organs enters general circulation and
eventually reaches the liver for processing.(T/F)
• 3. The enterohepatic circulation is between the _liver_ and
_intestines_.
• 4. Bile is derived from cholesterol. (T/F)
• 5. Zymogens are inactive forms of _pancreatic_ enzymes.
Checkpoint 5
• 1. The first of the three phases of extrinsic control of gastric function is the
gastric phase. (T/F)
• 2. The major stimulus for the secretion of HCl during the cephalic phase of
gastric regulation is
A. the smell of food.
B. vagal stimulation of chief cells.
*C. release of histamine by ECL cells.
D. vagal stimulation of parietal cells.
• 3. The arrival of chyme into the duodenum begins the __intestinal__
phase of stomach function.
• 4. Enterogasterone will _inhibit__ gastric function.
• 5. Secretin stimulates chief cells to secrete pepsinogen. (T/F)
Checkpoint 6
• 1. Digestion of starch starts in the stomach. (T/F)
• 2. Carbohydrate digestion occurs in the _mouth_ and _duodenum__.
• 3. Protein digestion begins in the stomach, but most protein digestion
occurs in the _duodenum__ and _jejunum__.
• 4. Fats are digested into fatty acids and glycerol.(T/F)
• 5. Low-density lipoproteins functions to remove and degrade
cholesterol. (T/F)
• 6. Protection against atherosclerosis is believed to be associated with an
*A. elevated HDL-cholesterol.
B. elevated LDL-cholesterol.
C. elevated total cholesterol.
D. elevated VLDL-cholesterol.
Chapter 17 Checkpoint 1
• 1. The main function of the kidneys is the regulation of the intracellular
fluid. F
• 2. What structures carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary
bladder? ureters
• 3. What structure carries urine from the bladder to the outside? urethra
• 4. Damage to which of the following neurons would impair micturition?
A. parasympathetic neurons
B. sympathetic neurons
C. pudendal somatic motor neurons
*D. All of the choices are correct.
• 5. Which of the following is the correct order of the nephron tubule
structures?
A. distal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, proximal convoluted tubule,
Bowman's capsule
B. proximal convoluted tubule, Bowman's capsule, distal convoluted
tubule, loop of Henle
*C. Bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal
convoluted tubule
D. loop of Henle, Bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, distal
convoluted tubule
Checkpoint 2
• 1. Which of the following is NOT a potential filtration barrier in the
glomerular capsule?
A. glomerular basement membrane
B. capillary fenestrae
*C. parietal layer of the capsule
D. slit diaphragm
• 2. What is the net filtration pressure of the glomerular capillaries?
A. 10 mm Hg inward
B. 15 mm Hg outward
C. 15 mm Hg inward
*D. 10 mm Hg outward
• 3. The average glomerular filtration rate is _180 L/day__.
• 4. The ability of the kidneys to maintain a relatively constant GFR despite
fluctuating blood pressures is called _autoregulation__.
• 5. Hypotension would induce __________ of afferent arterioles.
A. constriction
*B. dilation
C. no change
Checkpoint 3
• 1. The minimum urine volume needed to excrete metabolic wastes
produced by the body is called the _obligatory water loss_.
• 2. The return of molecules from the tubules to the blood is
called _reabsorption_.
• 3. The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs approximately 65% of
water and ions salt entering it. (T/F)
• 4. As the tubular filtrate moves through the descending limb of the
loop of Henle, the osmolality of the filtrate increases. (T/F)
• 5. The __ascending__ limb of the loop of Henle is
impermeable to water.
• 6. The _descending__ limb of the loop of Henle is
impermeable to salt.
Checkpoint 4
• 1. The movement of molecules and ions from the peritubular
capillaries into interstitial fluid and then into the nephron tubule is
called _secretion__.
• 2. The ability of the kidneys to remove molecules from the blood
plasma by excreting them in the urine is known as
A. glomerular filtration.
*B. renal clearance.
C. micturition.
D. reabsorption.
• 3. Renal clearance is decreased by reabsorption and increased
by secretion. (T/F)
• 4. Inulin clearance is equal to the glomerular filtration
rate. (T/F)
• 5. The renal plasma clearance of a substance that is filtered
and secreted is _greater than_ the GFR.
Checkpoint 5
• 1. Inhibition of _aldosterone__ secretion from the adrenal cortex
stimulates hyperkalemia.
• 2. Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus respond to decreased
blood volume and increased sympathetic nerve activity by
secreting _renin__.
• 3. The presence of renin secreting tumors may cause
A. hypertension.
B. increased aldosterone secretion.
C. increased renal sodium reabsorption.
*D. All of the choices are correct.
• 4. Aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by a(n)
_decrease_ in blood Na+ or a(n) _increase_ in blood K+.
• 5. Bicarbonate must be converted to _carbon dioxide_ to move into tubule
cells to reduce blood pH.
Checkpoint 6
• 1. Hypertension and edema are often treated with diuretics. (T/F)
• 2. Loop diuretics such as Lasix
A. inhibit the actions of ADH.
B. add extra solutes to the filtrate.
*C. inhibit active transport of salt out of the ascending loop of Henle limb.
D. inhibit salt transport in the first section of the distal tubule.
• 3. Glomerulonephritis may result from destruction of the glomerular
capillary basement membrane. (T/F)
• 4. Renal insufficiency
A. stimulates metabolic alkalosis.
B. often results from dialysis.
*C. may occur as a result of arteriosclerosis.
D. stimulates hypokalemia.
Chapter 20 Checkpoint 1
• 1. Sertoli cells are stimulated by _FSH__, while Leydig cells are
stimulated by __LH__.
• 2. The Leydig cells of the testes constitute a blood-testis barrier that
prevents autoimmune destruction of the sperm. (T/F)
• 3. Sperm are stored and matured in the _epididymus_.
• 4. Emission and ejaculation are under parasympathetic nerve
control. (T/F)
Checkpoint 2
• 1. The corpus luteum secretes both estradiol and progesterone. (T/F)
• 2. What is it called when a mature follicle ruptures and ejects the oocyte
toward the uterine tube? __ovulation___
• 3. What hormone triggers ovulation? LH
• 4. The ___________ phase of the endometrium is supported when the
ovary is in the luteal phase.
A. proliferative
*B. secretory
C. menstrual
D. ovulatory
• 5. Pheromones are responsible for the dormitory effect of synchronized
menstrual cycles of females living together. (T/F)

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