Civil Liberties

Report
Chapter Five
Civil Liberties
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Chapter Objectives
1.
Discuss the relationship of the Bill of Rights to the concept of majority
rule, and give examples of tension between majority rule and minority
rights.
2.
Explain how the civil liberties may at times be a matter of majoritarian
politics and offer several examples.
3.
Explain how the structure of the federal system affects the application of
the Bill of Rights.
4.
Describe how the Supreme Court has used the Fourteenth Amendment to
expand coverage in the federal system. Discuss changing conceptions of
the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
5.
List the categories under which the Supreme Court may classify “speech.”
Explain the distinction between “protected” and “unprotected” speech and
name the various forms of expression that are not protected under the First
Amendment. Describe the test used by the Court to decide the
circumstances under which freedom of expression may be qualified.
6.
State what the Supreme Court decided in Miranda v. Arizona, and explain
why that case illustrates how the Court operates in most such due process
cases.
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The Politics of Civil Liberties
• Civil liberties: protections the Constitution
provides against the abuse of government
power
• The Framers believed that the Constitution
limited government
• State ratifying constitutions demanded the
addition of the Bill of Rights
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Culture and Civil Liberties
• The Constitution and Bill of Rights contain
a list of competing rights and duties
• War has been the crisis that has most often
restricted the liberty of some minority group
• Conflicts about the meaning of some
constitutionally protected freedoms
surround the immigration of “new” ethnic,
cultural, and/or religious groups
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Figure 5.1: Annual immigration, 1840-1996
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1998, 10.
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The Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
• Due Process Clause: “no state shall
deprive any person of life, liberty or
property without due process of law”
• Equal Protection Clause: “no state shall
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the
equal protection of the laws”
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Theme A: First Amendment Rights
Supreme Court Cases
• 1897: no state can take private property without
just compensation
• 1925 (Gitlow): federal guarantees of free speech
and free press also apply to states
• 1937 (Palko v. Connecticut): certain rights must
apply to the states because they are essential to
“ordered liberty” and they are “principles of
justice”
• These cases begin the process of “selective
incorporation”
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Libel
• Libel: a written false statement defaming
another
• Slander: a defamatory oral statement
• Public figures must also show the words
were written with “actual malice”—with
reckless disregard for the truth or with
knowledge that the words were false
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Obscenity
• 1973 definition: judged by “the average person,
applying contemporary community standards” to
appeal to the “prurient interest” or to depict “in a
patently offensive way, sexual conduct
specifically defined by applicable state law” and
lacking “serious literary, artistic, political, or
scientific value”
• Balancing competing claims remains a problem:
freedom v. decency
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Symbolic Speech
• Cannot claim protection for an otherwise
illegal act on the grounds that it conveys a
political message (example: burning a draft
card)
• However, statutes cannot make certain
types of symbolic speech illegal: e.g., flag
burning is protected speech
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The Free Exercise Clause
• Insures that no law may impose particular
burdens on religious institutions
• But there are no religious exemptions from
laws binding all other citizens, even if that
law oppresses your religious beliefs
• Some conflicts between religious freedom
and public policy continue to be difficult to
settle.
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The Establishment Clause
• Government involvement in religious
activities is constitutional if it meets the
following tests:
– Secular purpose
– Primary effect neither advances nor inhibits
religion
– No excessive government entanglement with
religion
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Discussion Questions for Theme A
1.
Another area of speech not given automatic constitutional protection is
“fighting words”: words that would provoke a reasonable person to fight.
Should fighting words be protected as a form of speech? What if the words
are true? Should the First Amendment permit the punishment of truth?
2.
What is the Supreme Court’s current definition of obscenity? Is this
definition clear? Could it guide a publisher who wished to publish a certain
book but who wondered whether it was obscene?
3.
Should the definition of obscenity be broadened? Several studies have
found that those who commit sexual violence are likely to be consumers of
pornography and this has caused a number of lawyers to argue that the
protection of pornography is a violation of women’s civil rights. What is
your thinking on the connections between obscenity, pornography, and
sexual violence? Is this issue properly understood as a matter of the
viewer’s civil liberties or the victim’s civil rights? What is the reasoning
that supports your conclusion?
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4.
What regulations should be imposed on the Internet? In Reno v. American Civil
Liberties Union (117 S.Ct. 2329 [1997]), the Supreme Court ruled that the
Communications Decency Act of 1996 (CDA) was insufficiently precise in its
restrictions. The CDA had prohibited the “knowing transmission of obscene or
indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age” and the “knowing
sending or displaying of patently offensive messages in a manner that is available
to a person under 18 years of age.” The Court ruled that the CDA thereby
“effectively suppresses a large amount of speech that adults have a constitutional
right to receive and to address to one another.” In reaching this conclusion, the
Court commented on the technological resources available to regulate Internet
communications and the extent of the Internet audience. For example, the Court
noted, a chat room might have hundreds of individuals who were participants of
which two were minors, with the result that all communications would be subject
to the CDA prohibitions. As another example, the Court observed that parents
transmitting birth control information by e-mail to their own child could violate
someone’s standard of decency, even though their family and community would
consider the communication entirely appropriate. Given these considerations of
audience and technology, is any regulation of Internet communication
constitutional?
5.
The free exercise clause protects religious behavior. But what is a valid religion?
How can courts distinguish fraudulent religious claims from legitimate ones?
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THEME B: SEARCH AND SEIZURE
Exclusionary Rule
• Exclusionary rule: evidence gathered in
violation of the Constitution cannot be used in a
trial
• Stems from the Fourth Amendment (freedom
from unreasonable searches and seizures) and
the Fifth Amendment (protection against self
incrimination)
• Mapp v. Ohio (1961): Supreme Court began to
use the exclusionary rule to enforce a variety of
constitutional guarantees
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Search and Seizure
• With a properly obtained search warrant: an order
from a judge authorizing the search of a place
and describing what is to be searched and
seized; judge can issue only if there is probable
cause
• What can the police search, incident to a lawful
arrest?
– The individual being arrested
– Things in plain view
– Things or places under the immediate control of the
individual
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Confessions and Self Incrimination
• Miranda case: confessions are presumed
to be involuntary unless the suspect is fully
informed of his or her rights
• Courts began allowing some exceptions to
the rule
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Discussion Questions for Theme B
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Terrorism and Civil Liberties
• U.S. Patriot Act meant to increase federal
government’s powers to combat terrorism
• An executive order then proclaimed a
national emergency; non-citizens believed
to be terrorists, or to have harbored a
terrorist, will be tried by a military court
• Many controversial provisions of the Patriot
Act automatically expire in 2005
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