Integrated Chinese 那 张 nà/nèi zhāng 照片 的 zhàopiàn de 这 爸爸 妈妈 个 这个 男 孩子 男孩子 女 女孩子 zhè/zhèi bàba māma gè, -ge zhège nán háizi nánháizi nǚ nǚháizi Lesson Two Family 第二课 家庭 pronoun that measure word a measure word for flat objects; a surname noun picture; photo particle a possessive, modifying, or descriptive particle pronoun this noun father; dad noun mother; mom measure word a common measure word pronoun this adj. male noun child noun boy adj. female noun girl 谁 他 shéi tā qpr pronoun 她 儿子 女儿 弟弟 妹妹 大哥 有 没(有) tā érzi nǚér dìdi mèimei dàgē yŏu méi (yŏu) pronoun noun noun noun noun noun verb adv. who he; him or when the sex of the person is unknown. she son daughter younger brother younger sister oldest brother to have; to exist not (have) 高 小高 gāo Xiăo Gāo adj. proper noun tall; a surname Little Gao Text 课文 小高，那是你的照片吗？ Little Gao, is that picture yours? 是。这是我爸爸，这是我妈妈。 Yes. This is my dad. This is my mom. 这个男孩子是谁？ Who is this boy? 他是我弟弟。 This is my younger brother. 这个女孩子是你妹妹吗？ Is this girl your younger sister? 不是，她是我大哥的女儿。 No, she’s oldest brother’s daughter. 你大哥有儿子吗？ Does oldest brother have any sons? 他没有儿子。 He has no sons. 家 几 jiā jǐ 口 kŏu 哥哥 两 和 大姐 二姐 做 gēge liăng hé dàjiě èrjiě zuò noun question word Measure word noun nu conj. noun noun verb family; home how many measure word for number of family members older brother two; a couple of and oldest sister second oldest sister to do 工作 gōngzuò noun/verb job; to work 英文 yīngwén noun 律师 都 大学 lǜshī duō dàxué noun adv. noun the English language lawyer both; all university; college 大学生 dàxuéshēng noun college student 医生 yīshēng noun doctor; physician 小张 Xiăo Zhāng proper noun Little Zhang 小张，你家有几口人？ Little Zhang, how many people are there in your family? 我家有六口人。我爸爸、我妈妈、一个 哥哥、两个妹妹和我。李小姐，你家有 几口人？ There are six people in my family: my dada, my mom, an older brother, two younger sisters and I. How many people are there in your family, Miss Li? 我家有五口人。爸爸、妈妈、大姐、二 姐和我。你爸爸妈妈 做什么工作？ There are five people in my family: my dad, my mom, my two younger sisters and I. What do your dada and mom do? 我妈妈是英文老师，爸爸是律师，哥哥、 My mom is an English teacher. My dad is 妹妹都是大学生。 lawyer. My older brother and sisters are all college students. 我妈妈也是老师，我爸爸是医生。 My mom is also a teacher. My dad is a doctor. Grammar 语法/文法 1. Measure words In Chinese a measure word is inserted between the number and the noun. There are several hundred measure words in Chinese, but you may hear only two or three dozen in everyday speech. Many nouns associated with special measure words, which often bear a relationship to the meaning of the given noun. However, the general measure 个can sometimes be substituted for the special measure. 个 is the single most commonly used measure word in Chinese. It is also sometimes used as a substitute for other measure words. e.g. 一个人；一个老师；一个大学生 张is the measure word for objects with flat surfaces e.g. 一张照片 ( a photo)；一张纸 (a piece of paper)；一张床 （a bed）； 一张桌子 (a table)；一张椅子 ( a chair) 2. Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronouns include 谁，什么，哪，哪儿，几, etc. In a question with an interrogative pronoun, the word order is exactly as same as that in a noninterrogative statement. Therefore, when learning to compose a question in Chinese, we can start with a statement and then replace the part of the statement that is in question with the appropriate interrogative pronoun. e.g. 她是李友。 one can replace 她with 谁 One can also replace 李友with她. Examples with 什么 e.g. 她是谁? 我妈妈是医生。 你妈妈 做什么工作？ Examples with 有 e.g. 谁是李友？ 王朋有妹妹。 谁有妹妹？ 我有三个姐姐。 你有几个姐姐？ 3. (A) 有 in the sense of “to have “ or “to possess” 有 is always negated with 没. Examples: 王先生有一个弟弟。 王先生没有弟弟。 我有两张照片。 我没有照片。 (B) 有 in the sense of “to exist” Examples: 我家有五个人。 小张家有两个大学生。 4. The usage of 二and 两 二and 两 both mean “two”, but they differ in usage. 两 is used in front of common measure words to express a quantity, e. g. 两个人. In counting, one uses “二”, e. g. 二， 二十二，一百二十五。 5. 都 (both , all) The word都 indicates inclusiveness. As it always occurs in front of a verb, it is classified as an adverb. However, because it refers to something that has been mentioned earlier in the sentence, or in a preceding sentence, it also has a pronoun-like flavor and it must be used at the end of an enumeration. Examples: 王朋、高生和李友都是律师。 王朋和李友都不是老师。 王朋和李友都有弟弟。 高生和张中都没有妹妹。 ***没 is always used to negate 有. However, to say “not all of … have,” we say in Chinese “不都有” rather than “没都有”. Whether the negation word precedes or follows the word 都 makes the difference between partial negation and complete negation. Examples: 他们不都是美国人。(Not all of them are American.) 他们都不是美国人。(None of them are American.) 他们不都有弟弟。 (Not all of them have younger brothers.) 他们都没有弟弟。(None of them have younger brothers.) Culture Notes 1. A familiar and affectionate way of addressing a younger is to add 小to the surname, e. g., 小王，小李；小高, etc. Similarly, to address an older peer, 老 can be used with the surname, e.g., 老王，老李，老高, etc. However, such terms are rarely used to address a relative or a superior. 2. The particle 的, as an indicator of a possessive relationship, always follows the “possessor” and proceeds the “possessed.” To that extent, it is equivalent to the “apostrophe + s” structure in English. 3. In China and Taiwan the school system is similar to that in the United States. A typical education consists of six years of elementary school (小学), six years of middle school (中学), and four years of university (大学) or college (学院). Middle school is further divided into junior high (初中, grades 7 -9) and senior high (高中, grades 10-12). A college student is called 大学生in Chinese, can you guess the words for elementary school students, junior high school students, a senior high students, and middle school students. 4. In Chinese， 家can refer to one’s family as well as one’s home. So, one can point to her family picture and say “我家有四个人”(There are four people in my family) and one can also point to her house and say “这是我的家”(This is my home.) 5. For the number of people in a family, another measure word口 is also used. The original tone for measure word 个 is the 4th tone. However, in actual speech it is always pronounced as neutral tone word. 6. The possessive particle 的is usually omitted after a personal pronoun and before a kinship term. Therefore, we say”王朋的妈妈” (Wang Peng’s mother) with 的 but “ 我妈妈” without 的. 7. Although considered a conjunction and translated as “and”, 和 cannot link two clauses or two sentences as “and’ can in English. We say: “我爸爸是老师, 我妈妈 是医生”. We don’t say: ＂我爸爸是老师, 和我妈妈是医生＂． 8. The pause mark, or “series comma,””、” is often used to link two, three or even more parallel words or phrases, e. g., 爸爸、妈妈、两个妹妹和我. 9. “？？？是做什么的” is often used to ask for a person’s occupation. 10. In Chinese it is customary to mention the male before the female. Therefore, we say 爸爸、妈妈、哥哥、姐姐、弟弟、妹妹 instead of 妈妈、爸爸、姐姐、 哥哥、妹妹、弟弟. 11.Siblings are 兄弟姐妹。 你有兄弟姐妹吗？is the way to ask, “Do you have any siblings?”. Oldest siblings are called 大哥and 大姐；the youngest are 小弟 and 小妹. The rest are ranked according to their birth order using numerals, e.g. 二姐 (second oldest sister)，三弟(third oldest younger brother). Younger siblings generally do not refer to their older brothers and sisters by their names but use the appropriate kinship terms instead. 12. The numeral "一" is pronounced with the 1st when it stands alone or comes at the end of a word or sentence. Otherwise, its pronunciation changes according to the following rules; (a) "一" before a 4th tone syllable become 2nd tone. "一" before a syllable in any tone other than the 4th tone becomes 4th tone. Lesson Two Grammatical notes A. Rewrite the following sentences using 都 Example: 小高是学生，王朋也是学生。 → 小高、王朋 都是学生。 1. 小高有姐姐，小张也有姐姐。 2. 王朋是学生，李友也是学生。 3. 这张照片是你的，那张照片也是你的。 4. 这个人姓李，那个人也姓李。 5. 李友没有我的照片，王朋也没有我的照片。 6. 他哥哥不是律师，他弟弟也不是律师。 7. 王朋有哥哥，小高有哥哥，李友有哥哥。 8. 我爸爸是医生，我妈妈是医生，我哥哥是律师。 B. Translate the following sentences into Chinese, using the words or phrases in parentheses. 1. Mr. Zhang has three daughters. 2. A: Is he your older brother? B: No, he’s my father. ( 不是 ) 3. A: How many older sisters do you have? ( 有,几 ) B: I have two older sisters. 4. A: How many people are there in your family? ( 有,几 ) B: There are six people in my family: my dad, my mom, two older brothers, a younger sister and I. ( 有) 5. A: What do your older brothers and older sisters do? ( 什么) B: My older brothers and older sisters are all students. 6. A: My mom is a lawyer. My dad is a doctor. How about your mom and dad? ( 呢) B: My mom is a lawyer, too. My dad is a teacher. ( 也) Reading Comprehension 阅读选择(2)： A. Rearrange the following boxes to form a dialogue. Write the number before each sentence to show the correct order: 1. A: 你好！ 2. B: 我不是学生，你呢？ 3. A: 你是学生吗？ 4. B: 他也是学生吗？ 5. A: 不是，他是老师。 6. B: 你好！ 7. A: 我是学生。 B. Match the utterances on the left column with the appropriate responses on right column. Write down the letter in the parentheses. ( ( ( ( ( ) 1. 这个人是谁？ ) 2. 这张照片是谁的？ ) 3. 你妹妹是学生吗？ ) 4. 李先生有女儿吗？ ) 5. 你有弟弟吗？ A. B. C. D. E. 是我的。 这是我爸爸。 他有儿子，没有女儿。 我没有弟弟。 他是学生！ C. Read the following dialogue and answer the questions. (Li You is nearsighted) 王朋：李友，这张照片是你的吗？ 李友：是。这是我爸爸，这是我妈妈。 王朋：这个女孩是谁？ 李友：是我 … (looking at the picture again more carefully) 不是，不是，这不是我。 王朋 ：她是你妹妹吗？ 李友： 也不是。 她是高小姐。这是高小姐的照片，不是我的。 Questions (Multiple choice): ( ) 1. Which of the following is correct? a. Li you was looking at someone else’s photo but mistook it for her own. b. Li You was looking at her own photo but mistook it for someone else’s. c. Li You was looking at her sister’s photo but mistook it for her own. d. Li You was looking at her own photo but mistook it for her sister’s. ( ( ) 2. The girl in the picture turns out to be: a. Li You’s younger sister. c. Miss Gao. ) 3. Miss Gao must be someone: a. Li You know. b. Wang Peng knows. c. Li You and Wang Peng both know. d. neither Li You nor Wang Peng know. b. Wang Peng’s younger sister. d. Li You’s older sister.