Chapter V - History of Law Enforcement

Report
Chapter 5
Policing:
History and
Structure
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English Policing
• American policing is
based on English roots.
• English law enforcement
began with “hue and
cry.”
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England
• Alfred the Great’s
system
• 9th-10th Century
• mutual pledge
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England
• mutual pledge system
• tithing - group of ten (10)
families
• tithing man - leader or
chief of tithing
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England
Hundred = ten tithings
= one hundred families
chief constable head of the
hundred
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England
Constable:
• considered the
first real police
officer
• appointed by local nobleman
• in charge of weapons for
the hundred
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Shire
• A geographic area equivalent to our
county.
• Hundreds were grouped into Shires.
• England was divided into 52 Shires.
• Shire-Reeve was the antecedent of
modern day sheriff.
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England
1272-1307
• set up curfew and
night watch program
• bailiffs - night watchmen
to enforce curfew
• watch and ward
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Watch and Ward
• The name given to first
night watch in cities and
towns.
• They operated from sundown to
sunrise.
• They protected property against fire.
• They guarded the gates of city.
• They arrested those who committed
offenses.
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Statute of Winchester-1285
• It created the watch and ward in
cities and towns.
• It drafted eligible males to
serve.
• It institutionalized the
“hue and cry.”
• Citizens had to maintain weapons
in order to answer the call to
arms.
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England - 1750
• The Industrial Revolution
brought many new people to
the big cities.
• Crime increased in cities and
highways leading to cities.
• Civilian associations cropped up
and began creating their own
private police forces.
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Bow Street Runners
• established 1750
• patrolled streets and highways
leading to London
• Sir Henry Fielding - one of
the founders
• first real detective unit
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London Metropolitan Police
• 1829 - Parliament passed bill
- creates London police
• Sir Robert Peel - Home
Secretary
• 1,000 officers called bobbies
• uniformed
• structured along military
lines
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American Law Enforcement
• Colonists brought systems from
Europe when they emigrated to
colonies.
• The shire-reeve was responsible for
law enforcement in the counties.
• The constable was responsible for
law enforcement in towns.
• Before the Revolution, both were
appointed by Crown.
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American Frontier
• vast and wild until
late 19th century
• natural haven for
outlaws and
bandits
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• citizen posses and
vigilantes - the
law
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Policing America’s Cities
• 1636 - Boston
• New York - known
as Rattle Watch
because of rattles
they carried and
shook while they
patrolled
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Policing America’s Cities
• 1658 - paid watchmen
in New York
• 1693 - first uniformed
police officer
• 1731 - first precinct
station in New York
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Policing America’s Cities
• 1833 - Philadelphia is the first to
initiate a police force.
• 1844 - New York is the first to
establish a unified day/night
police force.
• 1865 - Massachusetts creates the
first state police force.
• 1866 - Detroit creates first
detective unit.
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American Policing
1920-1933
This was the Era of
Prohibition and
widespread corruption
of police.
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American Policing
1960’s-1970’s
Civil rights movement
and anti-Vietnam war
demonstrations
impacted on police
operations and
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American Policing
1967 - LEAA was formed to
assist police departments in
acquiring the latest in
technology and adopt new
enforcement
methods.
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American Policing
• LEAA - funded many
police research projects
• Kansas City Preventive
Patrol Experiment
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American Policing
Three Levels ( jurisdictions)
• federal
• state
• local
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Federal Law Enforcement
1789
• first federal law enforcement
agency - Revenue Cutter
Service
• patrolled shores of U.S. to
prevent smuggling and to ensure
collection of revenue
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Federal Law Enforcement
21 separate federal
law enforcement
agencies in eight
government agencies
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Other Federal Agencies
• 1789 - U.S. Marshals
• 1862 - Internal Revenue Service
• 1865 - Secret Service
• 1891 - Immigration and Naturalization
• 1908 - Bureau of Investigation - later
to be renamed F.B.I. in 1930
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Other Federal Agencies
1914
The Bureau of Narcotics &
Dangerous Drugs combined with
other agencies and was renamed
Drug Enforcement Administration
in 1973.
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Federal Law Enforcement
Agencies
Department of the Treasury
1. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and
Firearms
2. Internal Revenue Service
3. U.S. Custom Service
4. U.S. Secret Service
5. Federal Law Enforcement Training
Center
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Federal Law
Enforcement Agencies
Department of Justice
1. Bureau of Prisons
2. Drug Enforcement Administration
3. Federal Bureau of Investigation
4. U.S. Marshals Service
5. Immigration and Naturalization
Service
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Federal Law
Enforcement Agencies
Department of Interior
1.Fish and Wildlife Service
2.National Park Service
3.U.S. Park Police
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Federal Law
Enforcement Agencies
Department of Defense
• Criminal Investigation Division
• Office of Special
Investigations
• Naval Investigative
Service
• Defense Criminal Investigator
Service
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Federal Law
Enforcement Agencies
Department of Transportation
U.S. Coast Guard
General Services Administration
Federal Protective Services
U.S. Postal Service
Postal Inspections Service
Washington, D.C.
Metropolitan Police Department
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Federal Bureau of
Investigation
• 1924 - J. Edgar Hoover is
appointed Director.
• 1924 - Identification Division is
created to collect fingerprint
files.
• 1930 - F.B.I. begins collecting
data for Uniformed Crime
Report publication.
• 1932 - Crime laboratory is
established.
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State Law Enforcement
1835 Texas Rangers:
• They are believed to be the first
state police force.
• Military unit is responsible for
border patrol.
• They apprehend Mexican cattle
rustlers.
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State Law Enforcement
Two Models:
• centralized model
• decentralized model
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Local Agencies-Municipal
•
•
•
•
approx. 13,580 different departments
approx. 420,000 sworn police officers
approx. 100,000 civilian employees
largest - New York - approx. 36,813
police officers
• smallest – 3,409 departments with 1
sworn police officer or only parttime officers
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Local Agencies-County
•
•
•
•
approx. 3,100 sheriff departments
approx. 155,000 full-time officers
approx. 89,000 civilian employees
largest - Los Angeles Sheriff’s
Dept. with approx. 2,110 sworn
officers and 4,880 civilian
employees
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State Law Enforcement
• 49 state police departments
• approx. 52,000 full-time state
police officers
• approx. 26,000 civilian
employees
• major role - control traffic on
highway system
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Private Protective Services
• Nearly 2,000,000 people are
estimated to be working in
private security today.
• Types of private security services:
• company guards
• airport security
• bank guards
• executive protection
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Private Protective Services
Those self-employed
individuals and
privately funded
business entities
and organizations
providing securityrelated services to
specific clientele for a fee…
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Private Protective Services
… for the individual or entity
that retains or employs
them, or for themselves, in
order to protect their
persons, private property, or
interests from various
hazards.
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Private Protective Services
Types of Private Security Services:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
store/mall security
school security
nuclear facility security
hospital security
automated teller machine services
railroad detectives
loss prevention specialists
computer/information security
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Private Protective Services
• Security Bureau, Inc.
• Wackenhut Corp.
• Guardsmark, Inc.
• American Protective Services
• Globe Security
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Private Protective Services
• Wells Fargo Guard Services
• Advance Security, Inc.
• Pinkerton’s, Inc.
• Allied Security, Inc.
• Burns International Security
Services
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