Career Counseling - Higher Education | Pearson

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Career Counseling
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Career Behavior: Theory
Frank Parsons
• Is generally considered the “father of guidance.”
• His tripartite model is considered to be the forerunner of
modern theories of career development.
• His model suggests a person should, (1) understand one’s self,
(2) understand job requirements, (3) choose a career that is
based upon knowledge and logic.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Why Do We Need to Know About Theories?
• Theories guide us in what we do with clients.
• Theories help explain human behavior.
• They help account for all the external and internal factors that
influence people.
• Theories help us hypothesize about a client’s future behavior.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Types of Theories
• Trait and Factor
• Developmental
• Learning
Based on modernist or
positivist philosophical
thinking (Believes in cause
and effect)
• Socioeconomic
Social-Cognitive
Based on postmodern or
constructionist philosophical
thinking (Does not believe in
cause and effect).
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Career Behavior: Theory
Types of Theories
– Trait and Factor Theories: Stress the individual’s need to develop
his or her “traits, (interests, values, skills) as well as select
environments that compliment those traits.
– Developmental Theories: Share the assumption that factors related
to career choice are also related to stages of personal and
psychological development.
– Learning Theories: Describe the learning processes by which an
individual gains self-efficacy and what effect this has on the career
decision-making process.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Types of Theories
– Socioeconomic theories: Pay less attention to psychological traits
but focus instead on the socioeconomic status and the influence of
sociological and economic factors on occupational choice.
– Social - Cognitive theories: Focuses more on the personal
constructions people place on events related to career and
decisions making.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Modernist Theories posit that:
– Human behavior can be measured objectively if instruments are
reliable and valid.
– Human behavior can be studied without direct observation.
– Research should be without bias or value imposition.
– Research, if done scientifically, can be generalized to people
beyond those studied.
– Research should be empirically validated.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Post-Modernist Theories posit that:
– Human behavior cannot be studied objectively.
– Cause and effect relationships cannot be determined.
– Human behavior can only be studied through direct observation.
– Research data cannot be generalized.
– Research cannot be value free.
– Narratives are legitimate sources of data.
– Research should be goal free.
– Career counselors should use qualitative research and
assessments.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Trait and Factor Theory
Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments
• An individual’s personality is the primary consideration in their
choice of vocation.
• Holland believed that interest inventories WERE personality
inventories.
• People form stereotypes about jobs and careers which guide
them in their choices.
• People daydream about a possible career before they attempt
it.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Trait and Factor Theory
Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments
(continued).
• Having clarity and a small number of vocational goals is related
to a person’s identity.
• People are not as happy with their career if they have not
chosen one that is congruent with their personality type.
• Holland identified six different personality types: Realistic,
Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional
(RIASEC).
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Trait and Factor Theory
Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments
(continued).
• All six personality types differ in interests, vocational
preferences, goals, beliefs, values and skills.
• Environments can also be characterized by these series of
traits which correspond with the personality types: Realistic,
Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional.
• A match between personality type, and the environment which
supports that type, leads to greater career satisfaction.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Developmental Theory
Donald Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory of Career Development
• People have different abilities, interests and values and
therefore are qualified for different occupations or jobs which all
need different abilities and personality traits.
• People change over time and with experience and so too do
their abilities, interests and values.
• People go through life stages whereby they experience growth,
exploration, establishment, maintenance and decline in their
career life.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Developmental Theory
Donald Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory of Career Development
(continued).
• Career Maturity or Adaptability: When a person is able or
willing to engage in the developmental tasks that are
appropriate to the age and career level in which he or she finds
himself or herself.
• Six Life Roles: Homemaker, Worker, Citizen, Leisurite, Student
and Child.
• People develop a self concept through which they test out
occupations that will allow them to be their ideal self.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Developmental Theory
Donald Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory of Career Development
(continued).
• Work Satisfactions and Life Satisfactions: It is contingent upon
an individual’s ability to find outlets for his or her (abilities,
values, needs, interests) in work and in life.
• Work and occupation provide a focus for personality
organization for many people.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Learning Theory
Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory
• This theory is not concerned with developmental stages.
• It is based on Albert Bandura’s social learning theory.
• Krumboltz believed that genetic inheritance, such as race,
gender or physical appearance, can have restrictive influences
on the individual.
• There may be factors that lie out of the individual’s control such
as environmental or natural forces.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Learning Theory
Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory (continued).
• An individual’s learning experiences, both instrumental and
associative, has an influence on all career and decision
making.
• Task Approach Skills: These are the skills an individual applies
to each new task or problem. These include: Performance
standards, values, work habits, and various cognitive
processes.
• Each individual encounters learning opportunities that are
either rewarded or punished which shapes the individual and
his or her responses.
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Career Behavior: Theory
An Example of a Learning Theory
Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory (continued).
• Self-Observation Generalization: It is an overt or covert selfstatement that is evaluative of one’s own performance in
accordance with learned standards.
• Task Approach Skills: These are efforts of the person, to make
self-observation generalizations and predict future events which
include, work habits, values, perceptions etc.
• Actions: These are implementations of behavior such as
applying for a new job or changing one’s major in college.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Examples of Socioeconomic Theories
Status Attainment Theory
• The socioeconomic status of one’s family determines the
education and career goals one would most likely pursue.
• However mental processes and abilities do play a role in what
one is able to do.
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© Allyn & Bacon 2004”
Career Behavior: Theory
Examples of Socioeconomic Theories
Dual Labor Market Theory
• There are two types of businesses in our labor market: Core
and Peripheral.
• Core firms have internal labor markets, have job stability and
mobility for their employees, have dominate roles in the labor
market and rely heavily on technology.
• Peripheral firms make no long-term commitments to their
employees and pay by the job. Employees are laid off when
they are no longer needed. There is little chance of upward
mobility.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Examples of Socioeconomic Theories
Race, Gender and Career
• Some racial groups earn less than others.
• Males earn more than females.
• Women and men are segregated in the work place.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Social Cognitive Theories
Lent, Brown and Hacket’s Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)
• This is also based on the sociocognitive theories of Albert
Bandura.
• However more emphasis is placed on self-regulatory
cognitions, especially those that pertain to self-efficacy.
• SCCT theory posits that the interaction between people and
environment is highly dynamic and ever changing. People
influence, and are influenced by, the environment.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Social Cognitive Theories
Lent, Brown and Hacket’s Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)
(continued)
• Career related behavior is influenced by: A person’s behavior
in general, beliefs about self-efficacy, beliefs pertaining to
outcomes and goals, and genetically determined
characteristics.
• People’s interests lie in their belief that they can do these things
well.
• Self efficacy development is influenced by gender, race,
physical health, disabilities and environmental variability.
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Career Behavior: Theory
Social Cognitive Theories
Lent, Brown and Hacket’s Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)
(continued)
• Other factors influence career choice: Discrimination,
economic variables, and the culture of the person doing the
hiring as well as chance happenings.
• People who have high self-efficacy and high ability perform
higher in educational and career endeavors then those who do
not.
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Career Counseling Presentation
Resources
Gysbers, N. C., Heppner, M. J. & Johnston, J. A. (2003). Career
counseling: Process, issues, and techniques, 2nd ed. Boston, MA.:
Allyn & Bacon.
Brown, D. (2003). Career information, career counseling, and career
development, 8th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & Bacon.
“Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

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