Growing Up With Literature, 6e By: Walter E. Sawyer Is the material age appropriate? Did I read the story first so I am familiar with it? How will I motivate the children to want to be involved with the story? Where and when will I read the story? Why am I reading this particular story? How will I monitor understanding as the reading occurs? How can I make this story most meaningful to the children? Is the story understandable to children from all cultures? How will I determine what the children got from the story? Language learning and reading are positively related to emotions, physical environment, and past experiences. Help children make connections between what they already know and new information. This makes children motivated to acquire and use the new language. Most of the brain’s potential is mapped out in the first year of life. Literacy develops best in a situation where conversations are a major focus. Activities should integrate the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive domains. Children should not be expected to all be interested in or respond to a single activity in the same way. Adults must plan activities such that bridges to understanding can occur. Play is an important vehicle for learning. Immersion Demonstration Engagement Expectations Responsibility Approximation Use Response From 6-10 months, the babbling varies. This occurs in deaf children and in children in all cultures. Infants as young as seven weeks old have been observed responding to single words in both isolation and in fluent speech. Best ways to initiate a connection with literature: Sing songs Read stories Simple finger plays Play games Infants enjoy hearing these types of literature whether they are being cuddled, rocked, or just resting in a crib. Books can be read to infants from the moment they are born. Use hardcover books, boards books, and plastic books. Books should include pictures that are simple and bright. Model respecting books. Include the use of props and toys. Objects connect the infant with the tale in a positive, hands-on manner. Safety is the primary concern Should be on the floor Use colorful pillows, quilts, stuffed animals, and mats Enjoyable books should be read as often as infants respond to them The beginning stages of writing emerge at this toddler stage. From the first time they touch a crayon to paper, writing has begun. They need someone to listen to them communicate about their drawings. Adults must provide time, opportunities, models, encouragement, and acceptance. This is not the time for correction of faulty language structures. During this time, children develop a sense of humor. Toddlers love zany humor. Stories in which animals act out of character are sure to get a response. Many nursery rhymes provide humor. Dr. Seuss books with their repeating sound patterns provide a reinforcement for phonological awareness. Toddlers have an interest in the objects and events around them. They want to know the “whats” and the “whys” of everything. They want to know who everyone is and what they do. Board books and other smaller books are just right for toddlers. Eric Carle’s writing is exceptional for toddlers. His illustrations are excitingly colorful. Reading areas for toddlers must be engaging, interesting, and safe. Visibility is important. Furniture should not interfere with the adult’s ability to maintain eye contact with the children. Toddlers love to climb a low loft-type structure can be used. Use large pillows and stuffed toys in the area. Rocking chairs are a nice touch in any reading area. Children are continuing their rapid development of language skills and vocabulary growth. Can now use language as a tool for understanding themselves and their surroundings. The role of the adults is to interact with the child in form of listening, answering questions, asking questions, providing language models, and sharing experiences. Preschoolers are more sophisticated than toddlers and don’t laugh as readily at dishes running away with spoons. They enjoy books like Curious George. Preschoolers love to play house and act out roles. Values are often included in the stories intended for preschoolers. Dr. Seuss’s books often reinforce values while providing great fun through illustrations and language. Preschoolers are fascinated with differences of gender, size, disability, houses, and so forth. They have fears that should not be ignored. Fear of being left alone, anger, frustration, darkness, etc. Books can help them overcome their fears. Reading areas should be adventurous. Daylight should be used when possible; thus, locate the reading area near a window. Use realistic posters such as illustrating the inside of things such as bodies, mountains, and Earth. Props after the book is read will encourage children to recreate the story through talk and play. They have learned the basic rules of language, but not all the expectations to those rules. They come to understand how language can express ideas and emotions, create stories and meanings, and share life experiences. Children use invented spelling. This should be accepted without negative comments. Five stages of invented spelling: Precommunication KDJEWOPHGG Semiphonetic Phonetic Transitional Conventional IMHAB (I am happy.) I lik my mere gornd. (I like my merry-go-round.) Mercry is the nerist plaent in the soler systome. Can spell most words correctly and recognizes when something does not look right. They respond to epic adventures where, through enchantment and strength, the hero overcomes evil. Reading several versions of the same story can help children compare stories. They get very involved with learning about their bodies and social interaction. Troubling issues greatly affect kindergarten students. They are concerned with adoption and disabilities. Content books can provide much information for those children who thirst to know the what, why, and how of things. Interest in reading grows for kindergarten children. Involve the children – make it a group effort Should give the feeling that books are an open invitation. Warm and inviting Located off the beaten path, away from both large and small traffic areas Natural lighting is preferred. minimum of 100 watts should be used for reading. Avoid cords in the area Included many, many books Display books on front-facing book cases that allow the book covers to be seen. Comfort is essential. Have dividers around 3ft in height to provide privacy. Nontoxic live plants are pleasing. Firmly grasp the book so that children can see the words and pictures. The area where you read to children should depend on the size of the group. Nap time is a good opportunity for reading aloud. Make it comfortable with lighting and enough space for children to wiggle without bumping into each other. Always know the book before attempting to read or share it with others. Use libraries for borrowing books. “First-Aid kit for Books” Paperback verses hardback books (What is the difference?) Use big books and predictable texts Have confidence!!! The first step is to understand what accommodations are needed based on the strengths and needs of the child. Most children will benefit from the use of multi-sensory stimulation (e.g. tactile, puppetry, clear expressive illustrations, a clear voice, and normal gestures). Children with a specific disability may need a specific accommodation as well (e.g. a child with a visual impairment may need the reader to describe the illustrations).