Folie 1 - ISKO Italia

Report
ISKO 2010 Conference
Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO
Sapienza University of Rome,
Faculty of Philosophy
February 23, 2010 – February 26, 2010
Ontological foundations of KO
Alfred Gerstenkorn:
Entities and quiddities:
about
ontological and epistemological conceptualization
for KO
The Linguistic Sign (de Saussure 1916)
v = Vorstellung
v
l
l = Lautbild
v
l
Vorstellung
Lautbild
Source: de Saussure F., 1967 (1931), Grundfragen der allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft, Berlin 1967, p. 14, 78
The Semiotic Triangle (Ogden and Richards 1923)
THOUGHT OR
REFERENCE
SYMBOL
Stands for
(an imputed relation)
TRUE
REFERENT
Source: Ogden C. K., Richards I. A.. 1994 (1923), The Meaning of Meaning, London 1994, p. 16
Four-part Word Model (Wüster 1979)
Begriffe
(Sprachsystem)
Zeichen
Bedeutung
Individuen
(Sprechen)
Source: Wüster E., 1991 (1979), Einführung in die Allgemeine Terminologielehre und Terminologische
Lexikographie, Bonn 1991, p. 165
The Binary Conceptualization (Gerstenkorn 2009)
The brain world: Classes, individuals
The outer brain world: Individuals
Concepts of material objects including names
Material objects (names and other
objects)
Concepts of immaterial objects; immaterial objects
Individual
name concept
name
General
name
concept
Broader
concept
name
Individual name
concept
Material object
representing something
else: Name (words,
sentences etc.)
concept
General
object
concept
Individual object
concept
object
object
Individual object
concept
Immaterial object;
object: Feeling, belief,
belief
„preconceptual“ thought, etc.
Brain of sender
Brain of recipient
Source: Gerstenkorn A., Lengdorf 2009
names
Material object
representing itself
(can be also a
name)
Binary Conceptualization (Gerstenkorn 2010)
BROADER CONCEPT
OBJECT
Brain World
NAME
Entity
Quiddity
A BIRD
AN ENTITY / A PIGEON
Entity
Quiddity
“UNO UCCELLO“
“EIN VOGEL“
“A BIRD“
R
General
object concept
Entity
Quiddity
R
Entity
Quiddity
R
R
R
Entity
Quiddity
Outer Brain World
R
Entity
Quiddity
e
Similar objects
General
name concept
…
R
“THIS ENTITY“ / “THIS PIGEON“
THIS ENTITY / THIS PIGEON
Individual
object concept
“UNO PICCIONE“
“EINE TAUBE“
“AN ENTITY“ / “A PIGEON“
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
R
R
Entity
Quiddity
Individual
name concept
“piccione“
“Taube“
“pigeon“
“e“
Similar objects = names
BACKUP
Binary Conceptualization (Gerstenkorn 2010)
A BROADER CONCEPT= A BROADER GENERAL OBJECT CONCEPT,
connected to a new GENERAL NAME CONCEPT
Brain World
OBJECT
Entity
Quiddity
R
R
Entity
Quiddity
e
Entity
Quiddity
R
R
Entity
Quiddity
Outer Brain World
NAME
R
General
object concept
Individual
object concept
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
General
name concept
R
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
R
R
Entity
Quiddity
Individual
name concept
“pigeon“
“e“
Similar objects
Similar objects=names
R= Entity with the quiddity relation and additional quiddities like
causing, connecting, implicating, representing, symbolizing, referring
Binary Conceptualization (Gerstenkorn 2010)
A BROADER CONCEPT= A BROADER GENERAL OBJECT CONCEPT,
connected to a new GENERAL NAME CONCEPT
Brain World
OBJECT
AN ENTITY / A PIGEON
Entity
Quiddity
R
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
R
THIS ENTITY / THIS PIGEON
e
“AN ENTITY“ / “A PIGEON“
Entity
Quiddity
R
Outer Brain World
NAME
R
General
object concept
Individual
object concept
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
General
name concept
R
“THIS ENTITY“ / “THIS PIGEON“
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
R
R
Entity
Quiddity
Individual
name concept
“pigeon“
“e“
Similar objects
Similar objects=names
R= Entity with the quiddity relation and additional quiddities like
causing, connecting, implicating, representing, symbolizing, referring
The Organon Model (Bühler 1934  Platon)
die Dinge
orga num
einer
der
andere
Source: Bühler K., 1965 (1934), Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache, Stuttgart 1956, p. 25
The Basic Triangle Model according to Aristotle
(Trabant 1996  Aristoteles)
tà en tê psychê pathémata
b
a
c
semaínein
tà en tê phonê
Source: Trabant J., 1996, Elemente der Semiotik, Tübingen 1996, p.25
prágmata
The Concept Triangle (Dahlberg 1978)
A
Referent
denotation
predication
B Characteristics
C Verbal Form
designation
Source: Dahlberg I., 1978, A Referent-Oriented, Analytical Concept Theorie for INTERCONCEPT, International
Classification, 5, n. 3, p. 144
Model for Concept Construction (Dahlberg 1978)
Universe of items; ideas, objects,
facts, laws, properties, actions, etc.
item of reference
correct statements about item
synthesis of statements
in
verbal form: term or name
Usages of verbal form in the universe
of discourses, applications
Source: Dahlberg I., 1978, A Referent-Oriented, Analytical Concept Theorie for INTERCONCEPT, International
Classification, 5, n. 3, p. 143
Immaterial Objects and
Concepts of Immaterial Objects
Brain World
„preconceptual thought“
Entity
Quiddity
Individual object concept
R
Entity
Quiddity
R
Entity
Quiddity
„preconceptual thought“
Entity
Quiddity
R
Entity
Quiddity
R
Individual object concept
Outer Brain World
General
object concept
WHOLE-PART-RELATION/PART-WHOLE-RELATION
R
Entity
Quiddity
R
EYE
FACE
R
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
… Other entities
as quiddities:
NOSE
MEDIUM-SIZED ORGAN
R
…
NOSTRIL
Entity
Quiddity
Entity
Quiddity
R
Entity: r; Quiddity: R=Relation
(Whole-Part, inverse: Part-Whole)
RIDGE OF THE NOSE
R
SENSE OF SMELL
Non-hierarchic relations
causal relations
R
R
Entity
Quiddity
FIRE
R
Entity
Quiddity
HEAT
SMOKE
Entity
Quiddity
WHITE
R
R
R
R
RISING
Other entities
as quiddities
Entity: r; Quiddity: R=Relation
(causal relation + inverse)
Non-hierarchic relation
Metaphorical speech (tropus)
„The foot of the mountain“
The foot (entity) is the lowest part (quiddity) of the human body (entity) as well as the
base (entity) is the lowest part (quiddity) of the mountain (entity), thus
the quiddity “is the lowest part“ is the so called tertium comparationis.
Names: Pronunciations and Writings
General
name concept
“PIGEON“
General
visual name concept
General
acoustic name concept
“PIGEON“
“PIGEON“
Individual
acoustic name concept
“pigeoooon“ “piiigeon“
Individual
visual name concept
“bigeon“
different pronunciations
“pigeon“ “pigeon“ “pigeon“
different writings
The Organon Model (Bühler 1934  Platon)
Gegenstände und Sachverhalte
Darstellung
Appell
Ausdruck
Z
Sender
Empfänger
Source: Bühler K., 1965 (1934), Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache, Stuttgart 1956, p. 28

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