Slide 1

Report
Why do Florida’s K-12
students need new Science
Standards?
Three Reasons:
Low student performance on state,
national, and international achievement
measures
Persistent achievement gaps among
demographic subgroups
Lack of preparation of graduating
seniors for post-secondary education
and the workforce
Student Performance
‘05 NAEP data reveal that while our 4th
grade students barely surpassed the
national average, our 8th grade students
lagged behind.
152
148
144
140
136
132
128
124
120
116
112
108
104
100
4th grade
8th grade
FL
US
Despite a steady across the board increase in
the percentage of Florida’s students scoring at
or above proficient on the Science FCAT each
year, all cohorts remain well below 50%
proficiency.
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2003
2004
2005
5th
8th
2006
11th
2007
While the percentage of Florida’s students taking AP
science exams in ’06 was nearly double the national
average, the percent of our students who scored at or
above proficient barely exceeded the national average.
14
% students taking AP science exams
12
10
8
7
6
3.3
4
2
4.5
4
0
FL
US
Demographic Achievement Gaps
5th Grade achievement on the
2007 Science FCAT
8th Grade achievement on the 2007 FCAT
11th Grade Science achievement on the 2007
FCAT
While Florida’s 4th graders scored above the
national average on the ‘05 Science NAEP,
significant demographic achievement gaps are
evident here as well.
2005 4th grade NAEP, Fl. vs. U.S.
155
150
149
150
144
Scale Scores
145
140
135
132
130
130
128
125
120
115
All Students
Black
Hispanic
U.S.
Fl.
Florida’s 8th graders generally performed below
the national average on the 2005 NAEP,
although our Hispanic students fared better
than the national average for Hispanics.
2005 NAEP 8th grade Scale Scores, Fl. vs. U.S.
160
147
141
140
123
Scale Scores
120
127
131
118
100
U.S.
80
Fl.
60
40
20
0
All Students
Black
Hispanic
College and workplace readiness of
Florida’s graduating seniors
Florida’s Agency for Workforce
Innovation, labor market statistics
project:
78% of Florida’s fastest growing occupations
will require post-secondary certification by
2014, most of which will require vocational
certification.
By 2030, 87% of job demand in Florida will
require post secondary certification, with
over a fourth requiring a Masters-level or
higher.
A study conducted by the Monitor
group for the National Governors
Association (NGA) revealed that the
fastest growing occupational
clusters in Florida are:
Financial Services (requiring strong
math & communication skills)
Analytical Instruments (requiring
strong engineering & math
skills)
Communications Services (requiring
strong technical skills)
A survey of 276 leading employers from these
clusters throughout the state revealed gaps in
the science, technology, engineering, and
mathematics (STEM) skill sets of entry-level
employees.
Computer information science
Engineering
Life Sciences
Mathematics
Physical Science (prior year)
3.18
2.96
3.34
3.33
2.80
Scale: 5 (far exceeds) 3 (meets) 1 (far below)
Florida Employer Opinion Survey by Florida Dept. of
Education Accountability, Research, and Measurement
(2006)
In terms of college readiness, ACT
results show that Florida’s graduating
seniors trail the nation in science
achievement, and the gap is widening.
24
22
20.8
20
20.9
20.9
20.9
21
Fl
20.2
20.2
US
20.1
19.9
19.5
18
16
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
% of students achieving the 24 point
benchmark for college readiness on the
’06 & ’07 science reasoning portion of the
ACT was low in all subgroups.
35
32
30
% students scoring at or above the 24 point college readiness benchmark
28 28
25
28
24
20 20
20
2006
16
2007
15
15
14
10
5
4
4
0
All students
African Am.
Am. Indian
Cauc.
Hisp.
Asian Am.
What do independent research groups
say about Florida’s current Sunshine
State Science Standards?
In their 2005 The State of State Science
Standards Report, the Fordham Institute
awarded an “F” grade to Florida’s
Science Standards. Massachusetts got
an “A”.
Gross, et al, (2005)
Some of Fordham’s reasons:
“The current documents are … sorely lacking in
content…”
“…handling of physics…is disappointing, due to
a prevalence of errors in fact and presentation…”
“…chemistry content in K-8 is scanty...even less
is required in K-12”
“… in grade 4 the student uses criteria to
understand and analyze the impact of scientific
discoveries....the criteria to be used,
however…are unnamed.”
Why do our children need
world-class science
standards?
Two findings from the 2006 National
Research Council report, Rising
Above the Gathering Storm:
Americans may not know enough about science
and technology to contribute to the emerging
knowledge-based economy.
Rise in new international competitors in science
and engineering is forcing the US to ask whether
our current education system can meet the
demands of the 21st century.
NRC, 2006 Rising Above the Gathering Storm, pp 94-95
The US lags behind other leading
industrialized nations in producing
college graduates with first degrees
in science and engineering.
According to Achieve Inc., worldclass science instruction empowers
students to:
maximize employment opportunities in a
global economy driven by science and
technology;
participate in a democracy in the context of
a global society; and
make informed decisions as a consumer,
e.g., on health care and retirement planning.
What are some of the attributes
of world-class science
standards?
World-class science standards reflect the
conceptions of coherence, focus, and rigor
promoted by the American Diploma Project
(ADP) and the TIMSS framework.
Coherence – Is the sequence of topics and
performances consistent with the logical nature
of the disciplinary content of the subject matter?
(Schmidt, et al., 2005 p. 528)
Focus - Do the standards emphasize central
concepts, laws, principles and unifying theories,
inquiry strategies and cross-cutting ideas, such
as systems, that link the natural sciences?
(Slattery, 2007)
Rigor - Do the standards progress in terms of
depth (cognitive complexity) as students move
from one grade level to the next? (Schmidt, et
al., 2005)
How do Florida’s current K-8
standards compare with worldclass models
Florida NAEP1 Singapore2 Finland3
#1 TIMSS
#1 PISA
# K-8 GLE’s
607
113
226
184
GLE’s per
grade level
67
14
38
20
1The
2009 NAEP science framework encompasses grades 1-8
2Singapore begins science instruction at grade 3 and
continues for a total of six years through lower secondary.
3Finland’s science standards encompass grades 1-9
Data from the Trends in International
Math and Science Study (TIMSS) shows
that:
“…the number of topics intended for coverage in
the US is (visually) overwhelming, when compared
to the composite curriculum in the top-achieving
countries.” (mile-wide/inch-deep)
In the US the structure of standards documents is
“diffuse and seemingly arbitrary,” when compared
to the TIMSS A+ countries
Schmidt, Wang, McKnight (2005) Curriculum Coherence: an examination of US
mathematics and science content standards from an international perspective. Journal
of Curriculum Studies. pp 551-556
Comparisons of composite curriculum maps
from five A+ TIMSS countries and those of 21
U.S. states including Florida, illustrate the
relative lack of coherence in US state science
standards.
General Topic Trace Mapping (GTTM) of the A+ TIMSS countries vs. US
Topic
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Organs, tissues
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
Organs, tissues
Physical properties of matter
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
Physical properties of matter
◊
◊
◊
Plants, fungi
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
◊
Plants, fungi
◊
◊
Animals
♦
♦
♦
♦
◊
♦
Animals
◊
◊
Classification of matter
◊
◊
◊
◊
♦
♦
Classification of matter
Rocks, soil
◊
◊
◊
◊
♦
♦
Rocks, soil
Light
◊
♦
♦
Light
◊
♦
♦
Electricity
Topic
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
Electricity
◊
Life Cycles
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
Life Cycles
Physical changes of matter
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
Physical changes of matter
Heat and temperature
♦
♦
♦
♦
♦
Heat and temperature
◊
◊
Bodies of water
◊
◊
◊
♦
♦
Bodies of water
◊
◊
Interdependence of life
◊
♦
◊
◊
Interdependence of life
Habitats and niches
◊
◊
◊
◊
Habitats and niches
Biomes and ecosystems
◊
♦
◊
◊
Biomes and ecosystems
Reproduction
◊
◊
Reproduction
Time, space, motion
♦
♦
♦
♦
Time, space, motion
◊
◊
Types of forces
◊
◊
♦
♦
Types of forces
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
Weather and climate
◊
◊
♦
♦
Weather and climate
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
Planets in the solar system
◊
◊
◊
◊
Planets in the solar system
◊
◊
A+ countries
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
21 U.S.states including Florida
(Schmidt et al. 2005)
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
General Topic Trace Mapping (GTTM) of the A+ TIMSS countries vs. US (cont.)
Topic
1
2
3
4
5
Topic
6
7
8
Magnetism
♦
♦
♦
Magnetism
Earth's composition
◊
♦
♦
Earth's composition
Organism energy handling
◊
◊
♦
Organism energy handling
Land, water, sea resource cons.
◊
◊
♦
Land, water, sea resource cons.
Earth in the solar system
◊
◊
◊
Earth in the solar system
Atoms, ions, molecules
♦
♦
Atoms, ions, molecules
Chemical properties of matter
♦
♦
Chemical properties of matter
Chemical changes of matter
♦
♦
Chemical changes of matter
Physical cycles
◊
♦
Physical cycles
Land forms
◊
♦
Land forms
Material and energy resource cons.
◊
♦
Material and energy resource cons.
Explanations of physical changes
◊
◊
Explanations of physical changes
Pollution
◊
♦
Pollution
Atmosphere
◊
◊
Atmosphere
Sound and vibration
◊
◊
Sound and vibration
Cells
◊
◊
Cells
Human nutrition
◊
◊
Human nutrition
Building and breaking
♦
Building and breaking
Energy types, sources, conversions
♦
Energy types, sources, conversions
Dynamics of motion
◊
Dynamics of motion
Organism sensing and responding
◊
Organism sensing and responding
A+ countries
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
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◊
◊
◊
◊
◊
21 U.S.states including Florida
(Schmidt et al. 2005)
5
◊
◊
◊
◊
What do these curriculum mappings
reveal about K-8 science topic coverage
in Florida and the US as compared to the
TIMSS A+ countries?
The A+ countries tend to introduce few new topics in
each grade level and then develop those incrementally in
each subsequent grade (staggered spiral).
Florida and other states often front-load complex topics
like types of forces and weather & climate in early
elementary grades, and then devote sparse – if any –
coverage to them in subsequent grades.
What recommendations do national,
international, and state science
education experts have for revising
K-12 science standards?
According to findings from cognitive
research, standards should:
…focus on foundational, cross-cutting concepts and K12 learning progressions, cycling back through core
ideas in different contexts, and…
… allow time to address misconceptions and for
students to reflect on and monitor their understanding.
Source: Duschle et,al., (2007) Taking Science to School. National Resource Council
Recommendations from Achieve, Inc.
and the American Diploma Project
(ADP) include:
Decide on big, over-arching ideas such as matter,
energy, and systems and describe their most
important characteristics.
Begin with high school and identify essential core
content for each area – Biology, Chemistry, Earth
and Space Science, and Physics – and connect
these to one or two of the most closely related big
ideas.
Pay attention to the research base on where key
concepts can be optimally taught and where
common misconceptions can be effectively
addressed.
(Jean Slattery Achieve Inc., The American Diploma Project. 2007)
ADP recommendations (cont.)
Verify that the standards are clearly written.
Build a K-8 matrix similar to the TIMSS General
Topic Trace Mappings and check the progression of
concepts and skills across grades to reveal
redundancies or omissions for each benchmark in
the new standards.
Check the content expectations for each grade level
to make sure topics cluster in a sensible way that
facilitates connections and promotes powerful, yet
manageable teaching units.
(Jean Slattery Achieve Inc., The American Diploma Project. 2007)
What has Florida done in light
of these recommendations?
In May of 2007, a committee of 33 framers
comprised of representatives from the
following stake-holder groups was convened:
K-12 science educators including Exceptional
Student Education (ESE).
University scientists and faculty
Community College science faculty
Business leaders
Private citizens
At the May 2007 meeting, the framers
received presentations from these national
and international experts in science education:
Jean Slattery [Achieve, Inc. American
Diploma Project (ADP)]
Ted Willard [American Association for the
Advancement of Science (AAAS) (project
director for the Atlas of Science
Literacy)]
Bill Schmidt National Coordinator for US
TIMSS (author of Why Schools Matter)
What were the framers recommendations
for the revisions to the Sunshine State
Science Standards?
Refer to the 2009 National Assessment of Educational
Progress (NAEP) Science Curriculum Framework to
begin building 9-12 Bodies of Knowledge (BOK)
based upon science literacy expectations for all
graduating seniors.
Construct grade level specific benchmarks for K-8 that
support the 9-12 Bodies of Knowledge.
Refer to the General Topic Trace Mappings for the
TIMSS A+ countries to analyze standards for
coherence once they are completed.
Framers recommendations (cont.)
Refer to the Massachusetts Science Curriculum
Framework to see how illustrative examples can be
included with each content statement to add clarity.
Refer to AAAS and National Research Council
(NRC) literature to imbed Nature of Science (NOS)
concepts within the standards as well as NRC
materials on teaching evolution and the nature of
science.
Construct a Nature of Science Body of Knowledge
for 9-12 and embed these concepts in the K-12
benchmarks.
What world-class documents did the
framers recommend that the writers
review for Florida’s science
standards revisions?
2009 National Assessment of Educational
Progress (NAEP) Science Framework
American Association for the Advancement of
Science (AAAS) Benchmarks for Science
Literacy
Singapore primary and lower secondary science
standards
Additional documents:
Finland’s National Core Science Curriculum
Massachusetts Science Curriculum
Frameworks
Indiana’s K-8 science standards
Teaching Evolution and the Nature of
Science (National Research Council)
What world-class standards
documents were the 2009 NAEP
science framework based upon?
Content for the 2009 NAEP
Science Framework was drawn
from:
National Science Education
Standards (NSES)
AAAS Benchmarks for Science
Literacy
Trends in International Math and
Science (TIMSS) framework
Program for International Student
Assessment (PISA) framework
Exemplary state standards
Following the recommendations
of the framers, the Office of
Mathematics and Science
assembled a 25 member
committee of writers to draft the
revised Sunshine State Science
Standards.
The writers committee consists of:
exemplary K-12 science teachers from
across the state
exceptional Student Education teachers
Community College Science Professors
University scientists and professors of
science education
representation from the liberal arts
representation from business
key members of the framers committee
The Road Ahead
A draft of the revised K-12 Sunshine State
Science Standards has been submitted to OMS
by the writing committee for review.
A public review of the draft science standards is
planned to begin concurrent with the expert
review process in October - November.
The revised Sunshine State Science Standards
will be submitted to the State Board in January,
2008 for adoption.
How do the Proposed 9-12 Bodies of
Knowledge compare to the existing
Science Standards?
Old 9-12 Benchmarks
(Same for all 9-12)
The Nature of Matter
Energy
Force and Motion
Processes That Shape the Earth
Earth and Space
Processes of Life
How Living Things Interact With
Their Environment
Nature of Science
New Body of Knowledge
Earth and Space
Science
Life Science
Physical Science
Nature of Science
Meet Kyla Horn,
a.k.a.Sciencegirl, Senior at
Cocoa Beach
Jr./Sr. High
School,K-12
Florida Public
Schools
Kyla’s Accomplishments
One of 77 students in the world (and
the only Florida student) selected for
the highly competitive Research
Science Institute at MIT.
Awards and Accomplishments
include: Science Fairs, Science
Bowls, Science Olympiad, All Star
High School Academic Team,
Governor's Honor Program –
Astrochemisty, Florida Junior
Science, Engineering and
Humanities Symposium, Intel
International Science and
Engineering Fair, Part of student
team running ground control for
payload project aboard Space
Shuttle Columbia's final flight
PSAT: 240 (Perfect score)
ACT: 36 (Perfect Score)
SAT II Math: 800
A.P. Calculus B/C: 5
A.P. Physics: 5
A.P. Biology: 5
SAT Critical Reading: 800
SAT II Spanish: 800
A.P. English: 5
A.P. Economics: 5
A.P. U.S. History: 5
A.P. Government and
Politics: 5
Florida’s Office of Math and Science
Mary Jane Tappen, Executive Director
[email protected]
Todd Clark, Deputy Director
[email protected]
Lance King, Secondary Science Specialist
[email protected]
Vie Vie Baird, Elementary Science Specialist
[email protected]
Rob Schoen, Math Specialist
[email protected]

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