Lesson 1 introduction and replication of Zimbardo

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Psychology @ St. Bartholomew’s
School
An Introduction to AS Psychology
and the expectations of all AS
students throughout their A2
career
What is Psychology?
 Psychology is the science of mind and
behaviour.
 The methods in science are applied to
understand why we behave as we do.
 You will NOT learn what other people are
thinking!
 Covers a wide area including child
development, mental illness and memory.
Psychology as a science
Psychology considers itself as a science
because of its application of the
hypothetico-deductive model and the
application of the scientific method.
Psychology is committed to understanding
human behaviour through objective
research methods adhering to the principles
of quantification, objectivity, falsification
and Empiricism.
Triominoes
Teaching and Learning
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Presentations
Discussions
Note making
Essay writing
Reading
Practical Activities
Replications of Research
Survey research
Videos
Research
Skills
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Communication (verbal and non-verbal)
Essay writing
Time management
Research
Analytical
Evaluation
Critical thinking
Listening
How Science Works
The structure of the AS
 All modules are exam based at the end
of the year!
 No coursework!!
 Answer short essay questions and
short answer questions; to show a
detailed understanding and evaluation
of research content.
PSYA1
 Models of Memory. •Attachments in
children
 Memory in
Everyday life:
Eyewitness
testimony
•Attachment in
Everyday life: Day
care
•Research
methods
•Investigations,
techniques and
data analysis
Is a computer Wizz
Had a Greek holiday
Plays
Loves Football
Is born outside of
Has a Scottish
relative
Is related to
someone famous
Speaks Spanish
Loves Cricket
Has an allergy
Likes Eastenders
Speaks French
Has a sister
Is an actor
Has had broken a
bone
Spanish
Has done modelling
Visited
Gives money to
charity
Is an aunty/uncle
Loves Dancing
Is an uncle
Has an Irish relative
Has song in a talent
show
Goes to Church
Has a party trick
Had a Birthday in
sept
Has a brother
Has a fear of
spiders
Has an Italian
relative
Loftus experiment
Finding meaning in the
method
Aims
To gain an understanding of experimental
design
To be able to identify methodological
flaws in laboratory experimental research
Experimental Design: Variables
• Key concepts
– Control
– Replication
– Independent variable
– Dependent variable
– Extraneous variables
• Participant variables
• Situational variables
– Experimental Designs
http://garetheebbs.wordpress.com/
• The experiment is the most
meaningful tool used in science.
• Psychologists employ this tool to
investigate all aspects of behaviour.
Reaction Time Experiment
Hypothesis:
‘Females react faster than males’
Definition of Reaction Time
This is called operationalising
This will be the interval between stimulus
presentation and a subjects reaction
Operationalising
• When the variables have been defined clearly
and objectively.
• It is the process of devising a way of
measuring a variable.
• In Baddeley’s example, the researcher was
investigating memory, the operationalized
variable was the number of digits being
recalled.
Reaction
Time Test
Male versus Female
Participants
First trial
Evaluation of method
Relevant and
Irrelevant
variables
Second trial
Evaluation of method
Relevant and
Irrelevant
variables
A variable
• A variable is a precise, technical term used to
describe a quantity of interest (that can
change or vary)
• To establish cause and effect between two
variables they will use an experimental
method, manipulating one variable to affect
change in another.
• To establish a relationship the research will
use a correlational method
Operationalising
• When the variables have been defined clearly
and objectively.
• It is the process of devising a way of
measuring a variable.
• In Baddeley’s example, the researcher was
investigating memory, the operationalized
variable was the number of digits being
recalled.
Video Clip
Video Clip
Experimental Design: Variables
EV’s
Experimental Design: Variables
• Key concepts
– Control
– Replication
– Independent variable
– Dependent variable
– Extraneous variables
• Participant variables
• Situational variables
– Experimental design
EV’s
The Independent Variable (IV)
• ‘There will be a difference in the number of
words Pps can recall under organised and
unorganised conditions’
• The number of words will be affected by the
type of organisation used.
• The IV is the organisation, as this is
manipulated to affect change in the DV,
dependent variable, number of words.
IV and DV
• The IV is manipulated and the DV is measured
• The IV and the DV are only used in
experimental conditions
Extraneous variables
• There are a number of different types of
extraneous variables that psychologists must
take into account when implementing their
investigations:
– Situational V’s: relating to the environment;
time of day, temperature, lighting, instructions.
Controlled through standardisation
– Participant V’s: intelligence, age, gender and
personality. These are controlled through
experimental design (matched participants),
random assigning reduces bias
Controlling extraneous variables
• In research we have to control the EV’s to be sure that the
effect on the DV is caused by the manipulation of the IV.
• For example, ‘There will be a difference in the number of
words Pps can recall under organised and unorganised
conditions’
• EV’s interfere with the experiment. If we test the organised
group in a quiet room and the disorganised group in a noisy
room we have a EV. The EV is the level of noise, this could
have affected the change in the DV.
• To control the EV we must test each group in the same
identical environmental conditions.
Demand Characteristics and
Investigator effects
• In addition to situational and Participant variables
there are other variables such as demand
characteristics and investigator effects
– Demand characteristics: invite the Pps to behave in a
particular way, these are usually the cues in the environment
that make the Pps think that they should behave in a
particular way
– Investigator effects: aspects of the experimenters
appearance or behaviour that can lead Pps to think that they
should act in a certain way
• If these are not controlled they present a threat to
internal validity
– controlled = high internal validity
Controlling these threats
• Demand Characteristics: Single Blind
technique
• Investigator effects: double blind technique
Psychological
Misconceptions.
Which are true?
1.
Most people use only 10% of their brains.
2. There are striking stylistic differences
between the two hemispheres of the brain, with
the left being “analytic” and the right “creative.”
3. Most “crack babies” end up with serious
neurological deficits.
4. People with one eye cannot see in three
dimensions.
5. Subliminal messages can be used to
persuade others to purchase products.
6. Brain activity almost stops during sleep.
Memory Experiment
Replication
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
• Serial position experiment
• PPs hear a list of words. Asked to recall them
in any order (free recall)
– Cond 1: immediate free recall
– Cond 2: free recall after interference task
• To obtain results, plotted position of each
word in the list against how many of the PPs
recalled it
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
Primacy Effect:
LTM
Recency Effect:
STM
% recall by PPs
Without
interference
task
With
interference
task
Position in word list
• Serial position experiment
• PPs hear a list of words. Asked to recall them
in any order (free recall)
– Cond 1: immediate free recall
– Cond 2: free recall after interference task
• To obtain results, plotted position of each
word in the list against how many of the PPs
recalled it
www.psychlotron.org.uk
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
Primacy Effect:
LTM
Recency Effect:
STM
% recall by PPs
Without
interference
task
With
interference
task
Position in word list
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
• Results:
– PPs recalled more words at beginning (primacy)
and end (recency) of the list
– The interference task removed the recency but
not the primacy effect
• Implies that primacy words were stored
somewhere different to recency words
• We have two separate memory stores
Experimental checklist
How would you conduct a memory
experiment?
• What would need to be included:
– Standardised instructions
– Operationalised variables
– Competence
– Ethical issues addressed
– Informed consent
– Right to withdraw
– Debriefing
– No Psychological or physical harm
HW (No wikipedia) Use Openhive
1. Write up you G and C experiment
2. Sampling and ethics sheet
3. Research the following brain damaged
individuals:
•
•
•
–
HM
KF
Clive wearing
You must write a summary of the memory
deficit:
– Whether it is short term (STM) or long term (LTM)

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