GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Report
GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
• Students should be able to
• define a neonate, infant and child
• understand the pattern of congenital and
acquired diseases at various peadiatric ages
• define growth and development
• explain methodology of monitoring growth in
infants and children using FOC, weight and
height.
• understand the use of centile charts for
monitoring growth parameters
• enumerate the four stages of development
explain developmental achievements at 3, 6, 9
, 12 and 24 months of ages
• NEONATE
– Birth to 01 month
• INFANT
– 01 month to 12 months
• CHILD
– 1 year to 5 years
• GROWTH
change in size as a whole or in
separate parts
it is a quantitative change
• INDICES OF GROWTH
– Height
– Weight
– Head circumference
– Growth charts
Weight measurement
Length/height
Factors affecting growth
• GENETICS
• ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
– Nutrition
– Disease
– Socioeconomic class
– Psychological stress
Factors affecting growth
• ENDORINE FACTORS
– Growth hormone
– Thyroxine
– Cortisol
– Androgens
– Testosterone
– Oestrogen
• DEVELOPMENT
Involves aspects of differentiation of form or changes in
function, including structural which are shaped by
interaction with the emotional and social environment
It is a qualitative change
•
•
•
•
Gross motor skills
Fine motor/ visual motor
Language and communication
Cognitive or adaptive development
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
• Acquisition of controlled purposeful
movements
• Helps in the development of postural
control
• It occurs in cephalocaudal sequence
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
•
•
•
•
2-3 months
6 months
8 months
10-12 months
• 15 months
• 24 months
neck holding
sitting with support
sitting without support
standing with support
and walking
creeps up stairs
walks up and down
steps without help
03 months
05- 06 months
06- 09 months
09- 12 months
FINE MOTOR/ VISUAL SKILLS
• 2-3 months
• 6 months
• 9 months
• 12 months
holds the rattle briefly,
follows moving persons
picks up spatula from
hand, transfers spatula
from hand to hand
pokes at small sweets
with index finger
develops mature pincer
grasp
FINE MOTOR/ VISUAL SKILLS
• 15 months
• 24 months
scribbles in imitation,2
block tower
7 block tower,removes
shoes
03 months
06 months
08- 09 months
LANGUAGE
• 3 months
• 6 months
• 9 months
• 12 months
smiles, gurgles,
squeals, coos with pleasure
babbles, ah-goo
combines syllables,
ba ba, ma ma
says 2 or 3 words with
meaning
LANGUAGE
• 15 months uses 4- 6 words
• 24 months uses pronouns, 50 word
vocabulary, uses 2 word sentences
SOCIAL SKILLS
• 2-3 months
• 6 months
• 9 months
• 12 months
responds by smiling
puts objects to mouth,
plays with feet, reaches
and shakes a rattle
holds, bites and eats a
biscuit, recognizes
strangers and is upset
waves bye bye and
claps, helps with
dressing
SOCIAL SKILLS
• 15- 18 mon uses spoon and cup
• 24 months parallel play in company
03 months
06 months
08- 09 months
• Any child who does not fulfill the criteria of
development according to age must be
evaluated repeatedly and cause of delay
sorted out

similar documents