Choose the best formal definition of psychology
A.The scientific study of human nature
B.The scientific study of theories and research
C.The scientific study of the process of learning and
modifying behavioral reflexes
D.The scientific study of the behavior of individuals
and their mental processes
E.The scientific study of groups of people
) ________ is an example of a parasympathetic
A) Promoting your sexual development
B) Preparing for a competitive dance competition
C) Monitoring the operation of the body's routine
D) Preparing yourself to fight an attacking dog
E) Figuring out the answer to a difficult test question
This individual claimed that we could not prove that
the mind existed, therefore it would be much too
subjective to study
A.Jean Piaget
B.William James
C.B. F. Skinner
D.Sigmund Freud
E.Wilhelm Wundt
6) Place theory argues that sounds of different
frequencies induce vibration in different areas of
the 6) _______
a. hammer.
b. tympanic membrane.
c. basilar membrane.
d. auditory nerve.
e. temporal lobe.
Which of the following could be an operational
definition of “fear?”
A.An intense fear or terror and dread when thinking
about some threatening situation
C.A desire to avoid something
D.Moving away from a stimulus
E.Moving toward a stimulus
23) A recording of brain waves using electrodes
placed on the scalp is called a
A scientific study should begin with
A.A controlled test
B.A hypothesis
C.Data collection
D.Risk/gain assessment
E.IRB proposal
2. As discrimination tasks with unpleasant stimuli
become increasingly more difficult we can expect 2.
a) better learning to occur due to generalization.
b) agitation due to experimental neurosis.
c) intermittent reinforcement due to prompting.
d) appetitive conditioning due to shaping.
e) extinction due to extreme confusion.
4) Through the process of ________, we are able
to interpret incoming sensory patterns. 4) _______
a. transduction
b. sensation
c. perception
d. gustation
e. kinesthesias
7. If your mom reminds you to pick up your little
brother from soccer practice, and then you friend
calls causing to you forget to pick up your brother,
you would be said to be experiencing 7. _______
a. bias.
b. absent-mindedness.
c. misattribution.
d. blocking.
e. transience.
19) Ned is excited about going off to college, but he knows he will miss his
mothers cooking. He is excited to meet new people, but he will miss his fiends
from high school. He looks forward to having more freedom to do as he would
like, but knows he will miss the safe environment of his old neighborhood. Ned is
experiencing which of the following types of conflicts.
A) avoidance-avoidance
B) approach-approach
C) approach-avoidance
D) multiple approach-avoidance
E) None of the above
13. Which part of memory has the smallest
capacity? (That is, which part of memory is
considered the "bottleneck" in the memory system).
13. ______
a. working memory
b. explicit memory
c. long-term memory
d. implicit memory
e. sensory memory
Why is it important that studies are replicated,
especially if we already know the outcome of the
A.To insure that the results are valid
B.To insure that the experimenter bias did not
influence the initial study
C.To allow for a double-blind study by someone
who has nothing to gain regardless of the outcome
of the study
D.To insure that the results did not occur simply by
E.All of the Above
1. Negative reinforcement works best when the
aversive stimulus 1. _______
a) imposes physical pain.
b) is on a variable ratio schedule.
c) is controlled by the person to be punished.
d) is an operant.
e) is imposed by natural or impersonal conditions.
16. We are always aware of ________ memory
whereas ________ memory may be incidentally
learned. 16. ______
a. semantic; episodic
b. semantic; procedural
c. episodic; semantic
d. explicit; implicit
e. implicit; explicit
25) What is the loss of muscle control often
preceding a narcoleptic episode?
A) cataplexy
B) incontinent
C) apnea
D) catatonia
E) None of the above
11) Perceptual constancy reflects the understanding
of the perceiver that 11) ______
a. images can be interpreted in more than one way.
b. objects remain the same despite changes in their
c. our brain is readily fooled by sensory input.
d. perceived boundaries are not a function of the
e. most objects readily change their shape, but not
5. According the Rescorla, we are most likely to
pay attention to information that precedes the UCS
only if 5. _______
a) one has noticed others who know what the UCS
will predict.
b) it also follows the UCS.
c) it provides information about the UCR.
d) it becomes a CR.
e) it provides unique information about the UCS.
24) George is a swimmer, he made a bad turn during
the last lab and his head and neck on the wall. He is
now having trouble breathing, which of the following
brain stem areas would be responsible for this function?
A) pons
B) thalamus
C) reticular formation
D) medulla
E) cerebellum
18. Negative reinforcement involves 18. ______
a) pairing an old reflex with a new stimulus.
b) the removal of an aversive stimulus.
c) providing an unpleasant stimulus periodically
during the day.
d) the learning of a new response.
e) decreasing the likelihood of certain future
3) Damage to the ________ would be expected to
impair your ability to name three exciting news
events that occurred after this damage to your
A) hippocampus
B) corpus callosum
C) reticular formation
D) hypothalamus
E) thalamus
13) experimenters have found by using virtual
reality goggles that children as young as ________
may show evidence of depth perception. 13)
a. 2 months
b. 12 months
c. 2 weeks
d. 2 years
e. 6 months
5) ________ was the author of The Interpretation of
Dreams (1900).
A) James
B) Broca
C) Freud
D) Hall
E) Darwin
4) You and your brother have the same parents but
look very different. The difference in your looks is
an expression of your different
A) genotypes.
B) habitats.
C) environmental selections.
D) neurons.
E) phenotypes.
24) Which of the following statements is true? 5) _______
a. The environment will always influence how our genes
display themselves.
b. Humans have evolved from monkeys.
c. According to an evolutionary psychologist, nurture is more
important that nature.
d. The is no way for parents to select the gender of their
future child.
e. Our genes always influence our environment.
5) A drug that mimics the effects of
neurotransmitters, thus enhancing production is called
A) antagonist.
B) hormone.
C) endorphin.
D) neurotransmitter.
E) agonist.
3) A maximum level of sexual arousal is reached during the ________
phase of the human sexual response cycle.
A) orgasm
B) plateau
D) excitement
E) climax
6. ________ is a procedure for changing behavior by
reinforcing responses that approach the desired goal. 6.
a) Shaping
b) Molding
c) Natural selection
d) Counterconditioning
e) Behavioral analysis
8) The ________ is a limbic region that ultimately
controls the endocrine system.
A) adrenal cortex
B) pituitary gland
C) reticular formation
D) amygdala
E) hypothalamus
12) According to the work of Stephen Kosslyn, he found that
when participants were asked about objects
A) most individuals are easily hypnotizable.
B) they took the same amount of time to respond regardless
of how large or small the detail asked for was.
C) it took tem no longer to respond regardless of whether or
not they had to rotate and object.
D) they took longer to respond as the details asked for
became smaller.
E) it took them longer to rotate objects in space.
12) Alfred works in a laboratory at The University of
Freud, he runs rats through mazes to determine how long
it will take them to form a cognitive map. Alfred is
primarily working the the field of
A) Experimental Psychology.
B) Industrial/Organizational Psychology.
C) Applied Psychology.
D) School Psychology.
E) Engineering Psychology.
7) If you attribute your success on an an exam to your study habits,
you are using ________ to explain your performance.
A) external locus of control
B) internal locus of control
C) unconscious motivation
D) preconscious motivation
E) intrinsic motivation
16) Sleep apnea is
A) common in premature infants.
B) associated with high blood oxygen levels.
C) a lower respiratory sleep disorder.
D) a common cause of insomnia.
E) a surgical technique that can prevent loud snoring.
10. New information is related to older memory
information during the memory process of 10.
a. rehearsing.
b. elaboration.
c. encoding.
d. storage.
e. retrieval.
13) Hearing a bird sing involves the transfer of
auditory information from the ear through the spinal
cord, then the reticular activating system, then to the
________ which will direct messages to the auditory
A) Broca's area
B) the pons
C) the auditory hemisphere
D) the hypothalamus
E) the thalamus
8) The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a type of ________
A) personality
B) aptitude
C) achievement
D) projection
E) intelligence
12) The sympathetic nervous system
A) only operates during times of low stress.
B) prepares the body to cope with a dangerous situation.
C) permits people to react with empathy to tragic situations.
D) keeps rage and death instincts under control.
E) inhibits the release of hormones.
16) Randomization
A) reduces experimenter bias.
B) must be used with great caution.
C) is a good way to define the dependent variable.
D) is difficult to achieve in research.
E) ensures that studies can be replicated.
8. You are baby sitting one Friday evening and after
the children are in bed you decide to watch the movie
'Scream'. After watching the movie you are sure that
you hear sounds coming from the basement and are
frightened that there may be a killer in the house. In
reality the chances that someone has broken into the
house are no better than they were before you watched
the film, however your are still scared. This is an
example of which of the following
a. hindsight bias.
b. confirmation bias.
c. an anchoring bias.
d. the availability heuristic.
e. divergent thinking.
19) A scientist who is skeptical about a particular
study can decide to run that study in their
laboratory. This would represent ________ the
original research study.
A) rearranging
B) referencing
C) reanalyzing
D) replicating
E) reconfiguring
18) A Necker cube is an example of a(n) 18)
a. Gestalt creation.
b. phosphene.
c. mental set.
d. ambiguous figure.
e. pheromone.
19. Judy has cancer and is receiving chemotherapy at a
local hospital. Her parents notice that she now rejects
food that she willingly ate last week (before
chemotherapy). Through the process of ________, the
food is now acting as ________. 19. ______
a) negative reinforcement; conditioned stimulus
b) aversive conditioning; conditioned stimulus
c) appetitive conditioning; conditioned stimulus
d) operant conditioning; negative reinforcer
e) conditioned reinforcement; unconditioned response
18) A key step in the Integrated Anger Management program is to
A) rid oneself of unrealistic goals.
B) eliminate most sources of anger.
C) use anger in a healthy way.
D) learn to express safely anger.
E) understand the purpose of anger.
21. Randomization 21. ______
a. is a good way to define the dependent variable.
b. reduces experimenter bias.
c. must be used with great caution.
d. ensures that studies can be replicated.
e. is difficult to achieve in research.
20) A theory is
A) an unsupported opinion.
B) a testable explanation for the data.
C) a statement that has not been supported with
D) the opposite of a fact.
E) a possible conclusion
10) Which of the following does not happen during
REM sleep?
A) sleep walking
B) sleep paralysis
C) vivid images and thoughts
D) dreams
E) All of the above occur in REM sleep
6. A heuristic is BEST described as a 6. _______
a. schema.
b. step-by-step procedure.
c. rule of thumb.
d. time-consuming process that guarantees success.
e. categorization process from general to specific.
16. Which of the following is true of the difference
between operant and classical conditioning? 16. ______
a) Classical conditioning is used to learn new useful
b) Classical conditioning requires a stimulus that follows the
c) Food is presented after the response in classical
d) Operant conditioning involves the modification of an old
e) Food is presented before the response in classical
21) Empirical research is important because it
A) tests theories by using good scientific practices.
B) allows psychology to use data to drive it's
C) allows psychology to rely on more than just
D) can eliminate the flaws of pseudoscience.
E) All of the above are correct.
15) Which of the following is NOT true of daydreams?
A) They occur more often in those with fantasy prone
B) They magnify unwanted thoughts or obsessions.
C) They are under our control.
D) They are most common in young adults.
E) They help us to creatively confront and solve problems.
22) Which of the following processes are involved in
natural selection, the driving force behind evolution?
A) Al l are correct
B) The offspring of some individuals survive in greater
numbers than do those of others.
C) Individuals best adapted to the environment have a
survival advantage.
D) Individuals that are poorly adapted tend to have
fewer offspring.
E) Some individuals reproduce more successfully than
1) The principle that predict when parents of
newborn's hear their children crying but siblings
sleep through the night. 1) _______
a. difference threshold
b. Weber's law
c. absolute threshold
d. signal detection theory
e. sensory adaptation
13) Which of the following is a definition of
consciousness suggested by the Core Concept of this
A) Consciousness allows us to respond reflexively, without
B) Consciousness controls the autonomic nervous system.
C) Consciousness makes us more alert.
D) Consciousness processes information serially.
E) All levels of consciousness are essentially the same.
A study in which participation is NOT voluntary and
informed is said to involve
A.A double-blind control
E.Counter conditioning
20) Sleep apnea can be dangerous for adults because it
A) can cause a migraine.
B) causes lower back pain.
C) can reduce heart rate.
D) causes a loss of muscle tone.
E) elevates blood pressure, which in turn stresses the
21) People with emotional intelligence
A) are extremely emotionally responsive
B) are extremely intelligent.
C) know how to control their emotional responses.
D) feel no emotions.
E) can always deceive a polygrapher.
23) Which two factors are emphasized by the two-factor
theory of emotion?
A) biological arousal and cognitive interpretation
B) biological arousal and subjective feelings
C) cognitive interpretation and behavioral expression
D) subjective feelings and cognitive interpretation
E) subjective feelings and behavioral expression
5) Loudness is determined by sound 5) _______
a. pitch.
b. speed.
c. amplitude.
d. frequency.
e. quality.
Dr. Dolin wants to test the effects his new “wonder drug,”
which he believes provides individuals with an
abundance of memory ability. He gives 50 males the
drug while 50 males receive a placebo. His patients do
not know whether they are taking the placebo or drug.
Then, he has one of his research assistants use a test to
measure the memory of all of the test subjects. This
would be said to
A.Be a correlational study
B.Be a double-blind study
C.Be a study with no control group
D.Have 2 independent variables
E. Be difficult to replicate
21. If a set of data has a relatively low variability,
this means that 2. _______
a) the scores in the data set are statistically
b) the scores in the data set have a negative
c) the scores in the data set have a zero correlation.
d) the scores in the data set a closely clustered
around the mean.
e) the scores in the data set are extremely diverse.
21) Who objected most strenuously to defining
psychology as the science of consciousness?
A) the Freudians
B) the cognitive psychologists
C) the behaviorists
D) the humanists
E) the neurologists
In an experiment, the factor that is controlled by the
experimenter is the
A.Independent Variable
B.Control Group
C.Experimental Group
D.Dependent Variable
9) A(n) percept consists of ________ in combination
with ________. 9) _______
a. stimulus; a receptor
b. afterimage; a motor response
c. receptor; a sensory pathway
d. sensation; associated meaning
e. phosgene; associated meaning
16) The process of ________ involves starting, directing, and
maintaining physical and psychological activities.
A) emotion
B) self-actualization
C) motivation
D) arousal
E) drive
3) The deepest point in the sleep cycle, when brain
waves activity is the slowest, occurs in
A) REM sleep, about one hour after falling asleep.
B) Stage 4, about a half hour after falling asleep.
C) REM sleep, about one hour before waking up.
D) Stage 1, about three hours after falling asleep.
E) Stage 4, about two hours before waking up.
14) Annie is working on a new perfume. her
perfume has hints of lavender and rose. She has
just added some more lavender, there is just enough
for her to detect the change. This is an example of
a 14) ______
a. transduction.
b. Fechner's Law.
c. absolute threshold.
d. sensory receptors.
e. just noticeable difference.
16) Which of the following best illustrates the idea
that perception is not an exact internal copy of the
world, but also based on one's experience in the
world? 16) ______
a. the Ponzo illusion
b. bottom-up processing
c. a bright light
d. jumping in response to a pinprick
e. the sound of a familiar tune
18) According to Freud, which of the following is likely to
be found in one's unconscious?
A) sexual urges
B) a person's internment at a P.O.W. camp
C) powerfully negative memories from childhood
D) threatening impulses
E) All of the above are examples of thoughts Freud
would suggest we hold in our unconscious.
Which of the following correlations shows the strongest
relationship between two variables?
E. –0.64
22) Which of the following statements is true regarding addiction?
A) The reinforcing nature of drugs ensures low addiction rates.
B) Some psychologists suggest that treating addiction as a disease
ignores the social and economic factors that surround the problem.
C) Research has proven conclusively that addiction is a brain
D) Most public health professionals view addiction as a character
E) The cycle of addiction is most efficiently broken with a
combination of punishment for relapses.
17) The most complex and highly developed sense
for humans is 17) ______
a. sight.
b. pain.
c. hearing.
d. taste.
e. touch.
20) Which of the following situations is NOT processed
primarily by the limbic system? 1) _______
a. You are feeling hungry because you have not eaten
since yesterday.
b. You remember how your grandmother's living room
c. You are trying to reason through a logic problem in
math class.
d. You feel aroused by the good-looking person sitting
next to you.
e. You get angry and want to hit a person who has just
bumped into you.
14) According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream
refers to
A) the setting of the dream.
B) whether the dream is in color or black and white.
C) the story line of the dream.
D) the symbolic meaning of the dream.
E) the emotional tone of the dream.
21) All of the following are examples of
descriptive Statistics except for 2) _______
a. range.
b. median.
c. mode.
d. statistical significance.
e. mean.
Which of the following sets of factors is ALL associated
with the indicated perspective?
A.Memory, personality, environment: Behaviorist
B.Changes through the life span, changes as the result of
mental illness, changes as the result of social pressure:
Developmental Perspective
C.Mental health, mental disorder, mental imagery: Trait
D.Neuroscience, evolutionary/socio-biological psychology,
genetics: Biological Perspective
E. Sensation, perception, memory: Psychoanalytic
23) Damage to the ________ would impair our
ability to plan and reason. 4) _______
a. spinal cord
b. cerebral cortex
c. autonomic nervous system
d. limbic system
e. hypothalamus
3. Intermittent reinforcement is particularly
effective for maintaining behavior because such
reinforcement 3. _______
a) has frequency and generalizability.
b) has discriminability and consistency.
c) produces resistance to extinction.
d) has predictability and physicality.
e) has popularity and generosity.
22) The two factors that determine the likelihood of engaging in behavior,
according to Rotter's social-learning theory, are ________.
A) want and need
B) desire and love
C) expectation and value
D) nature and nurture
E) time and money
8. ________ was a dietician be training, but during
an experiment testing the salivary gland of dogs, he
discovered ________ conditioning. 8. _______
a) Watson; observational
b) Pavlov; classical
c) Bandura; insight
d) Skinner; operant
e) Pavlov; operant
2. Because of the limited capacity of ________, it
is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a
freeway during rush-hour. 2. _______
a. echoic memory
b. procedural memory
c. episodic memory
d. working memory
e. sensory memory
24) Which of the following functions would be
considered a non conscious process?
A) telling your Mother you love her
B) digesting the cheeseburger you ate for lunch
C) studying for your psychology exam
D) painting a picture of a landscape
E) All of the above are non conscious processes
17) Robert Plutchik believes that
A) only individuals with a similar cultural background can
recognize one another's facial expressions.
B) there are 8 universal facial expressions that combine to form
many other emotional responses.
C) facial expressions are learned primarily as a result of
modeling our parents facial expressions.
D) there are no universally recognized facial expressions.
E) Eckman is correct when proposing the idea of seven universal
facial expressions.
Psychology is different from other disciplines, such as
psychiatry, which deal with people because
A.Psychology focuses on mental disorder
B.Psychology is a broader field, covering all aspects
of behavior and mental processes
C.Psychologists must have doctoral degrees
D.Psychologists do research
E.Psychologists have medical degrees
12. If Pavlov's dogs had been adopted by a nice family
after the experiments ended and they eventually
stopped salivating to a bell, but then suddenly when the
door bell rang they began salivating again they would
be demonstrating 12. ______
a) a neutral response.
b) stimulus discrimination.
c) spontaneous recovery.
d) an unconditioned response.
e) extinction.
13. One of the best therapy strategies for eliminating
conditioned fears involves combining ________ in a process
known as ________, first described by Mary Cover Jones.
13. ______
a) extinction and relaxation; counterconditioning
b) conditioned and unconditioned responses; discrimination
c) primary and secondary reinforcers; social learning
d) arousal and stress reduction; shaping
e) negative and positive reinforcement; aversion
Which of the following psychological perspectives
would be most likely to examine humans’ genetic
makeup and how that may influence behavior?
17. The findings of Wolfgang Kohler oppose the
statements of behaviorists, because 17. ______
a) animals are going beyond simple reward/
punishment behaviors.
b) the rats received food as a reinforcer.
c) the rats were demonstrating reflexive responses.
d) the rats behaviors were influenced by their
e) All of the above are correct
20. One likely difference between a psychiatrist
and psychologist is that a psychiatrist would tend to
use more 1. _______
a) talk therapy when dealing with clients having
b) cognitive therapy when dealing with clients
irrational thoughts.
c) medicine to treat those suffering from mental
d) research than psychologists.
e) behavioral modification with their clients.
The American Psychological Association guidelines
state that research participants must
A.Be paid or rewarded for their participation
B.Never be deceived under any circumstances
C.Never participate in blind research
D.Be debriefed after the study if the research
involves deception
E.Waive their right to privacy if they volunteer for a
22. In purely evolutionary terms, which one would
be a measure of your own success as an organism?
3. _______
a) your intellectual accomplishments
b) the length of your life
c) the number of children you have
d) the attractiveness of the individual you marry
e) the contributions you made to the happiness of
24. Experiments showing facilitated communication to
be effective were similar to the experiment that exposed
Clever Hans. Specifically, what did both experimental
procedures have in common? 5. _______
a) In both situations, correct answers were given about
half of the time.
b) They proved that someone was purposely trying to
provide false results for the studies.
c) Neither Von Osten nor the facilitators could see the
d) Both Hans and the autistic children were given
incentives for producing correct answers.
e) Neither the horse nor the autistic children could see
the questions.
1. During the memory process of ________, we
select, identify the correct format for the memory
system. 1. _______
a. processing
b. storage
c. retrieval
d. access
e. encoding
Which of the following best illustrates the job of an
Engineering psychologist?
A.A person who designs wheelchairs that are easier to
maneuver for those with physical restrictions
B.A person who drives a train
C.A person who produces personality tests
D.A person who works in a hospital helping individuals
who have been in an accident to recover lost skills
E. A person who creates a work schedule that will
maximize the productiveness of employees
18) Sleep and dreaming is regulated by the
A) hippocampus.
B) amygdala.
C) the pons.
D) pituitary gland.
E) thalamus.
7) Suppose that you are working in a sleep laboratory
where you are monitoring a subject's sleep recording
during the night. As the night progresses, you would
expect that
A) Stage 1 continuously appears.
B) the four-stage cycle gradually lengthens.
C) Stage 3 and Stage 4 sleep periods lengthen.
D) dreaming becomes less frequent.
E) REM periods become longer.
5. Absent-mindedness in a college student would
typically involve 5. _______
a. a failure of iconic memory.
b. trying to study while watching television.
c. a failure to encode a stimulus event.
d. a failure to connect new input to previously
stored information.
e. an old memory making it difficult to recall a
newer one.
9. According to Freud, those individuals who had
been held in concentration camps during word war II
would ________ these memories because they are
too painful to remember. 9. _______
a. repress
b. project
c. ignore
d. remember
e. displace
11) You are sleeping and are suddenly startled by the
fire alarm in your house going off, almost immediately
you are awake and ready to find your family to help
them outside. Which of the flowing areas of the brain
stem would most likely be responsible for your speedy
alert behavior?
A) medulla
B) pons
C) reticular formation
D) brain stem
E) cerebellum
8) ________ refers to the fact that we do not know
how the brain combines features into a single percept.
What do we call this lack of knowledge. 8) _______
a. The uncertainty principle
b. Combinatory confusion
c. Gestalt perception
d. The binding problem
e. Sensorimotor flux
11. The ________ theory claims that establishing
more connections with long-term memories makes
information more meaningful and memorable and
thus easier to recall. 11. ______
a. distributed learning
b. levels-of-processing
c. engram
d. spatial analyses
e. mood-congruent
12. Many individuals can remember an entire
sentence that is read to them even though it exceeds
the amount of information we can generally hold in
short-term memory. They do this by 12. ______
a. using long-term memory.
b. employing the method of Loci.
c. using their sketch pad.
d. using sensory memory.
e. using the phonological loop.
14) Secretions from the thyroid gland control
A) uterine contractions.
B) breast milk excretion.
C) stress reaction.
D) sperm production.
E) metabolism.
14. Professors who offer only a final exam grade for
the entire semester grade are forgetting the operant
conditioning principle that 14. ______
a) a single test may not assess what an individuals knows
about a given subject.
b) students cognitive abilities should be studies more
c) contingencies of reinforcement must occur with more
frequency to motivate behavior.
d) students may learn become conditioned to fear an
exam because it causes anxiety.
e) All of the above are correct
Which of the following measures of central
tendencies is most affected by extreme scores?
D.Frequency Distribution
According to the evolutionary approach to
psychology, behavioral and mental _____ should be
a primary focus of psychology.
14. Usually about 500 people attend the annual exquisite
Irish food festival. This year however about 5000 people
have attended because the word has spread that the boiled
cabbage last year was "out of this world". Kelly who is
organizing the event knows that there is usually 500 people
there, while she knows more people are in attendance she
estimates the crowd to be about 1000 people. She is
probably underestimating the crowd due to 14. ______
a. the representativeness heuristic.
b. mental set.
c. cognitive maps.
d. the anchoring bias.
e. self-imposed limitations.
2) The sensory pathways carry information 2)
a. from the sense organs to the brain.
b. from the muscles to the brain.
c. from the brain to the sense organs.
d. from the central nervous system to the autonomic
nervous system.
e. from the brain to the muscles.
15. ________ occurs when memories are
retrievable, but they are associated with the wrong
time, place, or person. 15. ______
a. Bias
b. Misattribution
c. Repression
d. Priming
e. Interference.
Ted is seeing a humanistic psychologist for therapy.
His psychologist is most likely to focus on
A.Cultural guidelines that shaped Ted’s personality
B.How Ted’s parents shaped his behavior
C.Striving for growth and developing potential
D.The conflict between personal desires and social
E.Ted’s unconscious resentment of his siblings
19) Nerve impulses that carry information travel
along ________ to specialized processing areas in
the brain. 19) ______
a. vestibular canals
b. nerve endings
c. photoreceptors
d. olfactory epithelium
e. sensory pathways
10) Nerve fibers that interconnect the left side of
the brain to the right side of the body (and vice
versa) cross over the brain midline at the
A) hypothalamus.
B) brain stem.
C) amygdala.
D) cerebrum.
E) thalamus.
17. Wendell is a great surfer but he never
considers surfing as a career, instead he goes into
accounting which he has no real passion for,
Wendell is exhibiting 17. ______
a. functional fixedness.
b. a heuristic.
c. self-imposed limitations.
d. an error identifying the problem.
e. a algorithm.
17) All of the following can be helpful in treating insomnia except
A) associating one's bedroom with sleeping only (not studying,
watching television, etc.).
B) having parents of newborn infants go about their normal day
instead of trying not to make any noise while the child is sleeping.
C) trying to reduce levels of stress on a daily basis.
D) using cognitive-behavioral therapy to get to sleep faster.
E) All of the above would be useful in reducing insomnia
18. Place the following stages regarding language
development in the correct order. 18. ______
a. babbling, one-word, two-word, telegraphic
b. one-word, two-word, babbling, telegraphic
c. babbling, two-word, one-word, telegraphic
d. one-word, babbling, two-word, telegraphic
e. babbling, one-word, telegraphic, two-word
19. The sensory register for vision is called
________ memory, whereas the sensory register for
hearing is called ________ memory. 19. ______
a. explicit; implicit
b. olfactory; auditory
c. declarative; procedural
d. iconic; echoic
e. implicit; explicit
4) The pattern of human physiological processes seems
to be controlled by an internal "biological clock" that is
A) coordinated by neurons in the hypothalamus.
B) set on a 12-hour cycle.
C) identical for all people.
D) unaffected by the world's daylight-dark cycles.
E) unrelated to work schedules and travel.
22. You are holding an ice cube in your left hand.
You touch it and find that it is hard and slick and
cold. Soon the coldness becomes painful. Most of
this information is processed by the ________, held
in the ________ lobe. 22. ______
a. somatosensory; frontal
b. motor; frontal
c. association; parietal
d. visual; occipital
e. somatosensory; parietal
6) Which of the following is true of dreams?
A) Men dream about men twice as often as they dream of women.
B) Americans seldom dream of being naked in public.
C) Adults are more likely than children to dream of large,
threatening animals.
D) Male dreams are more likely to feature friendly exchanges
rather than hostility.
E) Men are equally likely to dream of children than are women.
24. Using the Premack principle, once you have
finished studying for your next biology test you
should 24. ______
a. study for a different test.
b. do something you enjoy.
c. work on your biology homework assignment.
d. teach the biology material to a friend or
e. not study for at least two hours.
9) The drug ________ has a greater negative effect on
health than does all the other psychoactive drugs
A) heroin
B) alcohol
E) nicotine
12) Shannon reads Jason the words 'folk,' 'soak,' and
'joke.' Then she asks him, "What do you call the white of
an egg?" He replies by saying, "Yolk," when the correct
answer is albumen (or simply, egg white). Jason gave an
incorrect answer due to 12) ______
a. a perceptual set.
b. closure.
c. a perceptual illusion.
d. bottom-up processing.
e. the law of common fate.
7) In terms of sound waves, frequency refers to the
7) _______
a. physical strength of the wave as determined by
the listener.
b. loudness of the sound.
c. relative complexity of the wave form.
d. number of vibrations the wave completes in a
given time.
e. peak-to-valley height of the wave.
1) The ________ memory system is linked to an emotion
processing system that functions at an conscious level.
A) working
B) implicit
C) explicit
D) retroactive
E) long-term
2) From an evolutionary perspective, which part of
our brain is the oldest and looks much the same as
any other lower order animal?
A) frontal lobe
B) cerebral cortex
C) limbic system
D) brain stem
E) parietal lobe
2) The notion that some arousal can facilitate performance but that
too much arousal inhibits behavior is known as the
A) two-factor theory.
B) display rules theory.
C) notion of homeostasis.
D) inverted "U" function.
E) James-Lange theory of emotion.
6) The "master gland" is a term that refers to the
A) thyroid gland.
B) thalamus.
C) pituitary gland.
D) adrenal gland.
E) hypothalamus.
15) The process of ________ is responsible for the
conversion of physical energy to neural impulses.
15) ______
a. psychophysics
b. plasticity
c. adaptation
d. transduction
e. absolute threshold
5) In animal experiments. those who received lesions to the amygdala were
found to
A) have induced anxiety and fear.
B) suffer from impaired spatial ability.
C) have decreased capacity for language.
D) have an increased appetite.
E) have a decreased level of fear.
6) Which of the following hormones is often associated with depression?
A) steroids
B) serotonin
C) epinephrine
D) acetylcholine
E) norepinephrine
9) ________ is an arousal state that is adaptive for coping with important
emergency situations.
A) Motivation
B) Homeostasis
C) Emotion
D) Instinct
E) Perception
17) The genetic structure you inherited from your
parents is referred to as your
A) phenotype.
B) genetic hardiness.
C) genotype.
D) genomic identity.
E) chromotype.
11) The role of the limbic system in emotion is to
A) dampen emotional arousal.
B) arouse the whole brain simultaneously when we are aroused.
C) trigger the internal and external behaviors involved in emotions.
D) integrates the hormonal and neural emotional aspects.
E) makes a person's heart race when aroused.
10) Interior designers use the principle of illusions
to create 'space' in an otherwise small room by 10)
a. using many decorative accessories.
b. painting it in light colors.
c. painting it in dark colors.
d. hanging draperies the same colors as the walls to
make the walls appear longer.
e. placing much furniture in the room to give it a
cozy feeling.
9) Our ability to breathe is controlled by the
________ which is located within the ________.
A) pons; forebrain
B) medulla; brainstem
C) brain stem; medulla
D) cerebellum; midbrain
E) thalamus; forebrain
3) Frequency theory ALONE would best describe
how a person can hear pitches of 3) _______
a. 8300 Hz.
b. 5200Hz.
c. 4800 Hz.
d. 2200 Hz.
e. 890 Hz.
In an experiment to test the impact a sports drink
had on amount of energy, individuals were given
either water or a sports drink. They then watched a
television show about basketball for 30 minutes and
then were assessed on a number of physical tasks.
The independent variable is ________ and the
dependent variable is ________.
A.The amount of energy; the type of drink
B.The water; the sports drink
C.The sports drink; the water
D.The type of drink; the amount of energy
E.TV show; drink
9. Which one of the following is a conditioned
reinforcer for most people? 9. _______
a) food
b) sex
c) a sharp pain in the back
d) money
e) water
7. When your alarm clock rings loudly until you turn
it off, it is acting as a 7. _______
a) negative punishment.
b) positive reinforcer.
c) unconditioned stimulus.
d) positive punishment.
e) negative reinforcement.
14) Which of the following factors may contribute to eating disorders in young
A) trying to reach an unrealistic goal of thinness
B) seeing models who are extremely thin
C) the ability to have some control over their lives
D) being told they look good when they are thin
E) All of the above
4. For Pavlov, a tone is to food as 4. _______
a) a neutral stimulus (NS) is to an conditioned response
b) an orienting response (OR) is to a conditioned stimulus
c) an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is to an unconditioned
response (UCR).
d) a conditioned stimulus (CS) is to an unconditioned
stimulus (UCS).
e) a conditioned response (CR) is to an operant stimulus
22) John Dewey is well-known for founding which of the
following areas of study within psychology? 3)
a. Gestalt Psychology
b. learning by listening to lectures
c. progressive education which emphasizes learning by
d. memorization of facts
e. insight learning
11. If Tyler is given an allowance of $5.00 on every Friday
for doing his chores, we should expect that he will 11.
a) never know when he will be rewarded.
b) not do many chores until just before allowance time.
c) keep doing his chores, even when he no longer receives
d) do his chores to prevent punishment by his parents.
e) work hard consistently throughout the week.
15) Which two components are part of Schacter and Singer's theory of
A) our emotional and physical state
B) the situations we are currently in, and the environment in which we were
C) our physical and and psychological state
D) our physical state and the situation we are in
E) our physical state and the last time we felt a given emotion
7) Hormones are chemicals secreted into the
bloodstream by
A) neurotransmitters.
B) axon terminals.
C) endocrine glands.
D) synapses.
E) dendritic terminals.
15. The fact that taste aversions ________ poses a
problem for classical conditioning theory. 15.
a) part of our biological make-up
b) are difficult to measure
c) not consistent
d) learned through observation
e) generalizable
4. Highly emotional memories such as those which many
prisoner's of war have experienced may cause posttraumatic stress disorder. Recent research has found which
brain structure to play a significant role in these emotional
memories? 4. _______
a. hypothalamus
b. pituitary
c. reticular activating system
d. pons
e. amygdala
20) In almost all cultures, women tend to ________ than men.
A) show more anger during conflicts
B) use different emotional display rules
C) hide more emotions
D) be more emotional
E) show more sadness
24) A person who is trying to hide their true feelings will
A) tend to blink more frequently.
B) become more aroused.
C) show a forced smile.
D) show dilation of the pupils.
E) end to speak more rapidly.
23. Wavelength translates into ________ while
intensity will affect the ________ of what we see. 4.
a) amplitude; color
b) color; brightness
c) amplitude; brightness
d) brightness; color
e) None of the above
The occurrence of daytime sleep attacks is a symptom of
A) narcolepsy.
B) sleep paralysis.
C) insomnia.
D) sleep apnea.
E) daytime sleepiness.
2) ________ is(are) the leading cause of preventable
A) Risky sexual practices
B) Smoking
C) Morphine addiction
D) Alcohol abuse
E) Barbiturate overdose
10. Jenna walks into her science class laboratory, and she
immediately feels queasy. Today is the day her class is
dissecting frogs and she is sickened by the smell of the
formaldehyde. However, after an hour Jenna is no longer
sickened because of 10. ______
a) operant conditioning.
b) spontaneous recovery.
c) her reflexes.
d) habituation.
e) classical conditioning.
25) ________ is caused by a drop in blood plasma levels, while ________ results
from water moving through the cell walls of your body and escaping in the form
of sweat, urine, feces and moisture in your breath.
A) Volumetric thirst; hunger
B) Hunger; thirst
C) Hunger; osmotic thirst
D) Thirst; hunger
E) Volumetric thirst; osmotic thirst
23. Which of the following is NOT a monocular cue
for depth perception? 23. ______
a. interposition
b. retinal disparity
c. relative motion
d. relative size
e. relative height
8) Individuals may be drawn to stimulants for their euphoric
capabilities, however they side effects of stimulants may
A) decreased memory.
B) convulsions.
C) dehydration.
D) high addiction rates.
E) All of the above
3. Your friend Edward is lost and needs your help
finding the mall, you find out where he is and then guide
him verbally to his destination. Your ability to give
Edward good directions to the mall is based on a 3.
a. hindsight bias.
b. prototype.
c. hierarchy.
d. cognitive map.
e. mental set.
11) The ________ argues that we sleep in order to conserve energy.
A) evolutionary theory
B) Freudian view
C) homeostatic
D) activation-synthesis theory
E) clinical psychology view
19) Which of the following is true of hypnosis?
A) Hypnotic analgesia is blocked by naloxone.
B) Hypnosis is accompanied by delta wave activity of the
C) Hypnosis is a form of non-REM sleep.
D) Hypnosis is a state of awareness associated with
relaxation and susceptibility.
E) Hypnosis is a form of REM sleep.
20. A behavioral psychologist studying the causes of
alcohol usage would most likely 20. ______
a. determine patterns of alcohol usage within different
b. measure brain changes following alcohol consumption.
c. observe how people behave after consuming alcohol.
d. ask people why they consume alcohol.
e. ask people how they feel while they are consuming
23) According to cognitive neuroscience,
A) the consciousness mind has little access to the larger world of
mental activity in the unconscious.
B) consciousness does not exist.
C) consciousness has no relation to the brain.
D) creativity arises from altered states of consciousness.
E) consciousness is a product of the brain.
13) Jenny does not want to exercise, but she also does not want to be out
of shape for the upcoming tennis season. She is struggling through
________ conflict.
A) avoidance-avoidance
B) multiple approach-avoidance
C) approach-avoidance
D) approach-approach
E) None of the above
10) Overjustification is most likely to occur when
A) Marcia is asked out to her senior prom.
B) Peter receives a trip to Hawaii for being named Salesman Of
The Year.
C) Bobby walks his dog, Tiger.
D) Jan is punished for refusing to set the dinner table.
E) Cindy is given a trophy for riding her bicycle.
4) According to the evolutionary theory, the goal of both sexes is to
A) reduce anger and stress.
B) create as many offspring as possible.
C) achieve orgasm.
D) get a consistent amount of nightly sleep.
E) eat until full.
Which of the following correlation coefficients would
a statistician know, at first glance is a mistake?
Dr. Sutherland measures the blood pressure of 50 women.
She has 25 women exercise three times per week for eight
weeks. She instructs the other 25 women to not exercise at
all. After eight weeks, Dr. Sutherland measures the blood
pressure of all 50 women again. She finds that the blood
pressure decreased for the exercising women, but not for the
others. Which of the following could NOT be a
confounding/extraneous variable?
A.The blood pressure at the end of the study
B. The women’s blood pressure at the start of the study
C.The dietary habits of each woman during the study
D.The amount of stress in each woman’s life
E. The age of each woman who participated

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