8 Noun Uses - Madison County School District

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Nouns
A NOUN is a part of speech. It can FUNCTION in 8
different ways. (PRONOUNS stand in the place of
nouns & can function any way a noun can.)
1.
Subject
The subject USUALLY does the action:
a.
John ran away from the monster
b.
Five days a week my mother dusts.
c.
Nearing the yellow light, the driver sped up.
d.
“It’s not fair!” shouted John.
Note that occasionally, as in d., the subject can follow the verb.
Sometimes the subject receives the action. That’s what’s called a
passive voice sentence. There will always be a form of “to be”
(is,are,was,were,be) & a past participle (jumped, laughed, eaten,
spoken, sung, frozen, etc.)
a.
The song was sung a capella.
b.
The book was written in 1988.
c.
John was hit in the head.
Subjects can be compound. Compound subjects take plural verbs.
a. John and Mark play baseball for the Ridgeland Titans.
b. Math, science, and English are my best subjects.
Practice
Which of the answer choices is the subject of the
following sentence?
Because of his muscular definition, the bodybuilder
won the title of Mr. Universe.
a. Definition
b. Bodybuilder
c. Title
d. Mr. Universe
B. bodybuilder
Prepositional Phrase with definition being the object of the preposition (noun)
article
(Because of his muscular definition,) the
bodybuilder won the title (of Mr. Universe.)
subject
verb
(noun)
(action)
article
Direct
prepositional phrase: of = preposition
Object
(noun)
Mr. Universe (noun) = object of the preposition
Practice
Which noun is the subject in the following sentence?
“Ridiculous!” shouted Sarah in a frustrated tone.
a. Ridiculous
b. Sarah
c. Frustrated
d. tone
b. Sarah
“Ridiculous!” shouted Sarah (in a frustrated tone.)
adjective
action verb
subject
prepositional phrase
noun
in = preposition
a = article (non-descriptive adjective)
frustrated = adjective describing what kind of tone
tone = object of the preposition (noun)
Ridiculous! = adjective/exclamatory remark in this example
2. Direct Object
A direct object follows the verb & receives its action. It
answers the question “what” or “whom” in
reference to the verb:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
John threw the ball. (Threw what?)
Tomorrow morning Elisa will meet your sister and
brother. (Meet whom?) (notice this is a compound DO)
We helped him with his homework. (Helped whom?)
He doesn’t understand anything about that complex
story. (Understand what? “Anything” is a pronoun.)
While hiking, Alicia found a silver bracelet.
Practice
What is the direct object in the following sentence?
Jason and Paige have been playing the music of The Band Perry.
a. Jason
b. Paige
c. Music
d. The Band Perry
c. music
Jason and Paige have been playing the music (of The Band Perry.)
Jason, Paige
Compound subject
and = conjunction
verb phrase
have been playing what?
have been = helping verbs
music = DO
playing = main verb (action)
prepositional phrase
of = preposition
The Band Perry = OP (proper
noun)
Practice
What is the direct object in the following sentence?
Rachel and her sister Anna enjoy soccer and basketball.
a. Rachel
b. Sister
c. Anna
d. Enjoy
e. soccer
f. basketball
e. soccer
f. basketball
Rachel and her sister Anna enjoy soccer and basketball.
subject
conj.
Poss.
Subject
appositive action verb
conj.
pronoun
enjoy what? (direct object)
enjoy SOCCER and BASKETBALL = compound DO
3. Indirect Object
The indirect object follows the verb & answers to whom or
for whom in reference to the verb. (It can also be to/for
what, but it’s usually to/for whom.) The indirect
object is frequently a pronoun.
*You must have a DO to have an IO.
a. John gave me the money. (to whom?)
b. Elisa sent John a letter. (to whom?)
c. Addison bought Alex a car. (for whom?)
d. Momma made Kerry and me our favorite dessert. (for
whom?) notice that the IO is compound
Practice
What is the indirect object in the following sentence?
Dad fixed Jason some spaghetti for dinner.
a. Dad
b. Jason
c. some
d. Spaghetti
e. dinner
b. Jason
how much spaghetti?
Dad fixed Jason some spaghetti (for dinner.)
Subject
verb
action verb
Dad (noun)
Is the doer of
the action/subject
of the sentence.
Indirect
object
adjective
direct object
preposition object of prep (noun)
made what?
spaghetti= do
Made spaghetti for whom?
Jason = indirect object
for is the preposition
dinner is the noun that ends this
prepositional phrase
Practice
What is the indirect object in the following sentence?
Charlie handed Annie and me the report on Abe Lincoln.
a. Charlie
b. Annie
c. Me
d. Report
e. Abe Lincoln
b. Annie
c. me
Charlie handed Annie and me the report (on Abe Lincoln.)
subject
action verb
direct object
prepositional phrase
Ask yourself, “Charlie handed what?” REPORT = direct object
Then ask, “Charlie handed the report (DO) to whom?” Annie and me (IO)
Remember that you MUST have a direct object in order to have an indirect object,
so always look for the DO. Also, remember that you can have a DO and not have an
IO, but you CAN’T have an IO if you do not have a DO.
4. Predicate Nominative (Predicate Noun)
A predicate nominative follows the verb and renames the
subject. Predicate nominatives can also be referred to as
the subject complement.
Predicate nominatives follow LINKING VERBS (verbs of being –
am, is, are, was, were, has been, have been, had been, will
be, shall be, may be, might be, can be, should be, would
have been; other common linking verbs – appear, become,
feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste,
turn [depending on their use in the sentence])
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
John is a student.
A Christmas Carol remains my favorite book.
Elisa became a lawyer.
Addison will be an excellent surgeon.
Emory might be a private university.
Practice
Which of the following sentences does not have a linking
verb?
a. He became an honor student at Olde Towne Midle
School.
b. Josh Johnson was a famous track star in the 1960s.
c. Johnson started his track career at Baylor University.
d. Roasted peanuts smell wonderful.
c. Johnson started his track career at Baylor
University.
a. He became an honor student at Olde Towne Middle
School.
b. Josh Johnson was a famous track star in the 1960s.
c. Johnson started his track career at Baylor University.
d. Roasted peanuts smell wonderful.
Here is a useful trick if you are not sure if the verb action or liking: exchange
the verb for a basic verb of being (is/are, was/were). If the meaning of the
sentence has not changed, the verb is linking.
a. He was an honor student (linking)
b. Josh Johnson was (linking)
c. Johnson was his track career (THIS DOES NOT MAKE SENSE) Action
d. Roasted peanuts are wonderful. (linking)
Practice
What is the predicate nominative in the following sentence?
Peanut butter was the ingenious invention of a St. Louis doctor
in 1890.
a. Peanut butter
b. Invention
c. St. Louis
d. doctor
b. invention
Peanut butter was the ingenious invention (of a St. Louis doctor)
(in 1890).
Adjective
prepositional phrase
Prep. phrase
subject
linking verb
predicate nominative
Peanut butter = invention
You Must Know Your
Prepositions
Copy the list of Commonly Used Prepositions and Some
Compound Prepositions from p. 109 in your Language text.
Prepositions begin phrases, and the noun (or pronoun) at the end
of the phrase is called the object of the preposition.
(According to my English teacher), I must memorize prepositions.
Prepositional phrase
direct object
subject/pronoun
compound preposition
verb phrase
object of the preposition/noun
I must memorize what? (DO)
Practice
Which of the following sentences DOES NOT have a
prepositional phrase?
a. Before it rains, put your bike in the garage.
b. Turn down the stereo right now!
c. Karen, bring the newspaper in.
d. Will you read a novel by Ellen Raskin?
c. Karen, being the newspaper in.
a. Before it rains, put your bike (in the garage).
b. Turn left (on Maple Street) to get (to my house.)
c. Karen, bring the newspaper in.
d. Will you read a novel (by Ellen Raskin)?
In does not begin a phrase in this sentence.
In this sentence, the word in is an adverb telling
where.
5. Object of a Preposition
Prepositions are words that link the rest of the
sentence to their object. English is full of
them: of, near, after, before, from, to, through,
under, over, across, with…to name a few. A
preposition has to have an object, and the
object is a noun or pronoun at the end of the
prepositional phrase.
a.
b.
c.
d.
He left after class.
I work with your friend.
My best friend lives across the street.
Over the river and through the woods to
Grandmother’s house we go.
Practice
What is the object of the preposition in the following sentence?
The buried treasure is beneath the ancient Indian mound.
a. Treasure
b. Ancient
c. Indian
d. mound
d. Mound
The buried treasure is (beneath the ancient Indian mound.)
subject /noun
linking verb
preposition
object of the preposition/noun
6. Appositive
An appositive follows a noun and renames it.
a. My sister Rita lives in Virginia.
a.
The book I’m reading, The Scarlet Letter, is set in the
U.S.
a.
I met my friend Helene last year.
Appositive Phrases
An appositive phrase is an appositive with modifiers.
My teacher, Mrs. Andrews, went to Paris, France last year.
My teacher, the always sweet Mrs. Andrews, went to Paris, France
last year.
Notice the modifiers always and sweet. Mrs. Andrews is the
appositive, but the other words help to create the entire
appositive phrase.
Practice
What is the appositive in the following sentence?
Our hosts, Mr. and Mrs. Carrington, greeted us at the door.
a. Hosts
b. Mr. and Mrs. Carrington
c. Us
d. door
c. Mr. and Mrs. Carrington
Our hosts, Mr. and Mrs. Carrington, greeted us (at the door).
subject/noun
appositive/tells more about the
noun before it
prepositional phrase
Hosts greeted whom? us (direct object)
7. Noun of direct address
You use a noun of direct address when talking to someone:
a.
b.
c.
Juan, when are you going to leave?
Mr. Smith, I haven’t finished the list.
Professor Gellar, I need to turn in my paper late.
In the first example, you is the subject of the sentence and
Juan is the noun of direct address.
In the second example, I is the subject and Mr. Smith is the
noun of direct address.
Practice
What is the noun of direct address in the following sentence?
Please, Marybeth, pass the bread and butter.
a. Marybeth
b. (you)
c. Bread
d. butter
a. Marybeth
Please, Marybeth, pass the bread and butter.
In this sentence, the subject is the understood you
(you).
Please is an introductory word.
Marybeth is the noun of direct address.
Bread and butter is the compound direct object.
Don’t let these confuse you!
Traditionally, the following two usages aren’t considered
functions of a noun because they are adjective, but
they ARE nouns that function as adjectives.
8. Examples of nouns that function as adjectives:
a. I need a paint bucket.
b. Give him that water glass.
9. We also make nouns possessive so that they can
function as adjectives:
a.
b.
I met your mother’s friend.
We saw the clown’s face.

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