Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology

Report
Female Sexual Anatomy and
Physiology
Lucy Capuano Brewer, Psychology
Psy 25 – Chapter 4
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Some things to think about…
Name all the feminine hygiene
products you can think of?
Name all the masculine hygiene
products you can think of? Is there a
masculine hygiene aisle? Why not?
What is society’s message about the
women’s sexual anatomy?
What are the ramifications?
Is it a coincidence that the word
pudendum which refers to the external
female genitals is derived from the
Latin term meaning:
“something to be ashamed of?”
Feminine Hygiene Products
• Take a walk through a pharmacy and
notice the array of feminine hygiene
products:
• Douches, pads, tampons, feminine
deodorants,
vaginal
moisturizers,
sprays, powders, towelettes, creams,
soaps, etc.
• What are the psychological and social
repercussions?
• Shame, Fear, Sexual Dysfunctions,
Anger,
Unfulfilled
Sexual
Lives,
Vulnerable to Sexual Assaults, Eating
Disorders, Low Self-Esteem, Distorted
Body Images, etc
Female Anatomy
Female External Anatomy
Female Internal Anatomy
• This information is important because it will raise
your level of awareness and understanding about
your physical body. It is imperative that you learn
the changes you can expect to experience from
menarche to menopause as you live with your
female reproductive system
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
• Between 85 and 114 million women and girls living today have
undergone FGM, and approximately 2 million are subjected to it
annually.
• Typically performed on young girls (as young as three)
• Chances of infection high
• Tools of the trade include:
– Broken glass
– Scissors
– Razor blades
• Anesthetics rarely used
• Endanger physical and mental well-being
• Primarily done to ensure abstinence before marriage, and fidelity
after marriage.
• If women get no pleasure from intercourse, they will not have sex
when unnecessary for procreation or marital relations.
• Done under the blanket of “Tradition”
• FGM in a variety of its forms is practiced in Middle
Eastern countries, Africa – although mostly Muslim
practice – exceptions exist
• The term FGM covers three main varieties of genital
mutilation:
– "Sunna" circumcision: Consists of the removal of
the prepuce and/or the tip of the clitoris. Sunna in
Arabic means "tradition".
– Clitoridectomy (also referred to as excision):
Consists of the removal of the entire clitoris (both
prepuce and glans), and the removal of the
adjacent labia.
– Infibulation: (also referred to as pharaonic
circumcision) This most extreme form, consists of
the removal of the clitoris, the adjacent labia
(majora and minora), and the joining of the
scraped sides of the vulva across the vagina,
where they are secured with thorns or sewn with
catgut or thread. A small opening is kept to allow
passage of urine and menstrual blood.
• An infibulated woman must be cut open to allow
intercourse on the wedding night and is closed again
afterwards to secure fidelity to the husband.
External Genitalia
Individual differences in:
• The vulva refers to
Size
those parts that are
Coloration
outwardly visible
Shape
• The vulva includes:
are common
– Mons pubis
– Labia majora
– Labia minora
– Clitoris
– Urethral opening
– Vaginal opening
– Perineum
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MONS PUBIS
The triangular mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone
During adolescence sex hormones trigger the growth of pubic hair on
the mons pubis
Hair varies in coarseness curliness, amount, color and thickness
LABIA MAJORA
Referred to as the outer lips
They have a darker pigmentation
Protect the introitus and urethral openings
Are covered with hair and sebaceous glands
Tend to be smooth, moist, and hairless
LABIA MINORA
Referred to as the “inner lips”
Made up of erectile, connective tissue that darkens and swells during
sexual arousal
Located inside the labia majora
They are more sensitive and responsive to touch than the labia majora
The labia minora tightens during intercourse
CLITORIS
Highly sensitive organ composed of nerves, blood vessels, and
erectile tissue
Located under the prepuce
It is made up of a shaft and a glans
Becomes engorged with blood during sexual stimulation
Key to sexual pleasure for most women
Urethral opening is located directly below clitoris
Vaginal Opening - Introitus
• Opening may be covered by a thin sheath
called the hymen
• Using the presence of an intact hymen for
determining virginity is erroneous
• Some women are born without hymens
• The hymen can be perforated by many
different events
Perineum
• The muscle and tissue located between the vaginal
opening and anal canal
• Contains an abundance of nerve endings that make
it sensitive to touch
• An episiotomy is an incision of the perineum used
during childbirth for widening the vaginal opening
INTERNAL GENITALIA
The internal Genitalia
consists of the:
• Vagina
• Cervix
• Uterus
• Fallopian Tubes
• Ovaries
Pelvic Exam and Pap Smear
Once a year, twice year
Beginning in teenage years;
Baseline (even if not sexually
active)
Speculum: inspect the cervix and
Vaginal walls for discharges,
discoloration, lesions, or growths.
Pap smear: to detect cervical
cancer.
Bimanual vaginal exam: to
examine the location, shape,
size, and movability of the
Internal sexual organs,
searching for abnormal
growths and symptoms of
other problems.
Recto-vaginal exam: to gather
information about the
ligaments of the uterus,
the ovaries, and the Fallopian
tubes. It also helps to determine
the health of the rectum.
Vagina
• The vagina connects the
cervix to the external
genitals
• It is located between the
bladder and rectum
• It functions
– As a passageway for the
menstrual flow
– For uterine secretions to
pass down through the
introitus
– As the birth canal during
labor
– With the help of two
Bartholin’s glands
becomes lubricated
during sexual arousal
Cervix
• The cervix connects
the uterus to the
vagina
• The cervical opening
to the vagina is small
• This acts as a safety
precaution against
foreign bodies
entering the uterus
• During childbirth, the
cervix dilates to
accommodate the
passage of the fetus
• This dilation is a
sign that labor has
begun (10 cm)
Cervical Cancer
(Source CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
• Once was the leading
cause of death for
women in the U.S.
• Last 40 years, incidence
and mortality declined
significantly
due
to
widespread use of the
Papanicolaou (Pap) test .
• More than 12,000 women
were
diagnosed
and
nearly 4,000 women died
(2002)
• More than $2 billion per
year:
treatment
of
cervical cancer.
• Best Screening: Pap
Smear
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detects
precancerous cells
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Risk factors
Infection with certain
types of human
papillomavirus (HPV).
A high number of sexual
partners.
Many full-term
pregnancies.
Use of oral
contraceptives.
Infrequent Pap tests and
cervical examinations.
Smoking.
Diet low in fruits and
vegetables
Uterus
• Commonly referred to
as the womb
• A pear shaped organ
about the size of a
clenched fist
• It is made up of the
endometrium,
myometrium and
perimetrium
• Consists of bloodenriched tissue that
sloughs off each
month during
menstrual cycle
• The powerful muscles
of the uterus expand
to accommodate a
growing fetus and
push it through the
birth canal
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Fallopian
Tubes
Serve as a pathway
for the ovum to the
uterus
Are the site of
fertilization by the
male sperm
Often referred to as
the oviducts or
uterine tubes
Fertilized egg takes
approximately 6 to 10
days to travel
through the fallopian
tube to implant in the
uterine lining
Site of Ectopic
Pregnancy
Tubal Ligation:
Sterilization
• The female gonads or
sex glands
• They develop and
expel an ovum each
month
• A woman is born with
approximately 400,000
immature eggs called
follicles
• In a lifetime: about 400
to 500 fully matured
eggs for fertilization
• The follicles in the
ovaries produce the
female sex hormones,
progesterone and
estrogen
• These hormones
prepare the uterus for
implantation of the
fertilized egg
Ovaries
Ovarian Cancer
• Seventh most
common cancer and
the fifth leading cause
of cancer death.
• Ovarian cancer
causes more deaths
than any other cancer
of the female
reproductive system.
• Mortality and
incidence rates are
higher for white
women than for any
other racial or ethnic
group.
• $2.2 billion (in 2004
dollars) is spent each
year on the treatment
of ovarian cancer.
Risk Factors
• Most cases in women aged
50 years or older.
• Young women can still get it.
• Risk increase as a woman
gets older.
• Close relatives (i.e., mother,
daughter, or sister) has had
history of breast,
endometrial, or colon cancer
Screening
• At this time, there is no
evidence that any screening
test—CA-125, ultrasound,
or pelvic examination—
reduces deaths from
ovarian cancer.
(Source CDC)
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Breasts
Organs of sexual arousal
Contain mammary glands
Consist of connective tissue
that serves as support
Each breast contain 15-25
clusters called lobes
Each lobule is connected by
ducts that open into the
nipples
The nipples are made up of
erectile tissue
The pigmented around the
nipples are called the areola
Breast size is determined
primarily by heredity
Size also depends on the
existing fat and glandular
tissue
Breasts may exhibit cyclical
changes, including increased
swelling and tenderness prior
to menstruation
Fibrocystic disease: Lumps
that are noncancerous
Breast Self Examination
• BSE: Women need to examine
their breasts monthly
• This is a proactive approach to
detect possible breast cancer
• A supplement to clinical exams
and mammography
• Best time for a BSE is a week
after menstruation
• For detailed instructions and
video demonstration go to:
http://www.komen.org/bse/
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Breast
Cancer
Most commonly diagnosed cancer among women
in the United States, after skin cancer.
Second most common cause of cancer death, after
lung cancer, among American women.
More than 182,000 women were diagnosed with
breast cancer in 2002; more than 41,000 women
died in 2002
More than $7 billion per year (in 2000 dollars) is
spent in the United States on the treatment of
breast cancer.
White women are more likely to be diagnosed with
breast cancer than are women of any other race or
ethnicity in the United States.
African American women are more likely to die from
the disease than are women of any other race or
ethnicity in this country.
Trends: the number of new cases of breast cancer
diagnosed each year (incidence) has either
remained stable or decreased significantly during
the past 10 years.
(Source: CDC)
Breast Enhancement: pros and cons
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Breast
Cancer
Risk
Factors
Older age.
Younger age at onset of menstrual periods.
Older age at onset of menopause.
Older age at first birth.
Never having given birth.
Personal history of breast cancer or certain benign
breast diseases.
Family history of breast cancer (mother, sister,
daughter).
Treatment with radiation therapy to the breast/chest.
Being overweight (increases risk for breast cancer after
menopause).
Long-term use of hormone replacement therapy
(estrogen and progesterone combined).
Genetic predisposition, such as certain mutations in
BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
Use of oral contraceptives.
Drinking alcohol.
Physical inactivity.
Breast Cancer Screening
• Mammography is the best
method to detect breast
cancer in its earliest, most
treatable stage.
• Women aged 40 years or
older
should
have
a
screening
mammogram
every 1 to 2 years.
• Early detection of breast
cancer can save lives (20% 25% reduction in deaths.
• Men also run a risk; need to
conduct BSE
• Lumpectomy: Surgical
removal of a lump from the
breast.
• Mastectomy: Surgical
removal of the entire breast.
Most lumps in the breasts
are not cancerous
Menstruation
• Menarche, the onset of
menstruation signals the
bodily changes that
transform a female body
• Average age is 12.8
(Lowering due to Secular
Trend
• Amount of bleeding
varies from woman to
woman
• Blood color can vary from
bright red to dark maroon
• Usually occurs every 25
to 32 days
• Women can experience
fluid retention, cramping,
mood swings, weight
gain, breast tenderness,
diarrhea, and
constipation
Sex Hormones: Menstrual Cycle
• Follicle stimulating
hormone FHS• Luteinizing hormone LHsignals ovulation
• Estrogen- produced
throughout the menstrual
cycle
• Progesterone-produced
during second half of cycle
– Contributes to thickening
of the endometrium which
is shed during menstrual
phase if fertilization does
not take place
• Both FHS and LH are
produced in the pituitary
gland
• Both estrogen and
progesterone are
produced by the follicles in
the ovaries
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
SYMPTOMS
The symptoms of premenstrual syndrome recur during the
same phase of the menstrual cycle, usually seven to 10
days before your period begins.
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Weight gain from fluid retention; abdominal bloating
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Breast tenderness
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Tension or anxiety
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Depressed mood
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Crying spells
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Mood swings and irritability or anger
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Appetite changes and food cravings
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Trouble falling asleep (insomnia)
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Joint or muscle pain
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Headache
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Fatigue
Treatment:
Regular exercise, getting enough sleep, and diet changes reducing
your intake of caffeine, sugar, salt, dairy products and white flour);
Calcium supplements: Studies had shown that women with PMS
are more likely to develop osteoporosis
The Female Climacteric & Menopause
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Starting about age 45, women enter a period
known as the FEMALE CLIMACTERIC, the
transition from being able to bear children to
being unable to do so.
This period lasts about 15 to 20 years.
The most notable sign is MENOPAUSE, the
cessation of menstruation.
PERIMENOPAUSE may impact development with
similar symptoms (changes in hormones
beginning about 10 years prior to menopause).
For most women, menstrual periods become
irregular for about 2 years, starting at about age
47 or 48.
After a year goes by without a menstrual period,
menopause is said to have occurred.
The production of estrogen and progesterone
drop.
Symptoms such as "hot flashes", headaches,
feeling dizzy, heart palpitations, and aching joints
are common during menopause.
Half of women report no symptoms at all.
DYSMENORRHEA
• Painful menstrual
cramps
ENDOMETRIOSIS
• Common cause of
dysmennorrhea,
dyspareunia, and
– Painful menses
infertility
without evidence of a
physical abnormality • Endometrium fragments
and lodges in other parts
– Believed to be
of the pelvic cavity
normal body
response to uterine • Causes inflammation,
bleeding, scarring,and
contractions
adhesions
• Other symptoms :
• Causes are still being
– Nausea, vomiting,
studied
gastrointestinal
• Tx: Hormonal therapy,
disturbances, and
laparoscopic surgery, or
fainting
surgery
• Prostaglandins cause
forceful, frequent
uterine contractions
called cramps
• Fibroids, polyps, IUD,
PID, or endometriosis

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