2008 QA Dairy Presentation - UNL Animal Science Assuring

Report
A guide for livestock producers!
Daily Care and Management: Dairy Cows
January 2008
What is your Animal?
Your animal is not a pet. It’s your responsibility to
provide quality care and management for your animal.
Remember, your animal is a milk and meat animal. It will be
used in the food supply chain. Quality assurance starts
with you!!!
What is Quality Assurance?
A pledge or promise to perform
a degree of excellence
The starting place of products that
meet or exceed the expectations
of the consumer
Why is it important?:
-Educates producers on care and management
-Ensures wholesomeness of products
-Increases product value
-Promotes consumer confidence
Daily Care & Management
D
A
C
I
R
O
Y
W
S
Dairy Cows
Housing:
-Shelter barn with freestalls
-Pasture area for exercise and relief from
concrete
Ventilation & Fly Control
-Both need to be done to keep the animals
comfortable
Ventilation
Ventilation:
-Open sided barn or ventilation fans
-Prevents heat and humidity build-up
-Good system prevents decreased
feed and water intake
Signs of poor ventilation:
-Cobwebs
-Increased coughing
-Nasal Discharge
-Smells of Ammonia
-Mouth Breathing
Flooring
Flooring:
-Usually concrete
-Hard on the hooves
-Skid resistant
-Smooth vs. Textured
Dairy Cows-Feeding
Feeding:
-Feed the same number of times they are
milked daily (if milked 3 times, feed 3 times)
-Feed while they are milking
-Proper nutrition and feed particle size ensures
milk production and milk quality
-Body Condition Score (BCS) is important for
milk production
Water and Identification
Water:
-Continuous supply next to feed bunk
-Between parlor and feed bunk, ideal
location
Identification:
-Ankle band, most common
-Ear tag or Brisket tag
Injections
Injections:
-Never in hindquarter or in milking parlor
-Always give in base of neck
Hoof Care
-Trim two times a year to decrease
lameness, culling, and other hoof problems
-Good care increases performance and
longevity of the animal
- Spots other potential problems
Hoof Care Continued….
-Problems caused by nutrition, housing,
genetics, and management influence
problems
-The longer animals can rest, the better it is
on their hooves
Mastitis
-Caused by udder infection
-Costly- $1 billion/year
-Decreases milk quality and quantity
in some cases
-Two types:
clinical: seen with the naked eye
subclinical: microscopic
Mastitis Continued…
-Good control program
-Feed after milking, proper nutrition
-Clean, dry bedding
-VCPR-vet/client/patient relationship
Somatic Cell Count (SCC)
-Measure of milk secreting cells
-SCC is management tool for mastitis control
-Federal and State Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
(PMO)
-Somatic Cell Count should be 750,000 cc’s
or less in the bulk tank
SCC Continued…
-Four considerations for healthy environment
to lower SCC
-Sanitation
-Machine Function
-Managed Milking
-Mastitis Control
Learning Activity: Using
Proper Milking Techniques
Lameness
-Caused by laminitis, foot rot
-Associated with poor hoof care
-Prevented by proper nutrition
-Allow cattle to move at own pace
-Exercise on dry lots or in the
pasture for several hours a day
Biosecurities
-Cheapest, most effective means to control disease
1) Control disease within the herd
-Vaccinate against all epidemic diseases
-Isolate sick animals
-Develop a good vet/client/patient relationship
2) Purchasing replacement animals
-Quarantine for 30-60 days
-Test new animals for disease
3) Environmental and pest control
-Provide human foot baths at entrances
-Provide timely manure and dead animal removal
-Have rodent control program in practice
Biosecurities Continued…….
4) Disinfection
-Choose disinfectant that will work
against pathogens
-Follow the label on the package
5) Visitors
-Minimize number of visitors and
contact with animals
-Be sure all have clean clothes, boots, and hands
6) Employees
-Be sure all employees understand and follow the
biosecurity protocol
-Realize employee owned animals (dogs, horses, etc)
can be a possible source of contamination
Review
Why is quality assurance important?
How does feeding watering differ
from other species?
What are some ways mastitis can be
prevented?
How does lameness affect the animal?
This is the end of the first
section. You can continue on
if there are students who wish
to test out.
You are raising an animal for
milk and also their meat
Carcass quality is just
as important
Carcass Quality
Eating quality
-Tenderness and tasteful product
Value of animal affected
-Quality grade determined by carcass quality
-Bruising, Abscesses, Dark Cutters,
Injection Lesions
- Hundreds of millions of dollars lost per year
USDA inspects all carcasses ante-mortum
Bruising
-Caused by improper handling and
poor facilities
-Takes up to 90 days for
muscle tissue to heal
-Produces lower carcass weights
-Must be trimmed away
Trimmed Bruise
Untrimmed Bruise
Abscesses
-Areas of infection on muscle tissue
-Not visible on the surface,
may be fluid filled
-Usually caused by improper
injection procedures
-Must be cut away & discarded
Dark Cutters
-Caused by poor handling, stress
-Must be trimmed away
-Dark Cutters are dark red to
almost black; sticky or gummy
Dark Cutter
Injection Site Lesions
Injection site lesions—Beef
-1990: 20% of sirloin butts
-2006: Less than 3%
Injection site lesions—Dairy Cows
-1998: 60% of hindquarter rounds
-2006: Decreased by over 25%
This can cost nearly $2.00/head
Animal Handling
-Move quietly and patiently
-Cattle follow the leader
-If cattle bunch, move the leaders first
-Reduce stress
-Let cattle move at own pace
-Stress causes lower conception rates,
shipping fever, excess shrink, and
lower rumen and immune functions
-Avoid use of objects to get cattle to move
-ie: electric prods, whips
Animal Handling Cont….
-Avoid handling during heat of day,
if possible
-Use spotlights: cattle move to lighted area
-Use solid chute to prevent distractions
Flight Zone
-AKA “Personal Space”
-Animal tenses and moves away
-Size of zone differs for every animal
-Some animals you can walk up to and
others won’t let you within 6 feet or more
-Determine flight zone by slowly walking up
to animal
-Understanding flight zones reduces
stress and prevents accidents
Cattle Vision
-300 degree vision
-Can see everything except directly
behind them
-This is the “blind spot”
-Approach at an angle near
their shoulder
Blind Spot
Medications
-Over the Counter
-does not require a prescription
-Prescription
-Several types: labeled use, extra
label, and off label
-Must have good VCPR
Prescription Medications
-Labeled Use
-Use the medication exactly as specified on the
label
-Medicated feed may only be used as directed on the label
-It is legal and used by most producers
-Extra Label
-The VETERINARIAN prescribes a drug to be used in a
manner other than what’s on the label. This legal and used
when a good VCPR exists
-Off Label
-The PRODUCER uses drugs in a manner other than what’
stated on the label
-This is ILLEGAL
Medication Administration
-4 ways to give medications
and vaccinations
*Intramuscular (IM)
-Outer edge of muscle
*Subcutaneous (SQ)
-Just underneath the skin
*Orally
-By mouth
*Intravenous (IV)
-In the bloodstream
Record Keeping
-Keep track of all medications given
-Separate file for each animal
-Several items to include:
-Animal treated
-Treatment date
-Treatment dose
-Route of administration
-Withdrawal time
-Product
-Person administering
Other information that can be included:
-Location of injection
-Product Lot/Serial #
-Approximate weight of animal
Example of Treatment Record
First
Treatment
Final
Treatment
Animal
ID
Condition
Treated
Product
Name
www.cansheep.ca/english/images/programs/Records_dairy.pdf
Prescription
(P) or
NonPrescription
(NP)
Dose
Estimated
Animal
Weight
Route
Withdrawal
Date
Treated
By
(Initial)
Veterinarian Drug Order
(VDO)
-Vet approved list of medications used in
your operation
-Includes all products with withdrawal times
including vaccinations, antiparasitic drugs,
and all injectible medications (including vitami
-When all medications and vaccinations are
handled as if prescription, it’s additional
QA measurements
-Update every 90 days
Treatment Protocol Book
-Treatment plan when cattle get sick,
follow-up plan &/or alternative treatments
-Develop with veterinarian
-Veterinarian must sign
-Update every 90 days along with VDO
-Keep old files for at least one year
Injection Guidelines
-Give injections in front shoulders ONLY
-SQ, IV, and oral medications are best
-No more than 10cc per injection
-Space injections at least 4 inches apart
-Use proper needle size
-SQ=16-18 gauge and ½ to ¾ inch needle
-IM=16-18 gauge and 1to 1 ½ inch needle
-Consider: route of administration, size of
animal, site of injection, product given
Injection Guidelines Cont…..
-Properly restrain animal to prevent
broken needles
-NEVER mix injections
-Clean injection site
-Follow record keeping protocol
-Dispose of needles properly
Administering Injections
-Draw triangle in neck region
-Tent SQ injections
-Space 4 inches apart
Tented SQ injections
Activity: Injections &/or
Residue Activity
When to Change Needles
-Every 10-15 head
-Between cattle with known blood-borne
diseases
-If becomes contaminated with feces, dirt,
or chemicals
-If needle point damaged
-If needle bends
Disposal
-Place needles in a designated box
-Take to vet’s office for disposal
-NEVER PLACE NEEDLES IN TRASH
Review
-Carcass quality
-Affects value
-Caused by bruises, abscesses, injection site
lesions, dark cutters
-Increase quality by reducing stress, proper
handling, good facilities
-Animal handling
-Move quietly and patiently when cooler outside
-Follow the leader
-Solid chutes and light
-Flight zone and vision
Review Cont…..
Medications:
-Over the counter, prescription, extra label,
off label
Administration:
-SQ, IM, IV, orally
-Avoid IM if possible
-Keep records of all medication given
VDO and Treatment Protocol Book
-Treatments and medication approved for used on your
Injections:
-Follow all guidelines and record keeping

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