EAL and Communication At Pleckgate High School Mathematics & Computing College. Background information 85% ethnic minority pupils. 74% of pupils have EAL. >10 Verbal/Non-Verbal CAT discrepancy: Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 11 20% 18% 17% 21% 19% Background Reading age (on entry) 36% pupils < 10.6. White British heritage pupils also struggle with Literacy. What is an EAL Learner? “ …first language is the language to which a child was initially exposed during early development and continues to use this language in the home and community. If a child acquires English subsequent to early development, then English is not their first language no matter how proficient in it they become.” DfES 2007 What barriers do they face? Vocabulary gaps in commonly used words and serious gaps in higher order language. Literal vs. metaphorical understanding, idioms, puns, collocations In reading, struggle to decode meaning in texts. In writing, find it hard to express their ideas clearly. Example of an EAL learner’s struggle… The following question was asked on a recent KS3 Science SATs Paper: “How do blocked oviducts prevent fertilisation taking place?” Which word do you think the EAL learners struggled with? The Iceberg Model Bloom’s taxonomy Remembering (Knowledge) BICS Understanding (comprehension) Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skill Application H Cognitive and Academic Language Proficiency I G Analysis H E R Evaluating O CALP R D E R Creating What does this mean? They don’t progress as well as other pupils at KS3 and KS4. 3 WAHEED Umer VALLY Hasan SIDAT Nafeesa SHAH Aamna SAGHIR Junaid QURAISHI Tasneem QAZI Faisal 6 PATEL Shirin PATEL Heena PATEL Anisa NAVEED Zohib NATHA Salman NATHA Muniza MALIK Sofia KHAN Ismail IQBAL Aakif IBRAHIM Layla HUSSAIN Yasmin GHAFOOR Hizqeel DOUGLAS Harley CHOPDAT Nabeela BROWN Reece BROWN Jamie BHOBHA Hasim ALI Kamran Level EAL Pilot - Year 8 results versus fft target Y8 Model D fft target Y8 exam result 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 Talk Strategies for Managing Group Talk Pair Pairs to fours Listening triads Envoys Snowball Rainbow groups Jigsaw groups ‘Top Tips’ for managing group talk Clear roles Time limited Clear outcomes Scaffolding Question Token To keep pupils on task: Timekeeper Researcher Reporter Observer Recorder Organiser Orientation sentences Our group was discussing We were considering We were looking at Our discussion was about We were deliberating whether Sharing ideas through talk Statements to introduce opinion We believe We support the idea We hold the view We consider Connectives Adjectives to convey importance Main Key Significant Important Crucial Adjectives to convey intensity of beliefs / feelings Strongly Firmly Surely Firstly Nevertheless Moreover Alternatively On the other hand In addition Finally In conclusion Talk prompts for plenaries The main points in this lesson were … Today we covered … but the main point was … I thought … was useful because … I would like to know more about … I really understand … I found … difficult because … … would be useful for … I think this was similar to … because I can see how I could use this in … Another way of looking at this is … Spelling TASK Try and work out which levels the following words belong in. Write a level between 2 and 6 under each word. Spelling rules – Plurals When a word ends in y when do I change it to –ies? Strawberry Lady Donkey Jockey Similarity Storey Spelling rules – Plurals What about words ending in o? Potato Patio Rodeo Halo Tomato The –ible / -able rule Possible Manageable Acceptable Horrible Available Incredible Desirable Words ending in ‘shun’ How do I know whether to use -tion, sion or cian? Optician Conversation Occupation Electrician Beautician Expectation Musician Identify the prefix And the base word E.g. Dis—appear Un—necessary A rhyme or saying Never Eat Chocolate Eat Salad Sandwiches And Remain Young Use different parts of the body to spell E.g. knee, elbow, toe, bottom E.g. I before E, except after C Identifying the origin E.g. Bi = 2 Cycle = circle Kinaesthetic tactics Prefixes Rules Meaning Spelling Strategies Mnemonics Auditory tactics Phonemic segmentation Breaking the word into letter sounds E.g. D-i-a-r-y E.g. I am in parliament Words within words Syllabification Hearing silent letters E.g. Wed-nes-day Split the word into beats or syllables E.g. Re-mem-ber because Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants piece A piece of pie Birth Rate Is a measure of the number of healthy babies born each year per 1000 people in the population Standard of Living The level of wealth or comfort of a person, group of people or country Death Rate Migration The permanent movement of people from one place to another The number of deaths per year per 1000 people in the population Involuntary Immigrant A person who has come to another Migration The movement of people against their wishes country to LIVE there permanently Describes the planned and wanted permanent movement of people POPULATION Low population Density Refers to there being very few people living in an area. For example, in the countryside Pull factor Voluntary Migration Intra-national Migration The permanent movement of people within a country High Population Density refers to there being lots of people living in an area. For example, in a city Positive things which attract people to from one place to another. An example would be better job opportunities Crossborder Migration The movement of people that involves moving from one country to another Population Pyramid Push factor Negative things which force people to move from one place to another. A push factor may be an earthquake A type of bar chart that shows the population structure of a Civil war country (i.e. how many peo- A war between people of the same country Economic Migration The voluntary movement of one person from one place to another in pursuit of a better job or other financial reward (e.g. better hospitals) Writing Non-fiction text types Instructions Information Explanation Recount Discursive (argue) Persuade Analysis Evaluation TAP T Task What are the pupils being asked to write? Letter Article Report … A Audience Who is the piece for? Child Adult Formal / informal … P Purpose What is it trying to do? Persuade Inform Argue … Setting writing tasks 1. Blackpool settlement project. 2. Was King John a good or a bad king? 3. Write a recipe for a party fruit cocktail for publication in a summer edition of a teenage magazine. 4. Write about how to play your new computer game. 5. Design a leaflet for Year 6 pupils called ‘How to survive Year 7’ 6. Write an article about smoking in public places. 7. Write about the 3 convenience meals you tasted and give your opinions on each. The sequence for teaching writing 1 Establish clear aims 2 Provide example(s) 3 Explore the features of the text 4 Define the conventions 5 Demonstrate how it is written 6 Compose together 7 Scaffold the first attempts 8 Develop independent writing 9 Draw out the key learning 10 Review Key points Plan for group talk – include strategies for managing the activity: role cards, question tokens / talk toolkits (scaffolding) Spelling – offer a range of strategies for learning key words Writing – make TAP clear; follow the sequence for teaching writing Final Thought… Literacy is everyone’s responsibility not just the English Departments!!!!