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MAP Review Terms
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Vocabulary
Figurative Language
Text Types
Drama Terms
Poetry Terms
Literary Terms
Text Features
Non-Fiction Text Structures
Vocabulary
Analogy
• A comparison between two
different things in order to
highlight some point of
similarity.
• Example: Car : Street
Boat : Lake
Vocabulary
Synonym
• A word that has the same or
almost the same meaning as
another word
• Examples: Smart: Intelligent
Shy: Bashful
Weak: Wimpy
Vocabulary
Connotation
• The emotional and
imaginative association
surrounding a word
• Positive: I ate a moist
sandwich.
• Negative: I ate a soggy
sandwich
Vocabulary
denotation
• The strict dictionary meaning
of a word
• Example: Cool-Chilly/Cold
Snake-Slimy Reptile
Vocabulary
Antonym
• Words that have opposite
or almost opposite
meanings
• Examples:
–Bad: Good
–Amateur: Professional
–Freeze: Boil
Vocabulary
Homonym
• Words that are spelled the same
but have different meanings.
Bark
Bark
Vocabulary
Homophone
• Words that sound the same but are
spelled differently.
KNIGHT
NIGHT
Literary Terms
Exposition
• Beginning of the story
where characters,
setting, and main
conflict are introduced.
Rising Action
Literary Terms
A series of events that
lead to the climax.
There is a building of
suspense or interest.
Literary Terms
Climax
The major turning point
in the story which piques
the reader’s emotion by
placing the outcome of
the characters in doubt.
Falling action
Literary Terms
•All loose ends of
the plot are tied
up.
Literary Terms
Resolution
The story comes to
a reasonable
ending.
Literary Terms
Suspense
• Intense feeling while waiting to
know the outcome
• “What’s going to happen next?”
• Example:
Literary Terms
flashback
• A scene that is set in a time
earlier than the main story.
• Example:
Literary Terms
Theme
• The central or important idea
• The author’s message
• Example: Keep doing what
you love even if your
dedication is tested.
Literary Terms
moral
• A lesson or principle taught in a story
• Usually directly stated at the end of the
story
• Practical advice
• Example: Slow and steady wins the race
Literary Terms
Author’s purpose
• To Inform: teach a reader about factual
information
– Examples: Encyclopedia, Biography, News
report
• To Express Thoughts: an author pours out
thoughts and feelings
– Examples: Journal, Facebook, Blog
• To Persuade: the author wants the reader to
think or believe something
– Example: Political Speech, Advertisement
• To Entertain: an author wants the reader to
enjoy their writing
– Examples: Novel, Poem, Narrative Essay
Literary Terms
First person
• The main character tells the
story
• Uses words like “I”, “We”, and
“Us”
• Example: He was shaking me
and I wished he’d stop. I was
dizzy enough anyways. I could
tell it was Darry though….”
Literary Terms
Second person
• The author addresses the reader
• Uses words like “you”, “your”, and
“yours”
• Example: Class, you need to be in
your seats when the principal
arrives. Tom and Jerry, I’m speaking
to you as well. By the way, are these
comic books yours?
Literary Terms
Third person
• The AUTHOR tells the story
• Uses words such as: “HE”, “SHE”,
“THEY”, or “CHARACTER’S NAMES.”
• Limited: The narrator knows only the
thoughts and feelings of a single
character
• Omniscient: the narrator knows the
and feelings of many characters.
Literary Terms
foreshadowing
• Suggesting/hinting what
will happen later in the
story
Example: When Ruth Jones's alarm clock
woke her at seven o'clock that morning,
she had no idea that today would be the
longest day of her life.
Literary Terms
inference
• Inference Definition: drawing
conclusions or assuming something
based on clues in the text.
• Reading “between the lines” and
figuring out more than what the words
reveal.
• Other words that mean the same thing as
making inferences:
•
-Deduct -Interpret-Hypothesize
Literary Terms
summary
• Determine essential ideas and the most
important details that support them.
• Focus on key words and phrases of a text
that are worth noting and remembering.
• Helps remember the most important
aspects of a story
Types of Text
Memoir
• A type of autobiography
involving a portion of the
author’s life.
• About the personal knowledge
and experiences of the author
• Example: Elie Wiesel’s Night
relates his experiences during
the Holocaust.
Types of Text
parable
• A short story that uses familiar events to
show an ethical point.
Example: A man was beaten and left on the
side of a road. People kept passing by
without helping. In the end, his enemy was
the one to stop and help.
The ethical point in this story is to always
help others, even if it is not easy.
Types of Text
Primary source
• An artifact (document, speech, diary,
interview, letter, video, photograph,
record, ect.) created during the time
period being studied.
Ex. The Constitution
Types of Text
Secondary source
• A document that interprets or
analyzes primary sources. One
step removed from the actual
historical event.
Ex. A history textbook
Types of Text
Myth
• A legend that embodies the beliefs of
people and offers some explanation for
natural and social phenomena.
Example: In Greek Mythology, Zeus is the
God of the sky and is the cause of
thunder and lightning.
Types of Text
satire
• A work that makes fun of
something or someone.
Ex: “Family Guy” or “The
Simpsons”
Types of Text
Anecdote
• A short, humorous story about a real
incident or person.
Example: In his first year as
president, Barrack Obama had a
prank pulled on him. He is afraid of
spiders and his wife put a tarantula
in his office.
Poetry Terms
Meter
• The regular pattern of stressed
and unstressed syllables that
make up a line of poetry.
• Meter gives rhythm and
regularity to poetry.
Poetry Terms
stanza
• A group of lines in a poem is
called a stanza.
• Stanzas separate ideas in a
poem.
• They act like paragraphs.
Poetry Terms
Types of stanzas
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Couplet: a two-line stanza
Triplet: a three-line stanza
Quatrain: a four-line stanza
Quintet: a five-line stanza,
Sestet: a six-line stanza
Septet: a seven line stanza
Octet (octave): an eight line stanza
Poetry Terms
End and internal rhyme
• End Rhyme: Rhyme at the ends of lines of poetry
• Example: Seamus Heaney’s “Digging”
Under my window, a clean rasping sound
Poetry Terms
Haiku
• Haiku: a Japanese poem with 3
lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables.
(Total of 17 syllables.)
• Does not rhyme.
• Example:
Narrative poem
Poetry Terms
• A poem that tells a story which
has characters and a plot
• Can be several stanzas long
• May follow any rhyme scheme
(but does not need to rhyme)
Poetry Terms
limerick
-5 line poem with a rhyme scheme of
AABBA
-Has a ‘bouncing’ rhythm
• Example: I really don’t know about Jim.
When he comes to our farm for a swim,
The fish as a rule,
jump out of the pool.
Is there something the matter with him?
Poetry Terms
Ballad
• A poem written like a song
that tells a story
• Contains simple stanzas and
usually a recurring refrain
Poetry Terms
Sonnet:
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sonnet
Fourteen lines long
Has a fixed rhyme scheme
Traditional English Sonnets
• 14 lines long with ten syllables per line.
• made famous by William Shakespeare
• sometimes called Shakespearean sonnets.
• rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg
• Broken into three quatrains (stanzas of 4 lines
grouped) and a couplet at the end (2 rhyming
lines to make up a stanza)
Figurative Language
Alliteration
Repeated sounds occurring at the beginning of
words
Examples:
1. Sally Sells Seashells By The Sea
Shore
2. Mary Made Marvelous Muffins on
Monday.
Figurative
Language
Hyperbole
An exaggeration
Examples:
1. My date last night was the most
beautiful girl in the world.
2. My backpack weighs a ton!
3. I told you to clean your room a million
times!
Figurative
Language
personification
Human characteristics are given to
nonhuman things.
Examples:
1.The leaves danced in the wind.
2.The mountain held the clouds on its
shoulders.
Figurative
Language
Idiom
An expression” that means something
other than its actual words.
* You don’t take the words literally.
* It doesn’t quite mean what it says
Examples:
1. It’s raining cats and dogs. = It’s raining
really hard
Figurative
Language
Cliché
• Definition:
–An overused expression.
• Examples:
–“Everything happens for a
reason.”
–“Love conquers all.”
Figurative
Language
Simile
A comparison of two unlike things
using the words like or
as.
Examples:
1. His feet were as big as boats.
2. She dances like a princess.
Figurative
Language
metaphor
Compares two unlike things
***does NOT use like or as
Examples:
1. Her hair is silk.
2. She is a graceful swan.
Figurative
Language
onomatopoeia
• Noise Words
• Words that mimic the sound
they make
• Examples: Honk, Book, Crash,
Slurp
Figurative
Language
Imagery
– Language that appeals to a reader’s sense
of sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch.
– Helps a reader visualize
• Examples:
– “The lake was icy blue. The only sound
that could be heard was the chirping of
distant birds. The air was cool and crisp
on my skin and I could see my breath in
the morning air.”
Figurative
Language
Oxymoron
– An expression in which two
contradictory terms appear side by
side
– Often, at least one word’s meaning
cannot be taken literally.
• Examples:
– Jumbo Shrimp
– Working Vacation
– Small Crowd
Figurative
Language
Paradox
• Definition
– A statement that seems to contradict
itself, but may be true.
• Examples:
– “No one goes to that restaurant
because it is overcrowded.”
– “Don’t go near the water ‘til you have
learned how to swim.”
Figurative
Language
Pun
– A humorous play on words which
suggests multiple meanings
• Examples:
– “Where do pancakes live? In a flat!”
– “I used to be a baker but I didn’t make
enough dough.”
– “Seven days without pizza makes one
weak.”
Figurative
Language
Assonance
• Definition:
–Repeated vowel sounds within
words or at the end of words
• Examples:
–Sea and heat
–Some ship in distress that
cannot live.
Figurative
Language
consonance
• Definition:
–Repetition of consonant within or
at the end of words
• Examples:
–“But the father never answered a
word.
–“We passed the last tree.”
Figurative
Language
Irony
• Definition: Irony is the difference
between what a reader expects to
happen and what actually happens.
• Dramatic Irony: when the reader is
AWARE of something that the character
in the story is NOT.
• Situational Irony: What happens is the
OPPOSITE of what is EXPECTED
(unexpected twist).
• Verbal Irony: when a character says
something that is the OPPOSITE of what
is MEANT (sarcasm)
Figurative
Language
Word Play
• A witty or clever verbal
exchange
Ex: Catchphase, Apples to
Apples, Outburst all use word
play in their games.
Text Features
Footnote
• A reference, explanation, or comment
placed at the bottom of the page
• Example:
Text Features
Appendix
• A section at the end of a book
that includes additional
information that may be useful
• Too detailed for the actual text,
but still important to a reader
• May include: maps, tables,
charts, primary source
documents
Acts and Scenes
Drama Terms
• Act: Separates or divides a play
(drama)
– Includes several scenes
– Most plays have 2 or 3 acts
• Scene: A change of the group of
actors onstage during an act
– A small part of an act
Drama Terms
dialogue
• Dramas are written almost entirely in
dialogue (people speaking out loud)
• Since plays are written in dialogue, the
dialogue is not in quotations like it is in a
novel or story.
• Instead, a bolded or capitalized name
shows which character is speaking (see
example)
Example: BENVOLIO :Tell me in
sadness, who is that you love.
Drama Terms
Aside
• (Usually short) comment by one
character towards the audience.
• The other characters onstage do
not hear the comment, but the
audience does.
• Example: Zach Morris addressed
the audience on Saved by the Bell
while the other characters were
unaware of what he was saying.
Drama Terms
Stage directions
• Instructions to the actors, director, and stage
crew regarding scenery, lighting, music, sound
effects, and the way for actors to move and
speak.
• Included in the script
• Usually in italicized type and enclosed in
parentheses.
• Example:
Drama Terms
Monologue
• A speech where one
character addresses other
characters
• The other characters are
aware and hear the speech
Drama Terms
Soliloquy
• A character speaks to himself or
herself, relating thoughts and
feelings, and in doing so, also
shares them with the audience.
• Other characters are not aware of
what is being said, but the
audience is
Drama Terms
allusion
• A figure of speech that makes a
reference to people, places, events,
literary work, myths, or works of art,
either directly or by implication.
Example: Diane knew Sam had asked her
not to get involved in his personal life, but
she couldn't resist the urge to play Cupid
and set him up with Rebecca. (Cupid was
the Roman god of love)
Non-Fiction Text Structures
Chronological
Description:
• information is arranged according to a
progression of time
• Chron = time
Logic = Order
• Signal words:
• first, second third, before, after. when, later,
later, until, at last, next, following, finally,
eventually, ususally has specific dates
Non-Fiction Text
Structures
Sequential
Description:
• information is arranged in a step-by-step pattern
Purpose:
• to explain a process
Signal words:
• during, after, first, last, steps, stages, progression
Non-Fiction Text Structures
Problem/solution
Definition:
• a problem is presented and explained
• a possible solution is proposed
Signal words:
• problem, need, difficult, dilemma, challenge,
challenge, issue, answer, suggest, solve,
resolve, improve, if… then, affect, for this
reason, therefore, consequently, as a result,
result, since
Non-Fiction Text Structures
Cause/effect
• Description:
• A cause is an event that brings about another event.
event. Why did the event happen?
• An effect is something that happens as a result of the
the first event. What happened from the event?
• shows the causes and effects of various conditions
conditions
• Signal words:
• for this reason, consequently, on that account, hence,
hence, because, if…then, since, effect, as a result of,
of, therefore, for this
Non-Fiction Text
Structures
bias
• Bias is a preference for one side of
an argument.
• When writers are said to have a bias,
it means they allow their opinion on
a topic to influence what or how they
write about that topic.
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The author’s bias is against ____________
Example: Originally, Mayor Bloomberg made the inconsiderate decision
to not cancel the New York City marathon.
The author’s bias in favor of ____________
Example: Mayor Bloomberg made the wise decision to cancel the New
York City marathon after Hurricane Sandy.
The author reveals no personal bias.
Example: Originally, Mayor Bloomberg made the decision to not cancel
the New York City marathon.

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