MAP Review Terms • • • • • • • • Vocabulary Figurative Language Text Types Drama Terms Poetry Terms Literary Terms Text Features Non-Fiction Text Structures Vocabulary Analogy • A comparison between two different things in order to highlight some point of similarity. • Example: Car : Street Boat : Lake Vocabulary Synonym • A word that has the same or almost the same meaning as another word • Examples: Smart: Intelligent Shy: Bashful Weak: Wimpy Vocabulary Connotation • The emotional and imaginative association surrounding a word • Positive: I ate a moist sandwich. • Negative: I ate a soggy sandwich Vocabulary denotation • The strict dictionary meaning of a word • Example: Cool-Chilly/Cold Snake-Slimy Reptile Vocabulary Antonym • Words that have opposite or almost opposite meanings • Examples: –Bad: Good –Amateur: Professional –Freeze: Boil Vocabulary Homonym • Words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. Bark Bark Vocabulary Homophone • Words that sound the same but are spelled differently. KNIGHT NIGHT Literary Terms Exposition • Beginning of the story where characters, setting, and main conflict are introduced. Rising Action Literary Terms A series of events that lead to the climax. There is a building of suspense or interest. Literary Terms Climax The major turning point in the story which piques the reader’s emotion by placing the outcome of the characters in doubt. Falling action Literary Terms •All loose ends of the plot are tied up. Literary Terms Resolution The story comes to a reasonable ending. Literary Terms Suspense • Intense feeling while waiting to know the outcome • “What’s going to happen next?” • Example: Literary Terms flashback • A scene that is set in a time earlier than the main story. • Example: Literary Terms Theme • The central or important idea • The author’s message • Example: Keep doing what you love even if your dedication is tested. Literary Terms moral • A lesson or principle taught in a story • Usually directly stated at the end of the story • Practical advice • Example: Slow and steady wins the race Literary Terms Author’s purpose • To Inform: teach a reader about factual information – Examples: Encyclopedia, Biography, News report • To Express Thoughts: an author pours out thoughts and feelings – Examples: Journal, Facebook, Blog • To Persuade: the author wants the reader to think or believe something – Example: Political Speech, Advertisement • To Entertain: an author wants the reader to enjoy their writing – Examples: Novel, Poem, Narrative Essay Literary Terms First person • The main character tells the story • Uses words like “I”, “We”, and “Us” • Example: He was shaking me and I wished he’d stop. I was dizzy enough anyways. I could tell it was Darry though….” Literary Terms Second person • The author addresses the reader • Uses words like “you”, “your”, and “yours” • Example: Class, you need to be in your seats when the principal arrives. Tom and Jerry, I’m speaking to you as well. By the way, are these comic books yours? Literary Terms Third person • The AUTHOR tells the story • Uses words such as: “HE”, “SHE”, “THEY”, or “CHARACTER’S NAMES.” • Limited: The narrator knows only the thoughts and feelings of a single character • Omniscient: the narrator knows the and feelings of many characters. Literary Terms foreshadowing • Suggesting/hinting what will happen later in the story Example: When Ruth Jones's alarm clock woke her at seven o'clock that morning, she had no idea that today would be the longest day of her life. Literary Terms inference • Inference Definition: drawing conclusions or assuming something based on clues in the text. • Reading “between the lines” and figuring out more than what the words reveal. • Other words that mean the same thing as making inferences: • -Deduct -Interpret-Hypothesize Literary Terms summary • Determine essential ideas and the most important details that support them. • Focus on key words and phrases of a text that are worth noting and remembering. • Helps remember the most important aspects of a story Types of Text Memoir • A type of autobiography involving a portion of the author’s life. • About the personal knowledge and experiences of the author • Example: Elie Wiesel’s Night relates his experiences during the Holocaust. Types of Text parable • A short story that uses familiar events to show an ethical point. Example: A man was beaten and left on the side of a road. People kept passing by without helping. In the end, his enemy was the one to stop and help. The ethical point in this story is to always help others, even if it is not easy. Types of Text Primary source • An artifact (document, speech, diary, interview, letter, video, photograph, record, ect.) created during the time period being studied. Ex. The Constitution Types of Text Secondary source • A document that interprets or analyzes primary sources. One step removed from the actual historical event. Ex. A history textbook Types of Text Myth • A legend that embodies the beliefs of people and offers some explanation for natural and social phenomena. Example: In Greek Mythology, Zeus is the God of the sky and is the cause of thunder and lightning. Types of Text satire • A work that makes fun of something or someone. Ex: “Family Guy” or “The Simpsons” Types of Text Anecdote • A short, humorous story about a real incident or person. Example: In his first year as president, Barrack Obama had a prank pulled on him. He is afraid of spiders and his wife put a tarantula in his office. Poetry Terms Meter • The regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that make up a line of poetry. • Meter gives rhythm and regularity to poetry. Poetry Terms stanza • A group of lines in a poem is called a stanza. • Stanzas separate ideas in a poem. • They act like paragraphs. Poetry Terms Types of stanzas • • • • • • • Couplet: a two-line stanza Triplet: a three-line stanza Quatrain: a four-line stanza Quintet: a five-line stanza, Sestet: a six-line stanza Septet: a seven line stanza Octet (octave): an eight line stanza Poetry Terms End and internal rhyme • End Rhyme: Rhyme at the ends of lines of poetry • Example: Seamus Heaney’s “Digging” Under my window, a clean rasping sound Poetry Terms Haiku • Haiku: a Japanese poem with 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. (Total of 17 syllables.) • Does not rhyme. • Example: Narrative poem Poetry Terms • A poem that tells a story which has characters and a plot • Can be several stanzas long • May follow any rhyme scheme (but does not need to rhyme) Poetry Terms limerick -5 line poem with a rhyme scheme of AABBA -Has a ‘bouncing’ rhythm • Example: I really don’t know about Jim. When he comes to our farm for a swim, The fish as a rule, jump out of the pool. Is there something the matter with him? Poetry Terms Ballad • A poem written like a song that tells a story • Contains simple stanzas and usually a recurring refrain Poetry Terms Sonnet: • • sonnet Fourteen lines long Has a fixed rhyme scheme Traditional English Sonnets • 14 lines long with ten syllables per line. • made famous by William Shakespeare • sometimes called Shakespearean sonnets. • rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg • Broken into three quatrains (stanzas of 4 lines grouped) and a couplet at the end (2 rhyming lines to make up a stanza) Figurative Language Alliteration Repeated sounds occurring at the beginning of words Examples: 1. Sally Sells Seashells By The Sea Shore 2. Mary Made Marvelous Muffins on Monday. Figurative Language Hyperbole An exaggeration Examples: 1. My date last night was the most beautiful girl in the world. 2. My backpack weighs a ton! 3. I told you to clean your room a million times! Figurative Language personification Human characteristics are given to nonhuman things. Examples: 1.The leaves danced in the wind. 2.The mountain held the clouds on its shoulders. Figurative Language Idiom An expression” that means something other than its actual words. * You don’t take the words literally. * It doesn’t quite mean what it says Examples: 1. It’s raining cats and dogs. = It’s raining really hard Figurative Language Cliché • Definition: –An overused expression. • Examples: –“Everything happens for a reason.” –“Love conquers all.” Figurative Language Simile A comparison of two unlike things using the words like or as. Examples: 1. His feet were as big as boats. 2. She dances like a princess. Figurative Language metaphor Compares two unlike things ***does NOT use like or as Examples: 1. Her hair is silk. 2. She is a graceful swan. Figurative Language onomatopoeia • Noise Words • Words that mimic the sound they make • Examples: Honk, Book, Crash, Slurp Figurative Language Imagery – Language that appeals to a reader’s sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch. – Helps a reader visualize • Examples: – “The lake was icy blue. The only sound that could be heard was the chirping of distant birds. The air was cool and crisp on my skin and I could see my breath in the morning air.” Figurative Language Oxymoron – An expression in which two contradictory terms appear side by side – Often, at least one word’s meaning cannot be taken literally. • Examples: – Jumbo Shrimp – Working Vacation – Small Crowd Figurative Language Paradox • Definition – A statement that seems to contradict itself, but may be true. • Examples: – “No one goes to that restaurant because it is overcrowded.” – “Don’t go near the water ‘til you have learned how to swim.” Figurative Language Pun – A humorous play on words which suggests multiple meanings • Examples: – “Where do pancakes live? In a flat!” – “I used to be a baker but I didn’t make enough dough.” – “Seven days without pizza makes one weak.” Figurative Language Assonance • Definition: –Repeated vowel sounds within words or at the end of words • Examples: –Sea and heat –Some ship in distress that cannot live. Figurative Language consonance • Definition: –Repetition of consonant within or at the end of words • Examples: –“But the father never answered a word. –“We passed the last tree.” Figurative Language Irony • Definition: Irony is the difference between what a reader expects to happen and what actually happens. • Dramatic Irony: when the reader is AWARE of something that the character in the story is NOT. • Situational Irony: What happens is the OPPOSITE of what is EXPECTED (unexpected twist). • Verbal Irony: when a character says something that is the OPPOSITE of what is MEANT (sarcasm) Figurative Language Word Play • A witty or clever verbal exchange Ex: Catchphase, Apples to Apples, Outburst all use word play in their games. Text Features Footnote • A reference, explanation, or comment placed at the bottom of the page • Example: Text Features Appendix • A section at the end of a book that includes additional information that may be useful • Too detailed for the actual text, but still important to a reader • May include: maps, tables, charts, primary source documents Acts and Scenes Drama Terms • Act: Separates or divides a play (drama) – Includes several scenes – Most plays have 2 or 3 acts • Scene: A change of the group of actors onstage during an act – A small part of an act Drama Terms dialogue • Dramas are written almost entirely in dialogue (people speaking out loud) • Since plays are written in dialogue, the dialogue is not in quotations like it is in a novel or story. • Instead, a bolded or capitalized name shows which character is speaking (see example) Example: BENVOLIO :Tell me in sadness, who is that you love. Drama Terms Aside • (Usually short) comment by one character towards the audience. • The other characters onstage do not hear the comment, but the audience does. • Example: Zach Morris addressed the audience on Saved by the Bell while the other characters were unaware of what he was saying. Drama Terms Stage directions • Instructions to the actors, director, and stage crew regarding scenery, lighting, music, sound effects, and the way for actors to move and speak. • Included in the script • Usually in italicized type and enclosed in parentheses. • Example: Drama Terms Monologue • A speech where one character addresses other characters • The other characters are aware and hear the speech Drama Terms Soliloquy • A character speaks to himself or herself, relating thoughts and feelings, and in doing so, also shares them with the audience. • Other characters are not aware of what is being said, but the audience is Drama Terms allusion • A figure of speech that makes a reference to people, places, events, literary work, myths, or works of art, either directly or by implication. Example: Diane knew Sam had asked her not to get involved in his personal life, but she couldn't resist the urge to play Cupid and set him up with Rebecca. (Cupid was the Roman god of love) Non-Fiction Text Structures Chronological Description: • information is arranged according to a progression of time • Chron = time Logic = Order • Signal words: • first, second third, before, after. when, later, later, until, at last, next, following, finally, eventually, ususally has specific dates Non-Fiction Text Structures Sequential Description: • information is arranged in a step-by-step pattern Purpose: • to explain a process Signal words: • during, after, first, last, steps, stages, progression Non-Fiction Text Structures Problem/solution Definition: • a problem is presented and explained • a possible solution is proposed Signal words: • problem, need, difficult, dilemma, challenge, challenge, issue, answer, suggest, solve, resolve, improve, if… then, affect, for this reason, therefore, consequently, as a result, result, since Non-Fiction Text Structures Cause/effect • Description: • A cause is an event that brings about another event. event. Why did the event happen? • An effect is something that happens as a result of the the first event. What happened from the event? • shows the causes and effects of various conditions conditions • Signal words: • for this reason, consequently, on that account, hence, hence, because, if…then, since, effect, as a result of, of, therefore, for this Non-Fiction Text Structures bias • Bias is a preference for one side of an argument. • When writers are said to have a bias, it means they allow their opinion on a topic to influence what or how they write about that topic. • • • • • • The author’s bias is against ____________ Example: Originally, Mayor Bloomberg made the inconsiderate decision to not cancel the New York City marathon. The author’s bias in favor of ____________ Example: Mayor Bloomberg made the wise decision to cancel the New York City marathon after Hurricane Sandy. The author reveals no personal bias. Example: Originally, Mayor Bloomberg made the decision to not cancel the New York City marathon.