the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986

Report
the Education of the
Handicapped Amendments
of 1986
Public Law 99-457*
• Also referred to as: Part H prior to 1994 IDEA
reauthorization, and Part C post 1994.
Summary
Congress enacted and President Reagan
signed into law on October 8, 1986,
P.L. 99-457, the Education of the
Handicapped Act Amendments. These
amendments reauthorize the Education
of the Handicapped Act (EHA) and
include a rigorous national agenda
pertaining to more and better
services to young special needs
children and their families.
Table of Contents
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Background
The Population To Be Served
Who Diagnoses a Disability?
Controversy Over Defining a Disability
Programs
Implementation
Implementation Obstacles
References
Background
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Benefits of early intervention
Addresses gaps in EAHCA of 1975.
Congressional response and goals.
Funding
Research and Benefits
of Early Intervention
•
The mental, physical and emotional health of the very young
child is the foundation for all further development.
•
Research, along with programs such as Head Start, have proven
that early intervention is effective.
•
Research indicates that support and services to disabled
children and families will have the following effect:
1)
2)
3)
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The child’s development will not be as delayed as it would
be if left unattended until age 6 or older.
The stress for the family of having a handicapped child is
lessened and they are able to function more productively.
Because of these results, children and families are more
able to contribute to their community.
Because of these results, early intervention can prevent the
need for many costly services later in life.
Addressing Gaps in P.L. 94-142
• P.L. 94-12, the Education for All Handicapped
Children Act of 1975, created a “right to
education” for handicapped children between
ages six and eighteen.
• Along with that Act, Congress created the
Preschool Incentive Grant, which instead of
mandating that states serve children below
the ages of six, it provided a money
incentive.
• P.L. 99-457 included a new Preschool Grant
Program which was a mandate rather than an
incentive and provided three times the
funding for 3-5 year-olds.
Congressional Response and Goals
P.L. 99-457 states:
“The Congress finds that there is an urgent and
substantial need:
1) To enhance the development of handicapped infants
and toddlers and to minimize their potential for
development delay.
2) To reduce educational costs to our society,
including our nation’s schools, by minimizing the
need for special education and related services
after [they] reach school age.
3) To minimize the likelihood of institutionalization
of handicapped individuals and maximize the
potential for their independent living in society.
4) To enhance the capacity of families to meet the
special needs of their infants and toddlers with
handicaps.
Funding
The Population To Be Served
P.L. 99-457 states that “handicapped infants and
toddlers” are individuals from birth to age 2,
inclusive, who need early intervention services
because they:
a) are experiencing developmental delays, as measured
by appropriate diagnostic instruments in one or
more of the following areas:
cognitive development
physical development
language and speech development
psychosocial development
self-help skills
b)
Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition
which has a high probability of resulting in
developmental delay.
Who Diagnoses a Disability?
•
It is a multidisciplinary
evaluation that will be taken by
either a;
a) psychiatrist
b) school psychologist
c) other mental health professional
•
The evaluation will vary from one
situation, school to another and
from urban to suburb to rural
systems.
Controversy of Defining a
Disability
• The science of diagnosing mental
and emotional disorders in children
under three is at its developing
stages.
• “Labeling” young children is often
viewed as discriminatory.
P.L. 99-457 Programs
• Preschool Grant Program (3-5 year-olds)
• Handicapped Infant and Toddlers Program
• Individualized Family Service Plan(IFSP)*
- These plans require that families participate in
defining the child's intervention program.
* This is the centerpiece of Part C of IDEA.
•
Early intervention services may include:
-family training
-case management services
-counseling
-medical(diagnostic/evaluative)
-home visits
-health services
-speech pathology
-social work services
-occupational therapy
-vision services
-physical therapy
-assistive technology devices
-psychological services
-transportation
Implementation
• Public awareness campaign
• Federal funding
• States determine eligibility
definitions and standards for program.
• Mandates participating states to
develop statewide interagency programs
of early intervention services for
infants and toddlers with disabilities
and their families.
• Calls for Identifying an agency in
each State responsible for
implementing P.L 99-457.
Implementation Obstacles
• Fragmentation of services.
• Inadequate resources for referral
and coordination.
• The lack of common vocabulary
among personnel of different
disciplines and agencies.
• Delivery inflexibility to
accommodate the schedules of
working families.
References
Schrag, Emily. Sensitivities, Skills, and Services: Mental Health Roles in
the Implementation of Part H PL 99-457 the Education of the Handicapped
Act Amendments of 1986. An Issue Paper. (1988)
http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accn
o=ED300990
Martin, EW., Martin, R., & Terman, DL. The Legislative and Litigation History
of Special Education, The Future of Children, (1996) futureofchildren.org
Katsiyannis, Antonis, Yell, Mitchell L., & Bradle, Renee. Reflections on the
25th anniversary of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Remedial and Special Education; Nov/Dec 2001; 22, 6; Research Library,
pg. 324.
Photo references
http://chrismetcalf.imagekind.com
http://www.flickr.com/photos/shutterhack/2328014257/sizes/o/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ernstl/290427121/sizes/m/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/cdm/72250667/sizes/m/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/42972816/sizes/m/
Created by
Rajesh Barnabas
[email protected]

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