The Great Mughal Empire 1526-1858

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The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire
• Existed from 1281 to 1923
• one of the largest empires to rule the borders of the
Mediterranean Sea
• Rivaled China in size and economic power
• reached its apex under Suleiman I
• 16th and17th centuries
– among the world's most powerful political entities
– Countries of Europe felt threatened by its steady advance
• organization
– sultan in the top
• below his viziers, other court officials, and military commanders.
– A vizier is a high ranking political and/or religious official
Growth of the Ottoman
Empire
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Pre-Ottoman Turks
Earliest ancestors of the Turks in Europe were the Huns
The best known empire of Turks before the Ottomans were the Seljuk Turks
– The rise of the Seljuk Turks ended the nomadic nature of Turks
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Rise of a New Empire
The fall of the Seljuk Empire saw the rise of the Ottoman Empire
1453 C.E.
– Constantinople falls and becomes Istanbul
– Capital of empire
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1517 C.E.
– The holy sites of Islam - Mecca and Medina - are controlled by the Ottoman Empire
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For nearly 300 years the Ottomans expanded into the Balkans and to Persia.
By 1683 the Turks controlled Hungary in Europe to the Persian Gulf.
Initial Ottoman conquest and expansion was under their able leader Osman
(1299-1326).
Osman was a ghazi, or warrior, who was determined to spread the faith.
Height of the• Ottoman
Suleyman the Empire
Magnificent
– Reigned from 1520 - 1566
– Expanded the Ottoman Empire
from the gates of Vienna to the
Persian Gulf
– Siege of Vienna
• First failed campaign for
Ottomans
• Brought coffee to the Europeans
• Source of musical, theatrical, and
cultural growth for Europe as it
interacted with Islamic culture
– Claimed the role of Caliph of
Islam was held by the Ottoman
Sultan
Why Did The Ottomans
Succeed?
• Ottomans tolerated other
faiths—didn’t fight wars of
religious exclusivism
• Many in Old Byzantine Empire
were weary of corruption in
Byzantine state
Key Events of the
Ottoman State
• 1389 – Defeat the Serbs at Battle of
Kosovo.
• 1396 – Crushed the Hungarians and
foreign knights at Nicopolis.
• 1402 – Tamerlane defeats the Ottomans
near Ankara.
• 1453 – Turks capture Constantinople by
Mohammed II.
• 1517 – Turks captured Cairo.
• 1529 – First siege of Vienna.
• 1683 – Second siege of Vienna.
Safavid Empire
1501 - 1722
Founding
• From Persia to Afghanistan
• Founded by Safi al-Din
– A sufi mystic and 1st ruler of the dynasty
– (1322)
• Empire marked by continual clashes with
other Muslim powers
• 1399 – Empire becomes Shi’a
The Safavids:
Turkish conquerors of Persia and Mesopotamia
• Shah Ismail (reigned 1501-1524)
• Claims ancient Persian title of shah.
– Proclaimed Twelver Shiism the official religion;
imposed it on Sunni population
– Followers known as qizilbash (or "Red Hats/Heads")
• Twelver Shiism
– Traced origins to twelve ancient Shiite imams
– Ismail believed to be the twelfth, or "hidden," imam, or
even an incarnation of Allah
Battle of Chaldiran - 1514
• Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman empire
• Chaldiran today is in Azerbaijan
• Ottoman/Janissary forces
– modern weapons (guns…)
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Safavid/Qizilbash forces
considered firearms unmanly though they did have some
Results
Safavids crushed by Ottomans
Establishes border between Iran and Turkey
STRESSES IMPORTANCE OF GUNS
Shah Abbas the Great
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(1588-1629)
revitalized the Safavid empire
Territorial Expansion
Modernized military; sought European alliances
against Ottomans
• new capital at Isfahan
– centralized administration
• Post-Shah Abbas
– Steady decline
The Great Mughal Empire
1526-1707
Introduction
• Under the Mughals, India was the heart of a great Islamic empire and
a prolific center of Islamic culture and learning.
• Dynasty was the greatest, richest and longest lasting Muslim dynasty
to rule India.
• Mongol Descendents
• The Great Mughal Emperors were:
– Babur (1526-1530) The First of the Mughals
– Humayun (1530-1556) The Luckless Leader
– Akbar (1556-1605) The Great
– Jehangir (1605-1627) The Paragon of Stability
– Shah Jehan (1627-1658) The Master Builder
– Aurangzeb (1658-1707) The Intolerant
Babur 1526 - 1530
The First of the Mughals
• Babur was a direct descendant of the Turkish Ghengis Khan
and Timur from Tamerlane.
• Defeated the Delhi Sultanate & established the Mughal Empire.
– Gunpowder, a skilled commander, trained soldiers on horses contributed to the
victory
• Gained control of the whole northern India
– Made Agra capital
• He reigned for 4 short years and died at age 47 in 1530.
• Did not enact new laws or organization in the empire due to early his death
Humayun 1530 - 1556
The Luckless Leader
• After Babur died, he was succeeded by his son Humayun in
1530. Humayun was 23 years old.
• He was not a soldier and unlike his father, neither skilled nor a wise leader.
• Inherited a disunited and disorganized empire.
• In 1540, Sher Shah of Bengal defeated Humayun and took over the Mughal
Empire. The Empire was lost from 1540-1545.
– He was exiled but later regained power in 1555.
• Humayun died in 1556 after falling down the steps of his library; he is
known as “the luckless one”.
Akbar 1556 - 1605
The Great
• Akbar become the new Mughal ruler at the age of 14.
– Regent and his mother ruled in his name for 4 years
• Akbar was an ambitious and noble commander
– Built the largest army ever in the empire.
– Helped to conquer nearly all of modern-day northern India and Pakistan.
• Great administrator
– developed a centralized government
• It delegated 15 provinces each under a governor and each province into
districts and each district was further sub-divided into smaller sections.
• Best known for tolerance of his subjects (especially Hindus)
– Removed poll taxes on Hindus
• Invited religious scholars to debate him in his private chambers.
– Developed his own faith call Din Ilahi.
• Din Ilahi was a mixture of the other religions Akbar had studied from those
debates.
• Religion never caught on
Jehangir 1605 - 1627
The Paragon of Stability
• Jehangir succeeded his father Akbar in 1605.
• Opposite of his father
– Poor monarch and warrior but good at maintaining the status quo.
• He continued many of Akbar’s policies.
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Freedom of worship.
Fair treatment of Hindus.
Continued friendship and alliance with Rajputs.
Allowed foreigners like the Portuguese and English into India for
trade.
• Jehangir married Nur Jahan. She became the real ruler of
the empire until the death of her husband.
Jehangir Issues (specific)
• Under the influence of his wife and many
others, Jehangir was not an able ruler like
his father.
– He loved to drink and enjoy himself.
– He had to suppress many rebellions.
– Important posts in the court were given to
families, friends, and especially those close to
his wife, Jahan.
Shah Jehan 1627 - 1658
The Master Builder
• Shah Jehan succeeded his father in 1627.
• Better ruler than Jehangir.
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Restored the efficiency of government.
Recovered territories.
Maintained peace
Foreign traders were allowed into India and trade increased
considerably.
• The empire was expanded.
• Shah Jehan was a patron of the arts
– Built many great architecture buildings including the Taj Mahal
and the Peacock Throne, a brilliant gold throne encased in
hundreds of precious gems.
Shah Jehan
• Taj Mahal
– Built in honor of his wife who died during childbirth.
– Took over a decade to build and it nearly bankrupted the
empire.
• 1657 - Shah Jehan became seriously ill and a dispute
over the succession of the throne ensued between his
three sons.
• Aurangzeb deposed Shah Jehan in a coup d’etat in
1658. Shah Jehan was imprisoned in the Octagonal
Tower of the Agra Fort from which he could see the Taj
Mahal. He died in 1666 and was buried next to his wife
in the Taj Mahal.
Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707
The Intolerant
• Aurangzeb ascended the throne after disposing his
father and beating out his two brothers.
• Despot
– severely persecuted Hindus of Northern India.
• Empire declines under his reign
– He removed the tax-free status for Hindus
– Destroyed their temples
– Crushed semi-autonomous Hindu states
• Primary Interest - Promote Islam vs tolerance
Aurangzeb
• Aurangzeb over expanded the empire and strained his resources.
– Large sums of money and manpower were lost.
– He lost the support of the Hindu people.
– The over expansion of his empire weakened his administration.
• Aurangzeb died in 1707
s son Bahadur Shah succeeded him. Bahadur was so old by the time he
ascended the throne, he only managed to live a few more years. But at
this point in time, the government was so unstable and so weak, the
empire become an easy target of invasion and exploitation, first by the
Persians, and then by the British.
• The death of Aurangzeb and the short reign of his son led to the end of
the Mughal empire and the beginning of British Rule.
Aurangzeb’s Architectural Legacy
Taj Mahal, Agra 1631-1652
Shah Jehan
Bibi ka Maqbara, Aurangbab 1678
Aurangzeb
Built nearly 50 years apart, the Taj Mahal and the Bibi la Maqbara are very
similar in architectural style. Aurangzeb’s other architectural legacy included:
• Moti Masjid (Delhi Fort), Delhi (1659)
• Buri-I-Shamali (Delhi Fort), Delhi
• Badshahi Mosque, Lahore (1674)
The Success of the Mughals
• It is agreed among many scholars that the Mughal empire was the
greatest, richest and most long-lasting Muslim dynasty to rule India.
This period of Mughal rule produced the finest and most elegant art
and architecture in the history of Muslim dynasties.
• The Mughal emperors, with few exceptions, were among the world’s
most aesthetically minded rules. Although Turkish and Persian in
background, the Mughals were not Muslim rulers of India but Indian
rulers who happened to be Muslims. This idea is most evident in
Akbar’s obsession of a utopian India for Hindus and Muslims.
• The longevity of the Mughal empire can be contributed to a number of
factors. The Mughal emperors were ambitious and for the most part
able rulers. But Akbar is perhaps the Mughal emperor responsible for
much of the prosperity and harmony achieved during the Mughal
Empire.
• Akbar the Great, as he is referred,
perceived that 3 things were needed if
his Empire was to be stable and longlasting.
– 1. Fair rent must be fixed for the
peasant and a steady revenue for the
treasury,
– 2. The land must be ruled by men
who were impartial and responsible
to himself,
– 3. The Muslim must live at peace
with the Hindu.
• Akbar strove during his lifetime to
achieve these 3 things. He showed
tolerance to Hindu scholars and
women.
• By 1650, the Mughal empire had
expanded farther North and South.
Mughal Art
• The Mughal Empire and the Great Mughals will always
be remembered as a great influence on the artistic and
cultural life of India. Their architectural style can still
be seen today such as the Taj Mahal built by Shah
Jehan and the buildings at Fatehpur Sikri.
• The remarkable flowering of art and architecture under
the Mughal Empire is due to several factors.
– The empire provided a secure framework within which
artistic genius could flourish. Both Hindu and Muslim
artists collaborated to produce some of the best Indian art.
– The empire commanded wealth and resources that were
unparalleled in Indian history.
– The Mughal emperors were themselves patrons of art
whose intellectual ideas and cultural outlook were
expressed in the architecture.
Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India
•1526-1530
Babur’s victory at Panipat in 1526 established the
Mughal Empire and ended the reign of the Delhi
Sultanate. The rise of the great Mughal Dynasty in
India began with Babur.
•1530-1556
Humayun succeeded his father Babur and became
emperor. He was defeated and dislodged by
insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi regime. In
1540, the Mughal domain came under control of
Farid Khan Sur (Shir Shah Sur). Humayun died at
the age of 48 when he fell down the steps of his
library.
•1556-1605
Akbar, the most sophisticated Mughal commander
and leader, was only 14 years of age when he
succeeded his father Humayun. Under Akbar's
reign, Muslims and Hindu’s received the same
respect.
Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India
• 1605-1628
• 1628-1658
• 1659-1707
• 1857
Jehangir succeeded his father, Akbar.
Prince Khurram was 35 years old when he ascended the
throne as Shah Jehan, King of the World.
In the summer of 1659, Aurangzeb held a coronation in
the Red Fort where he assumed the title of Alamgir
(World Conqueror). After a bitter struggle with his
two brothers, Aurangzeb was the victor who took the
throne.
Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor, was deposed
in 1858. India was brought under the direct rule of the
British Crown. This brought the end of the Mughal
Empire.
Works Cited
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*http://asnic.utexas.edu/asnic/cas/faculty/Pages/mughal1.html.
http://k12bilkent.edu.tr/edweb.gsn.org/india.htm.
*http://www.islamicart.com/pages/empires/india/preface.htm.
*http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Archit/Mugarch.htm.
“The Mughal Empire, 1526-1707.” The Cambridge Encyclopedia of
India. Ed. Fancis Robinson. New York: Cambridge UP, 1989.
Moreland, W.H. and Atul Chandra Chatterjee. A Short History of
India. 4th ed. New York: David McKay Co., 1957
Wallbank, T. Walter. India: a survey of the heritage and growth of
Indian nationalism. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1948.
Welch, Stuart C. The Art of Mughal India. Japan: Book Craft Inc., 1963.
Wolpert, Stanley. India. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1965.
Wolpert, Stanley. India. Berkley: University of California Press, 1991.
Woodruff, Philip. The Men Who Ruled India. New York: Schocken Books,
1953.
*denotes sources from which pictures were obtained with descriptions

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