No Slide Title

Report
Water Safety
Conference 2010
Idrakua Lillian Amegovu
Drinking Water Safety Management Challenges in the Rural
Area in Uganda and Government Interventions
Introduction
Population of Uganda estimated now to be 31.8 million
Rural population is 85% of total (27m)
Rural ‘Safe’ water coverage in is 65% (17.6m)
Sanitation coverage is 69.7%
Access to hand washing facilities is only 21%
Rural population served mainly by point water sources:
GFS, boreholes, protected springs and shallow wells
Shallow wells and protected springs constitute about 54%
of groundwater abstraction technologies
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Challenge: Drinking Water Safety during Natural Disasters
Safety of drinking water can not be guaranteed during floods
and landslides:
During the 1997/98 El Nino floods cholera epidemic
affected 47.759 people country wide out of which 1.955 died
In 2007, out of 345 water sources tested by different
agencies, more than 57% were contaminated
E.coli=560
80% of protected springs were contaminated (graph)
There was an outbreak of cholera after the floods in eastern
Uganda affecting 532 people & killing 31
Compliance to E.coli by Technology Type During Floods
During the 2010 Bududa landslides and Butaleja floods,
critical infrastructure including water sources were submerged,
many water sources were contaminated and some cholera
cases were reported
100
90
Compliance (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Borehole
Shallow wells
Protected Springs
Technology Type
Compliance
Non Compliance
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Challenge: Groundwater Abstraction Technologies
Water quality is determined by the technology
type used for abstraction:
Compliance to E.coli by Technology Type
100
90
Compliance (%)
80
70
60
50
99
97
85
40
68
Graph depicts compliance to E.coli during
dry season for 429 improved drinking water
sources in 13 districts
30
20
10
0
GFS
Borehole
Shallow well
Technology Type
Compliance
Protected spring
Prioritize poor technology options where
WSPs are being introduced for small water
supplies
Non Compliance
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Challenge: Naturally Poor Groundwater Quality
National Water Quality database statistics

High iron levels: 0 – 5.440 mg/litre: GV is 1, MAC is 2.

Salty water in some regions and mainly crater lakes:
Chloride: 0 – 69.036 mg/litre:GV is 250, MAC is 500.

Hard water: 0 – 8.200 mg/litre (CaCO3). GV is 600. MAC is
800.

High Flouride present in volcanic rocks in Western Uganda:
0 – 42.5 mg/litre: GV is 2, MAC is 4.
key issue
Naturally poor water quality of improved water sources drives
communities back to using unsafe traditional water sources
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source
Drinking
Container
Progressive deterioration from source to
containers & storage due to poor personal and
domestic hygiene and water storage practices
Homes
120
100
80
60
40
20
AJULU
UNYAMA
AKWANG
LABUJJE
0
LABONGO
AMIDA
Compliance to E.coli (%)
Source
Ferrying
Container
COOPEE
Compliance (%)
Challenge: Drinking Water Contamination in Homes
IDP Camps in Northern Uganda
Health implication is several outbreaks of
cholera and other water borne diseases despite
the increasing national water and sanitation
coverage
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Challenge: Poor O & M
Several issues surround O & M:
ownership, resource constraints, spare
parts, non functional WUC etc
Poor O & M results in water contamination
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
E.Coli = TNTC
Challenge: Urbanisation
Lack of a comprehensive urban planning policy
Public Health Act (2000) prohibits construction
of pit latrines in urban centres; institutional
framework for enforcement is weak
Consequently many towns & peri-urban areas
have highly polluted water sources:
•pit latrine construction near water sources
•leaking septic tanks
•faecal sludge dumping in the environment or
drains during heavy rains
•flying toilets
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Government Interventions: Institutional and Legal Framework
The institutional framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRR)
is the National Platform at the centre and District Disaster Committees are set up
at LG level during emergencies
Grassroot structures for O & M: Water and Sanitation Committee/WUCs,
Caretakers and Handpump mechanics.
Functions of Caretakers & WUCs that are elements of WSP include
•ensure that the source is well maintained e.g. clean surrounding, well
fenced, covered soak pit
•carry out preventive maintenance of facility
•ensure clean containers are used for collecting water
• keep record on water source (documentation)
Existing structures at the community level can be built on when establishing a
comprehensive WSP for small water supplies
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Government Interventions: Institutional and Legal Framework
cont.
The National Water Quality Management strategy (NWQM); an
attempt to mainstream WSP concept into the legal framework
•recommends establishment of WSPs at all water facilities
•proposes a 3-tier water testing laboratory which includes
establishment of basic water testing laboratories for each
water supply scheme
•assigns local governments the role for operational water
quality monitoring, maintaining hygiene at water sources and
setting bye-laws
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Government Interventions cont.
Demonstration Water Safety Plan at Kyenjojo Water Supply
Challenges
•inadequate capacity of the private water operators
•inadequate documentation of the system (designs and equipment)
•Lack of record keeping
•finding skilled team members was a problem
•team members taking on additional roles on voluntary basis was an issue
•maintaining a constant composition of trained team members and
•identifying willing external stakeholders and engaging them.
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Government Interventions: Groundwater mapping
Six set of maps produced for each district:
•water sources location
•groundwater potential
•hydrogeological characteristics
•water supply technology options,
•water supply coverage and
•groundwater quality maps.
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Government Interventions: Using Appropriate Technologies
An Iron Removal Plant(IRP) has been piloted for on-site
treatment of iron
An IRP combination of an aeration tray and a filtration
unit
Efficiency of iron removal ranged from 58- 99%
main challenge of the technology is that slow flow rate of
some IRPs discourage use by communities
Ecological sanitation is being promoted in areas with
high water tables, soft formations, rocky grounds or
limited space such as peri-urban areas
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Government Interventions cont.
Development of Resource Materials
•A Community Resource book: provides guidance on how to improve
hygiene and sanitation practices at community and household level
•Participatory Training of Trainers Manual: This material focuses on
sanitation and hygiene, gender and HIV/AIDS
•A Handbook on Safe Water Chain: provides information on how to
maintain water safe from source, through collection, transportation to
storage and consumption
Partnership with NGOs, CBOs and UN agencies in hygiene promotion and
response to emergencies
Capacity building programs for LGs by central government (TSU) maybe good
entry points for capacity development in WSPs
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia
Conclusion
Can the WSP concept be stretched to incorporate adaptation
measures to climate change and variability for water supplies?
Comprehensive WSP for small community water supplies should
built on existing grassroot structures
Development of appropriate resource materials/tools can help in
water safety management at the community level
Partnership with relevant stakeholders (NGOs, urban planners and
municipalities) is key for hygiene promotion and catchment
protection
For scaling up WSPs and enforcing compliance, include WSPs in
policies and performance contracts
Water Safety Conference
November 2-4 2010, Kuching, Malaysia

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