Party Eras: o Majority of voters cling to the party in power. • Voters identifying as Republican during the reign of Republican Presidents Critical Election: o A “political earthquake” where there fissures occur within a political party. Minority party replaces the majority • The creation of the Tea Party creating issues for Republicans Party Realignment: o When the majority is replaced by the minority. • Usually caused by a large historical event. The First Party System 1796-1824 o The Federalists were the first party in the U.S. • Were crushed by the Democratic Republicans Jackson and Democrats vs. the Whigs 1828-1856 o Democratic party is created by Andrew Jackson 1860-1928 The Two Republican Eras o In the 1850s Republicans rose as the antislavery party o Maintained their popularity until Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression 1932-1964 The New Deal Coalition o Basic elements of the New Deal Coalition (Democratic) • • • • • Urban dwellers Labor unions Catholics and Jews Southerners African Americans 1968-Present Southern Realignment o Emphasis on State rights, military power, and law & order o With only 60% identifying as Dem or Repub. Its hard to tell the divide • Party dealignment: lack of identifying to a party. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s was successful in party due to strong individual leadership. Choose TWO of the following o Earl Warren o Martin Luther King Jr. o Lyndon B. Johnson A. Describe one specific action through which each individual helped advance civil rights for Black Americans B. Describe the opposition each person faced while trying to advance civil rights for African Americans In his role as leader, the President communicates with the public on many occasions. A. Explain how the President uses the strategy of “going public” to try to achieve his goals. B. Explain how three of the following might help the President “go public” The State of the Union Address Trial balloons Sound bites Press Conferences C. Explain why the President may prefer to use one of the above methods to “go public” more than others. A. Going public can lead Congress to act on the President’s agenda o Ex. President going public numerous times on healthcare B. o The SoUA: President communicates his goals for the nation through Congress o Trial Balloons: Can bring ideas to public without a direct connection to the President o Sound Bites: Allow excerpts of a speech to be communicated to get information out quickly o Press Conference: Making a statement directly to the public The framers of the Constitution established a representative democracy. Political scientists have developed at least three theories of American democracy – pluralism, elitism and hyperpluralism o A. Describe each of these three theories o B. Describe how the average citizen is to play a role in politics according to each theory o C. Choose one of the above theories. For that theory, explain one way in which it would support representative democracy and one way in which it would retard representative democracy.