The Jane Schaffer Writing Program The Multi-paragraph Essay Parts of an Essay Write these notes in your yellow JS Writing Packet What is an Essay? 1. A piece of writing that gives your thoughts (CD and CM) about a subject. Formal essays include: intro, body pgfs, conclusion Diff types of essays (also called “modes”): O O O Narration Exposition Information Summarization Persuasion Argumentation Analytical (Literary Analysis) Style analysis 2. The Introduction O First paragraph in an essay O Includes thesis, most often at the end O Begins broadly and narrows to thesis 3. Thesis Statement O Statement with subject and opinion (commentary) O Comes somewhere in your introduction (most often at end) O Acts as “roadmap” for entire essay 4. Body Paragraphs O Paragraphs between intro and conclusion O Each pgf. develops a point you want to make which supports your thesis statement O Each pgf. includes: TS, facts and opinions (CDs and CMs), and CS 5. The Conclusion O Last pgf. In essay O Begins narrow w/restatement of thesis then broadens O It may: O Sum up ideas O Reflect on what you said O Provide more commentary O Give personal statement abt subject 6. Transitions O Words, phrases, sentences that link ideas O Provide a smooth and logical flow to your thoughts Parts of a Paragraph Topic Sentence (TS) O First sentence in body paragraph O For lit analysis and narrative: Includes subject and writer’s opinion O For argumentation, expository/informational: includes subject 2. Concrete Detail (CD) O Specific details that form “backbone” of your body pgfs. O Facts, specifics, examples, descriptions, illustrations, support, proof, evidence, quotations, paraphrasing, plot references Transitional Lead-In to a CD (TLCD) O Phrase that introduces a quotation O Usually illustrates what is happening in the scene 4. Commentary (CM) O Your opinion or comment; not concrete detail O Your insights, analysis, interpretation, inference, personal response, feelings, evaluation, explication, reflection 5. Chunk O Smallest unified group of thoughts in a pgf. that combine CDs and CMs O Depends on ratio for each mode 6. Ratio (CD:CM) O Typically, Literary analysis = 1 Chunk O 1 chunk has a ratio of (1:2+) O 1 CD (concrete detail), plus 2 or more sentences of CM (Commentary) O Typically, Argumentation, expository/informational, narrative = (2+:1) O 2 or more sentences of CDs, plus 1 CM O Typically, Summary (3+:0) 7. Transitions O Words, Phrases, sentences that link ideas. O Transitions are important within and between body paragraphs. 8. Concluding Sentences (CD) O The last sentence in a body paragraph, the CS is all commentary. O Do not repeat key words from the paragraph. 10/15: Journal – “Camping” O Write about a time you went camping…(if you’ve never been camping, write about a time you spent outdoors) O Who went with you? O Where did you go? O What types of things did you do? What happened while you were there? O When did you go? O How often do you go camping? Process of Writing & JS Steps in that Process 1. Pre-Writing O Prewriting includes mapping, clustering, bubbling, webbing, brainstorming, free writing, and outlining. 2. Gathering CDS O Jane Schaffer “Gathering CDs” think sheet helps you determine which CDs you will use in each paragraph. O Also helps with providing preliminary CMs based on your CDs selected and helps with your Topic Sentence. 3. T-Charting O T-Chart is a think-sheet that helps you begin forming a paragraph with a Topic Sentence, CDs, CMs, and concluding sentence. 4. Web-Off-The-Word O The WOW think-sheet helps figure out different ways to say something. O Helps develop your vocabulary and own style of writing. 5. Web-Off-The-TopicSentence O The WOW think-sheet helps you create concluding sentence by selecting the most important words phases and ideas surrounding your TS. O Keeps you focused & not repeating yourself. 6. Weaving O Blending CDs and CMs O Once you have structured format mastered, you are ready to move to weaving 7. The Shaping Sheet O Step after Pre-writing and before the First Draft 1) Include transitions between ideas; 2) Vary your sentence openings; 3) Include different types of sentences; 4) Correct Spelling, Punctuation, and capitalization errors 5) Add or delete words, phrases, and sentences to create your voice and style 8. Peer Response O Written responses and reactions to teacher- directed component of your partner’s paper. O Occurs with shaping sheets and first drafts. 9. First Draft O First version of your essay (Rough Draft) O Combine introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusions, editing and revising along the way. 10. Final Draft O Final Version of your essay. O Ready to submit your essay!