Shari Schaftlein FHWA Office of Project Development & Environmental Review 202-366-5570, [email protected] AASHTO Subcommittee on Design July 25, 2010 Ensuring Projects are Livable and Sustainable • Transportation is the Means • CSS is the Process – core principals Strive towards a shared stakeholder vision to provide a basis for decisions. Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of contexts. Foster continuing communication and collaboration to achieve consensus. Exercise flexibility and creativity to shape effective transportation solutions, while preserving and enhancing community and natural environments. • Livable & Sustainable = Outcomes CSS Activities •CSS National Assistance •CSS National Dialog •CSS Division Training •NHI CSS Course •NCHRP Reports •CSS in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities •www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/ •www.contextsensitivesolutions.org •CSS Primer and Outreach Material •Guanella Pass CSS Lessons Learned Video •CSS Self Assessment Guide & Workshop •Integrating CSS into University Curricula •Green Highways Initiative CSS National Assistance Technical assistance was provided to OR, HI, ME, MA, CA, FL, IL, NH, and NM. All activities have been completed and a report is due by end of July. It will be posted to www.contextsensitivesolutions.org by the end of September. CSS National Dialog • Five national workshops held in Austin, Portland, Charlotte, New Brunswick, NJ, and Saint Paul. The results have been posted to www.Contextsensitivesolutions.org • August 11th webcast, to register, visit: http://www.cssnationaldialog.org/index.asp • The next phase is for eight to 10 additional workshops. CSS Division Training • This is an effort to provide CSS training to the states through a joint effort with the Resource Center and FHWA Headquarters. Trainings are scheduled in Wyoming in August, and Arkansas in September. Tentative trainings are scheduled in Nevada (combined with livability), DC, and North Dakota NHI CSS Course NHI 142050 is a course that demonstrates FHWA commitment to partner and ensure that highway facilities balance local, regional and national concerns with the scenic, aesthetic, historic, and natural environment. There are initial plans to revise the current course as well as develop an online version. The goal is to update and restructure modules as well as add sustainability and livability. NCHRP Reports • Number 06-08: This is an effort to produce two CSS Users Guides, one entitled a Citizens Guide and the other a Practitioners Guide. Draft are to be completed by the end of July with final reports due by the end of September. The finals will also be posted on www.contextsensitivesolutions.org • Report 642 : Quantifying the Benefits of CSS CSS in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) has developed this guide in cooperation with The Congress for New Urbanism, EPA and FHWA. ITE has published this guide as a recommended practice. A key feature of this guide is the use of context zones, thoroughfare types, and functional classification in the planning for and design of the traveled way, roadside and intersections. It also provides guidance on how CSS may be applied in the network or corridor planning that is conducted around which individual projects will result to improve specific sections of an urban thoroughfare. This guide and supporting outreach material are available electronically at: http://www.ite.org/css The next phase is to develop outreach tools and promote awareness and understanding of the use of context sensitive solutions (CSS) in designing walkable urban thoroughfares. www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/ An FHWA website dedicated to the national CSS effort. The website offers links, updated information to the internal CSS Virtual Team and it’s partners. Contacts: Keith Moore, Rod Vaughn, Keith Harrison www.contextsensitivesolutions.org An FHWA-sponsored website dedicated to the national CSS effort. The website offers webinars, updated information, discussions, postings, and tremendous networking opportunities to the CSS community. CSS Primer and Outreach Material The purpose of this project was to produce outreach material to assist with raising awareness of CSS philosophy and principles. This Primer is aimed at conveying the CSS philosophy and principles; benefits; challenges, importance and opportunities to integrate CSS within an organization; and apply CSS in the process of planning and developing transportation facility improvement projects. Other material produced included a presentation, tri-fold brochure, questions and answers, and briefing paper. Guanella Pass CSS Lessons Learned Video This 30-minute DVD entitled "Thinking Beyond the Pavement" explains how CSS philosophy and principles were used to facilitate delivering one of the FHWA Federal Lands Highways most difficult and challenging projects. The video explains how the CSS principles were successfully applied on this Colorado Forest Highway project. The 2006 video features diverse project stakeholders explaining, in their own words, the challenges that were faced and overcome, and provides valuable lessons learned to assist other agencies faced with similar challenges. The project website is http://www.cflhd.gov/projects/co/guanella/index.cfm CSS Self Assessment Guide & Workshops The purpose of this project was to develop a guide to assist agencies with identifying how to assess their progress in advancing CSS implementation via 3 approaches: 1) how have the CSS philosophy and principles have been institutionally integrated, 2) progress with advancing the application of these principles on all transportation improvement projects and, 3) progress by a group of stakeholders involved in the development of a specific project. Integrating CSS into University Curricula The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE), based at North Carolina State University, worked in conjunction with FHWA to develop a graduate-level focused CSS course. This initiative included: 1) create a template for integrating CSS philosophy and principles into transportation curricula, 2) develop an academic network to provide feedback into the development of this template and encourage the integration of CSS into undergraduate and graduate curricular, and 3) develop and offer an undergraduate-level CSS course for civil engineering and transportation planning students. The first phase was completed in 2008. The next step includes hosting a 1-week workshop for university-level professors as well as a CSS handbook. Green Highways Initiative The purpose of this initiative is to promote streamlining and market-based approaches to meet transportation needs while promoting innovative environmental stewardship. This initiative supports the CSS philosophy and principles applied to watershed management, recycling, and ecosystem management. The EPA and FHWA has sponsored this initiative, in partnership with resource agencies in the Mid-Atlantic region, to strengthen stronger partnerships. For more information accessed at: http://www.greenhighways.org/ • Institute of Transportation Engineer’s (ITE) annual technical conference, March 14-17, Savannah • T&DI/ASCE Green Streets & Highways Conference November 14-17, in Denver FHWA Livability Overview • Office of Human Environment – Livability Team (Gabe Rousseau-Team Leader, 202-366-8044, [email protected]) • • • • History Defining Livability Current FHWA Activities Future History • Livability has been a national initiative before: – Carter Administration’s Livable Cities Program – Clinton-Gore Administration’s Building Livable Communities Program – Obama Administration’s Livability Initiative and the Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities History • Livability builds off existing resources, policies, and programs: – – – – Context Sensitive Solutions Planning and Environment Linkages AASHTO Bike and Pedestrian Guides New funding programs from ISTEA and SAFETEA-LU (e.g., Safe Routes to School) – Increased options for project eligibility What are Livable Communities? A livable community is one in which people have multiple, convenient transportation and housing options as well as destinations easily accessible to people traveling in and out of cars. Livable Communities are where people have access to many different forms of transportation and affordable housing…..” U.S. DOT Secretary, Ray LaHood HUD-DOT-EPA Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities—Guiding Principles Provide More Transportation Choices Coordinate Policies and Leverage Investment Promote Equitable, Affordable Housing Enhance Economic Competitiveness Support Existing Communities Value Communities and Neighborhoods Livability Helps Rural Communities • Challenges: – Roadway safety on rural roads is a major concern – Emergency response times – Connectivity of rural roads – Ensuring that senior citizens can get to services and destinations – Keeping young families in the community FHWA Activities—Livability Web Site http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/ • Existing funding sources to support livability • Division contacts • Case studies (urban & rural) FHWA Activities—Livability Guidebook • Designed as a practitioners resource and guide • For MPOs, State DOTs and others in the Advancement of Livable Community Developments • Developed with FTA FHWA Activities—Livability Guidebook – The Guide demonstrates the importance of linking land use and transportation planning – The Guide ties together a wide range of overlapping objectives: • • • • • • • Walkable Communities TOD Complete Streets CSS Healthy Neighborhoods Smart Growth Sustainability FHWA Activities— Strategies for Livable Communities • New effort to support practitioners: – Products coming out over the next year include: • • • • Research Paper Livability Workshops Toolbox of Training Material Regional Comprehensive Livability Plan FHWA Activities—SEP-14 • Problem – Conflicting contract requirements for HUD and FHWA funds. • Solution – Special Experimental Project No. 14 (SEP-14) to permit, on a case-by-case basis, the application of HUD requirements on Federal-aid highway projects. FHWA Activities—TIGER II • Joint Planning Grants with HUD – $40 million in HUD grants; up to $35 million in DOT planning grants • TIGER II – $600 million available – Grant criteria include: • Livability: Fostering livable communities through place-based policies and investments that increase transportation choices and access to transportation services for people in communities across the United States. The Future of Livability for FHWA? • Funding program? – FY 2011 Budget Request from DOT: • “$200 million in highway funding for a competitive livability grant program to assist …in integrating project and development planning processes within transportation, land use, and natural resource conservation in both urban and rural communities.” • Performance measures? • Livability plans? Livability Outreach • TRB Annual Mtg – SundayWorkshops • Sustainable Siting of Federal Facilities Webinars – Aug 9th, 26th http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/resources/webconference/we b_conf_learner_reg.aspx?webconfid=20854 • June 2010 TRB Environment and Energy Research Conference (http://www.cte.ncsu.edu/cte/EEConference/) • Transportation Systems for Livable Communities, TRB & RITA Conference October 18-19, 2010 in DC http://guest.cvent.com/EVENTS/Info/Summary.aspx?e=eb 5457c9-46c0-4143-96fd-a17bd771aa9f Climate Change and Sustainability Information: Federal Highway Administration Climate Change Website: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/climate/index.htm US DOT Transportation and Climate Change Clearinghouse: http://climate.dot.gov/index.html [email protected], 202-366-2079 FHWA, Office of Natural and Human Environment Sustainable Transport & Climate Change Team Sustainability Criteria and Tools Contact: Connie Hill Galloway, [email protected], 804-775-3378 31 U.S. Transportation GHG Emissions by Source (2007) Aircraft 9% Other Non-Road 8% Medium- and Heavy-duty Vehicles 21% Light-duty Vehicles 61% 32 1990-2007. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation vs. Climate Change Adaptation? Transportation Activity Driving, shipping, transit, rail, operations, maintenance, etc. GHG Mitigation Strategies GHG Emissions To slow down rate of change and reduce impacts CO2, CH4, N2O, +…….. Changes to Climate Sea levels (lakes and streams), temperature, precipitation, storms Impacts on Transport Infrastructure, operations, users, suppliers, services, travel demand Climate Change Preparation and Adaptation To plan for and deal with expected impacts 33 Definitions Climate Change • Any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity Climate Change Mitigation • In transportation terms, mitigation refers to the implementation of any policy or strategy that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance sinks Adaptation • Changes in the way surface transportation infrastructure is planned, designed, constructed, operated, and maintained Climate change effects • Outcomes of long-term variation in the climate Climate change impacts • Consequences that climate change effects may have on infrastructure 34 GHG Mitigation Strategies Low Carbon Fuels Price Carbon Vehicle Fuel Efficiency System Efficiency Transport Planning and Investment Reduce Carbon Intense Travel Activity 35 Low Carbon Fuels Feedstock Recovery Fuel Processing Vehicle Operation • Biofuels – Corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel • Aviation Alternative Fuels – Challenges • Safety • Weight and storage issues prohibit low energy density fuels storage space • International fuel availability and standards • Changes to engine designs – Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative 36 (CAAFI) Vehicle Efficiency • • • • Potential for improvements beyond AEO baseline. Advanced conventional vehicles – advanced engine controls, component electrification, etc – 8-30% GHG reduction per vehicle – Incremental cost ~$1,000 per vehicle, but more than paid back in fuel savings Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) – 26-54% GHG reduction per vehicle – < 2% of the current fleet, but HEV market shares are rising rapidly – cost premium of ~$4,500 near term, expected to fall to ~$3,000 – fuel cost savings could lead to net savings over the vehicle’s lifetime as production costs come down Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) – 46 to 70% GHG reduction per vehicle (2030), 49-75% (2050), assuming less GHGintensive electricity generation – PHEV battery costs currently high (about $16,000 per vehicle), $3,000 to $8,000 in medium to long term – In absence of improvements in electricity GHG intensity, PHEV benefits become more comparable to HEVs, yet costs are greater 37 System Efficiency • Optimize design, construction, operation, and use of transportation networks • Benefits: – – – – Reduced congestion Reduced travel time Reduced travel costs Economic benefits • Challenges: – Induced demand (included in analysis) 38 Land Use Density Diversity of land uses Neighborhood design Street connectivity Destination accessibility Distance to activity centers Proximity to transit 39 Transit • GHG Reduction: – – • Key Assumption: – – • • 2.4-4.6% annual increase in ridership (2.4% is recent trend) Starting from relatively low national mode share (2%) Transit shares for commutes in US CBDs with major transit infrastructure much higher – – – • 0.3-0.8% (2030) 0.4-1.5% (2050) 55% in Chicago 14% in Atlanta 35% in Seattle Could be key in some metro areas Source: FTA, Public Transportation’s Role in Responding to Climate Change, 2010. Data sources: FTA National Transit 40 Database, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Pricing • VMT fee (not included in 5-17% figure) – fee of 2 to 5 cents / mile – 1.1-3.5% GHG reduction, 2030 • Pay-as-You-Drive Insurance – Makes fixed cost variable – Would reduce costs for majority of drivers • Key assumption: – Elasticity of VMT with respect to total travel costs -0.45 • 10% cost 4.5% in travel • Fuel price only 1/3 to 1/10 of travel cost – Equivalent to that used in FHWA HERS – Same used for induced demand 41 Transportation Reauthorization Legislation (under discussion) • There are a variety of proposals to extend current SAFETEA-LU 18 months or pass a new 6-year Authorization. • House T&I Committee proposal (the ‘Oberstar Bill’) would: – Improve Livability and Environmental Sustainability of Communities; establish FHWA Office of Livability – Encourage integrated planning, linking land use & transportation – Link transportation planning with GHG reduction strategies • EPA would establish national GHG reduction goals • DOT would require States & MPOs to develop surfacetransport GHG reduction targets and strategies in transportation plans • DOT will establish performance measures to track progress toward meeting GHG reduction goals 42 Parting Thoughts “Transportation is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gases, and the transportation sector must be a big part of the solution.” – Secretary Ray LaHood, April 22, 2010 “The ingenuity of transportation planners and engineers has produced a vast network of transportation infrastructure and services to support the mobility and economic vitality of the Nation. However, our historic approach to transportation and land use development has created an energy-intensive system dependent on carbon-based fuels and individual vehicles. Our national talents and resources must now focus on shaping a transportation system that that serves the Nation’s goals, including meeting the climate change challenge.” – U.S. DOT Report to Congress 43 Future Possibilities? Policy and funding to address climate change? GHG reduction targets? GHG performance measures? GHG planning requirements? Mitigation strategies in transportation plans? Adaptation considerations in planning? Sustainability • Definition: – Sustainable Transportation means providing exceptional mobility and access in a manner that meets development needs without compromising the quality of life of future generations. A sustainable transportation system is safe, healthy, affordable, renewable, operates fairly and limits emissions and the use of new and nonrenewable resources. 45 Sustainability – How It Will Shape the Future Highway Program • Increase use of recycled materials • Stormwater runoff techniques that mimic natural hydrology • Construction equipment that reduces pollution and practices that minimize ecosystems impacts • Designs to minimize environmental impacts • Operational equipment that uses renewable fuels • Maintenance that minimizes environmental impacts • Conversion of brownfields • Designs that accommodate multiple modes and promote connectivity • Facilitation of affordable choices for jobs and schools 46 Sustainability Activities • Sustainability Working Group to develop strategic plan for sustainability – Members • Core program offices – Environment, Planning, Infrastructure, Operations, Safety, Research, Federal Lands, Civil Rights • Division representatives • Office of Administrator – Purpose • Develop strategic plan for sustainability • Coordinate research • Education and outreach • Sustainable Highways Criteria and Evaluation Tool – Investigate Sustainability Criteria – Develop Sustainability Performance Measures • New Innovative Strategies 47 Sustainability Activities • National Initiatives – Context Sensitive Solutions – Ecological • Green Infrastructure – Low Impact Development • Green Streets – Brownfields • State/Regional Initiatives – Mid-Atlantic Green Highways Partnership – Green Roads • Washington-WFLH – Green LITES • New York 48 FHWA Sustainability Criteria and Tools • Similar to LEED rating system • Self-evaluation tool Geographically diverse in application Meaningful Simple • Addresses full life cycle for highways Technical Approach • Address all 3 dimensions for sustainability • Use existing state of the art criteria, metrics, training methods • Identify practices and solutions that have been proven • Incorporate ideas and experience from research and the industry • Provide approaches for continuous improvement Performance Metric Resources • • • • • • • GreenLITES Greenroads STARS I-LAST LEED-ND CEEQUAL Greenpave Sustainability Includes • • • • • CSS Livability Complete Streets Great Streets Asset Management Sustainability Benefits • • • • • • • • Reduce raw materials use Reduce fossil energy use Reduce water use Reduce air emissions Reduce wastewater Reduce sediment and solid waste Optimize habitat and land use Improve human health and safety • • • • • • • • • • Improve access and mobility Improve transportation choices Improve economic prosperity Improve business practice Increase lifecycle savings Increase lifecycle service Increase awareness Increase aesthetics Create new information Create energy Peer Exchanges • There is a desire for a self-evaluation tool • Constituents want sustainability • States want something quantifiable Parallel Efforts • ASCE/ACEC/APWA Performance Measurement System • Needs to be consistent • Incorporate the same goals and values Sustainable Projects • Not every project should achieve the highest levels of sustainability • The highest level should be very difficult to achieve • It may cost more initially, but with lower life costs or greater benefits • Can help gain broader buy-in What is STEP? • Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program • Federally-administered nationally orientated research program • Improve the understanding of the complex relationship between surface transportation, planning and the environment • Identify, address and reassess national research priorities for environment, planning and realty Stakeholder Feedback • Requests for suggested lines of research for the proposed FY2011 STEP are open through September 30, 2010. • The Federal Register Notice was issued on July 2, 2010. • To provide your feedback, please visit the STEP Web site and review the draft FY 2011 STEP Implementation Strategy: www.fhwa.dot.gov/HEP/STEP/strategy.htm. • After reviewing the proposed strategy, please submit your feedback at: http://knowledge.fhwa.dot.gov/cops/step.nsf.