SCOD Master draft 4-Schaftlein

Report
Shari Schaftlein
FHWA Office of Project Development & Environmental Review
202-366-5570, [email protected]
AASHTO Subcommittee on Design
July 25, 2010
Ensuring Projects are Livable and Sustainable
• Transportation is the Means
• CSS is the Process – core principals
 Strive towards a shared stakeholder vision to provide a basis for decisions.
 Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of contexts.
 Foster continuing communication and collaboration to achieve consensus.
 Exercise flexibility and creativity to shape effective transportation solutions, while
preserving and enhancing community and natural environments.
• Livable & Sustainable = Outcomes
CSS Activities
•CSS National Assistance
•CSS National Dialog
•CSS Division Training
•NHI CSS Course
•NCHRP Reports
•CSS in Designing Major Urban
Thoroughfares for Walkable
Communities
•www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/
•www.contextsensitivesolutions.org
•CSS Primer and Outreach
Material
•Guanella Pass CSS Lessons
Learned Video
•CSS Self Assessment Guide
& Workshop
•Integrating CSS into
University Curricula
•Green Highways Initiative
CSS National Assistance
Technical assistance was provided to OR, HI, ME, MA, CA,
FL, IL, NH, and NM. All activities have been completed and
a report is due by end of July. It will be posted to
www.contextsensitivesolutions.org by the end of September.
CSS National Dialog
• Five national workshops held in Austin,
Portland, Charlotte, New Brunswick, NJ, and
Saint Paul. The results have been posted to
www.Contextsensitivesolutions.org
• August 11th webcast, to register, visit:
http://www.cssnationaldialog.org/index.asp
• The next phase is for eight to 10 additional
workshops.
CSS Division
Training
• This is an effort to provide CSS training to
the states through a joint effort with the
Resource Center and FHWA
Headquarters. Trainings are scheduled in
Wyoming in August, and Arkansas in
September. Tentative trainings are
scheduled in Nevada (combined with
livability), DC, and North Dakota
NHI CSS Course
NHI 142050 is a course that demonstrates
FHWA commitment to partner and ensure
that highway facilities balance local,
regional and national concerns with the
scenic, aesthetic, historic, and natural
environment.
There are initial plans to revise the current
course as well as develop an online
version. The goal is to update and
restructure modules as well as add
sustainability and livability.
NCHRP
Reports
• Number 06-08: This is an effort to produce two CSS
Users Guides, one entitled a Citizens Guide and the
other a Practitioners Guide. Draft are to be
completed by the end of July with final reports due by
the end of September. The finals will also be posted
on www.contextsensitivesolutions.org
• Report 642 : Quantifying the Benefits of CSS
CSS in Designing Major
Urban Thoroughfares for
Walkable Communities
The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) has developed
this guide in cooperation with The Congress for New
Urbanism, EPA and FHWA. ITE has published this guide as a
recommended practice. A key feature of this guide is the use of
context zones, thoroughfare types, and functional classification
in the planning for and design of the traveled way, roadside
and intersections. It also provides guidance on how CSS may
be applied in the network or corridor planning that is
conducted around which individual projects will result to
improve specific sections of an urban thoroughfare. This guide
and supporting outreach material are available electronically
at: http://www.ite.org/css The next phase is to develop
outreach tools and promote awareness and understanding of
the use of context sensitive solutions (CSS) in designing
walkable urban thoroughfares.
www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/
An FHWA website dedicated to the national
CSS effort. The website offers links, updated
information to the internal CSS Virtual Team
and it’s partners.
Contacts: Keith Moore, Rod Vaughn, Keith Harrison
www.contextsensitivesolutions.org
An FHWA-sponsored website dedicated to the
national CSS effort. The website offers
webinars, updated information, discussions,
postings, and tremendous networking
opportunities to the CSS community.
CSS Primer and
Outreach
Material
The purpose of this project was to produce outreach material
to assist with raising awareness of CSS philosophy and
principles. This Primer is aimed at conveying the CSS
philosophy and principles; benefits; challenges, importance
and opportunities to integrate CSS within an organization; and
apply CSS in the process of planning and developing
transportation facility improvement projects. Other material
produced included a presentation, tri-fold brochure, questions
and answers, and briefing paper.
Guanella Pass
CSS Lessons
Learned Video
This 30-minute DVD entitled "Thinking Beyond the Pavement" explains
how CSS philosophy and principles were used to facilitate delivering one
of the FHWA Federal Lands Highways most difficult and challenging
projects. The video explains how the CSS principles were successfully
applied on this Colorado Forest Highway project. The 2006 video features
diverse project stakeholders explaining, in their own words, the challenges
that were faced and overcome, and provides valuable lessons learned to
assist other agencies faced with similar challenges. The project website is
http://www.cflhd.gov/projects/co/guanella/index.cfm
CSS Self
Assessment
Guide &
Workshops
The purpose of this project was to develop a guide to assist
agencies with identifying how to assess their progress in
advancing CSS implementation via 3 approaches: 1) how
have the CSS philosophy and principles have been
institutionally integrated, 2) progress with advancing the
application of these principles on all transportation
improvement projects and, 3) progress by a group of
stakeholders involved in the development of a specific project.
Integrating
CSS into
University
Curricula
The Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE), based at North
Carolina State University, worked in conjunction with FHWA to develop a
graduate-level focused CSS course. This initiative included: 1) create a
template for integrating CSS philosophy and principles into transportation
curricula, 2) develop an academic network to provide feedback into the
development of this template and encourage the integration of CSS into
undergraduate and graduate curricular, and 3) develop and offer an
undergraduate-level CSS course for civil engineering and transportation
planning students. The first phase was completed in 2008. The next step
includes hosting a 1-week workshop for university-level professors as well
as a CSS handbook.
Green Highways
Initiative
The purpose of this initiative is to promote streamlining and market-based
approaches to meet transportation needs while promoting innovative
environmental stewardship. This initiative supports the CSS philosophy
and principles applied to watershed management, recycling, and ecosystem
management. The EPA and FHWA has sponsored this initiative, in
partnership with resource agencies in the Mid-Atlantic region, to strengthen
stronger partnerships. For more information accessed at:
http://www.greenhighways.org/
• Institute of Transportation Engineer’s (ITE) annual technical conference,
March 14-17, Savannah
• T&DI/ASCE Green Streets & Highways Conference November 14-17, in
Denver
FHWA Livability Overview
• Office of Human Environment –
Livability Team (Gabe Rousseau-Team Leader,
202-366-8044, [email protected])
•
•
•
•
History
Defining Livability
Current FHWA Activities
Future
History
• Livability has been a national
initiative before:
– Carter Administration’s Livable Cities
Program
– Clinton-Gore Administration’s Building
Livable Communities Program
– Obama Administration’s Livability
Initiative and the Interagency
Partnership for Sustainable
Communities
History
• Livability builds off existing
resources, policies, and programs:
–
–
–
–
Context Sensitive Solutions
Planning and Environment Linkages
AASHTO Bike and Pedestrian Guides
New funding programs from ISTEA
and SAFETEA-LU (e.g., Safe Routes
to School)
– Increased options for project eligibility
What are Livable
Communities?
A livable community is one in which
people have multiple, convenient
transportation and housing options
as well as destinations easily
accessible to people traveling in
and out of cars.
Livable Communities are where people have access to many
different forms of transportation and affordable housing…..”
U.S. DOT Secretary, Ray LaHood
HUD-DOT-EPA Interagency
Partnership for Sustainable
Communities—Guiding Principles
Provide More
Transportation
Choices
Coordinate Policies
and Leverage
Investment
Promote Equitable,
Affordable Housing
Enhance Economic
Competitiveness
Support Existing
Communities
Value Communities and
Neighborhoods
Livability Helps Rural
Communities
• Challenges:
– Roadway safety on rural roads is a
major concern
– Emergency response times
– Connectivity of rural roads
– Ensuring that senior citizens can get to
services and destinations
– Keeping young families in the
community
FHWA Activities—Livability Web Site
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/
• Existing funding sources to support livability
• Division contacts
• Case studies (urban & rural)
FHWA Activities—Livability
Guidebook
• Designed as a
practitioners resource and
guide
• For MPOs, State DOTs
and others in the
Advancement
of Livable Community
Developments
• Developed with FTA
FHWA Activities—Livability
Guidebook
– The Guide demonstrates the importance of
linking land use and transportation planning
– The Guide ties together a wide range of
overlapping objectives:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Walkable Communities
TOD
Complete Streets
CSS
Healthy Neighborhoods
Smart Growth
Sustainability
FHWA Activities—
Strategies for Livable
Communities
• New effort to support practitioners:
– Products coming out over the next year
include:
•
•
•
•
Research Paper
Livability Workshops
Toolbox of Training Material
Regional Comprehensive Livability
Plan
FHWA Activities—SEP-14
• Problem
– Conflicting contract requirements for
HUD and FHWA funds.
• Solution
– Special Experimental Project No. 14
(SEP-14) to permit, on a case-by-case
basis, the application of HUD
requirements on Federal-aid highway
projects.
FHWA Activities—TIGER II
• Joint Planning Grants with HUD
– $40 million in HUD grants; up to $35
million in DOT planning grants
• TIGER II
– $600 million available
– Grant criteria include:
• Livability: Fostering livable communities
through place-based policies and investments
that increase transportation choices and
access to transportation services for people in
communities across the United States.
The Future of Livability for
FHWA?
• Funding program?
– FY 2011 Budget Request from DOT:
• “$200 million in highway funding for a
competitive livability grant program to assist
…in integrating project and development
planning processes within transportation, land
use, and natural resource conservation in both
urban and rural communities.”
• Performance measures?
• Livability plans?
Livability Outreach
• TRB Annual Mtg – SundayWorkshops
• Sustainable Siting of Federal Facilities Webinars – Aug
9th, 26th
http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/resources/webconference/we
b_conf_learner_reg.aspx?webconfid=20854
• June 2010 TRB Environment and Energy Research
Conference
(http://www.cte.ncsu.edu/cte/EEConference/)
• Transportation Systems for Livable Communities, TRB &
RITA Conference October 18-19, 2010 in DC
http://guest.cvent.com/EVENTS/Info/Summary.aspx?e=eb
5457c9-46c0-4143-96fd-a17bd771aa9f
Climate Change and Sustainability
Information:
Federal Highway Administration Climate Change Website:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/climate/index.htm
US DOT Transportation and Climate Change Clearinghouse:
http://climate.dot.gov/index.html
[email protected], 202-366-2079
FHWA, Office of Natural and Human Environment
Sustainable Transport & Climate Change Team
Sustainability Criteria and Tools Contact:
Connie Hill Galloway, [email protected], 804-775-3378
31
U.S. Transportation GHG
Emissions
by Source (2007)
Aircraft
9%
Other Non-Road
8%
Medium- and
Heavy-duty Vehicles
21%
Light-duty Vehicles
61%
32 1990-2007.
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks,
Greenhouse Gas Mitigation vs.
Climate Change Adaptation?
Transportation Activity
Driving, shipping, transit, rail,
operations, maintenance, etc.
GHG Mitigation
Strategies
GHG Emissions
To slow down rate of
change and reduce impacts
CO2, CH4, N2O, +……..
Changes to Climate
Sea levels (lakes and streams),
temperature, precipitation, storms
Impacts on Transport
Infrastructure, operations, users,
suppliers, services, travel demand
Climate Change
Preparation and
Adaptation
To plan for and deal with
expected impacts
33
Definitions
Climate Change
• Any change in climate over time, whether due to natural
variability or as a result of human activity
Climate Change Mitigation
• In transportation terms, mitigation refers to the implementation of any
policy or strategy that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and
enhance sinks
Adaptation
• Changes in the way surface transportation infrastructure is
planned, designed, constructed, operated, and maintained
Climate change effects
• Outcomes of long-term variation in the climate
Climate change impacts
• Consequences that climate change effects may have on
infrastructure
34
GHG Mitigation Strategies
Low Carbon Fuels
Price
Carbon
Vehicle Fuel Efficiency
System Efficiency
Transport
Planning and
Investment
Reduce Carbon Intense
Travel Activity
35
Low Carbon Fuels
Feedstock
Recovery
Fuel Processing
Vehicle
Operation
• Biofuels
– Corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel
• Aviation Alternative Fuels
– Challenges
• Safety
• Weight and storage issues prohibit low energy density fuels
storage space
• International fuel availability and standards
• Changes to engine designs
– Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative
36
(CAAFI)
Vehicle Efficiency
•
•
•
•
Potential for improvements beyond AEO baseline.
Advanced conventional vehicles
– advanced engine controls, component electrification, etc
– 8-30% GHG reduction per vehicle
– Incremental cost ~$1,000 per vehicle, but more than paid back in fuel savings
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV)
– 26-54% GHG reduction per vehicle
– < 2% of the current fleet, but HEV market shares are rising rapidly
– cost premium of ~$4,500 near term, expected to fall to ~$3,000
– fuel cost savings could lead to net savings over the vehicle’s lifetime as production costs
come down
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV)
– 46 to 70% GHG reduction per vehicle (2030), 49-75% (2050), assuming less GHGintensive electricity generation
– PHEV battery costs currently high (about $16,000 per vehicle), $3,000 to $8,000 in
medium to long term
– In absence of improvements in electricity GHG intensity, PHEV benefits become more
comparable to HEVs, yet costs are greater
37
System Efficiency
• Optimize design, construction, operation,
and use of transportation networks
• Benefits:
–
–
–
–
Reduced congestion
Reduced travel time
Reduced travel costs
Economic benefits
• Challenges:
– Induced demand
(included in analysis)
38
Land Use
Density
Diversity of land
uses
Neighborhood
design
Street connectivity
Destination
accessibility
Distance to activity
centers
Proximity
to transit
39
Transit
•
GHG Reduction:
–
–
•
Key Assumption:
–
–
•
•
2.4-4.6% annual increase in
ridership
(2.4% is recent trend)
Starting from relatively low
national mode share (2%)
Transit shares for commutes
in US CBDs with major
transit infrastructure much
higher
–
–
–
•
0.3-0.8% (2030)
0.4-1.5% (2050)
55% in Chicago
14% in Atlanta
35% in Seattle
Could be key in some metro
areas
Source: FTA, Public Transportation’s Role in Responding to
Climate Change, 2010. Data sources: FTA National Transit
40
Database, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
Pricing
• VMT fee (not included in 5-17% figure)
– fee of 2 to 5 cents / mile
– 1.1-3.5% GHG reduction, 2030
• Pay-as-You-Drive Insurance
– Makes fixed cost variable
– Would reduce costs for majority of drivers
• Key assumption:
– Elasticity of VMT with respect to total travel costs
-0.45
• 10%
cost
4.5%
in travel
• Fuel price only 1/3 to 1/10 of travel cost
– Equivalent to that used in FHWA HERS
– Same used for induced demand
41
Transportation Reauthorization
Legislation (under discussion)
• There are a variety of proposals to extend current SAFETEA-LU 18
months or pass a new 6-year Authorization.
• House T&I Committee proposal (the ‘Oberstar Bill’) would:
– Improve Livability and Environmental Sustainability
of Communities; establish FHWA Office of
Livability
– Encourage integrated planning, linking land use &
transportation
– Link transportation planning with GHG reduction
strategies
• EPA would establish national GHG reduction goals
• DOT would require States & MPOs to develop surfacetransport GHG reduction targets and strategies in
transportation plans
• DOT will establish performance measures to track progress
toward meeting GHG reduction goals
42
Parting Thoughts
“Transportation is one of the major
contributors to greenhouse gases, and the
transportation sector must be a big part of
the solution.”
– Secretary Ray LaHood, April 22, 2010
“The ingenuity of transportation planners and engineers has produced a vast
network of transportation infrastructure and services to support the mobility and
economic vitality of the Nation. However, our historic approach to transportation
and land use development has created an energy-intensive system dependent on
carbon-based fuels and individual vehicles.
Our national talents and resources must now focus on shaping a transportation
system that that serves the Nation’s goals, including meeting the climate change
challenge.”
– U.S. DOT Report to Congress
43
Future Possibilities?
Policy and funding to address climate change?
GHG reduction targets?
GHG performance measures?
GHG planning requirements?
Mitigation strategies in transportation plans?
Adaptation considerations in planning?
Sustainability
• Definition:
– Sustainable Transportation means providing
exceptional mobility and access in a manner that
meets development needs without compromising
the quality of life of future generations. A
sustainable transportation system is safe, healthy,
affordable, renewable, operates fairly and limits
emissions and the use of new and nonrenewable
resources.
45
Sustainability – How It Will
Shape the Future Highway
Program
• Increase use of recycled materials
• Stormwater runoff techniques that mimic natural hydrology
• Construction equipment that reduces pollution and practices
that minimize ecosystems impacts
• Designs to minimize environmental impacts
• Operational equipment that uses renewable fuels
• Maintenance that minimizes environmental impacts
• Conversion of brownfields
• Designs that accommodate multiple modes and promote
connectivity
• Facilitation of affordable choices for jobs and schools
46
Sustainability Activities
• Sustainability Working Group to develop strategic plan for
sustainability
– Members
• Core program offices – Environment, Planning, Infrastructure, Operations,
Safety, Research, Federal Lands, Civil Rights
• Division representatives
• Office of Administrator
– Purpose
• Develop strategic plan for sustainability
• Coordinate research
• Education and outreach
• Sustainable Highways Criteria and Evaluation Tool
– Investigate Sustainability Criteria
– Develop Sustainability Performance Measures
• New Innovative Strategies
47
Sustainability Activities
• National Initiatives
– Context Sensitive Solutions
– Ecological
• Green Infrastructure
– Low Impact Development
• Green Streets
– Brownfields
• State/Regional Initiatives
– Mid-Atlantic Green Highways Partnership
– Green Roads
• Washington-WFLH
– Green LITES
• New York
48
FHWA Sustainability Criteria
and Tools
• Similar to LEED rating system
• Self-evaluation tool
Geographically diverse in application
Meaningful
Simple
• Addresses full life cycle for
highways
Technical Approach
• Address all 3 dimensions for sustainability
• Use existing state of the art criteria,
metrics, training methods
• Identify practices and solutions that have
been proven
• Incorporate ideas and experience from
research and the industry
• Provide approaches for continuous
improvement
Performance Metric Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
GreenLITES
Greenroads
STARS
I-LAST
LEED-ND
CEEQUAL
Greenpave
Sustainability Includes
•
•
•
•
•
CSS
Livability
Complete Streets
Great Streets
Asset Management
Sustainability Benefits
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reduce raw materials use
Reduce fossil energy use
Reduce water use
Reduce air emissions
Reduce wastewater
Reduce sediment and solid
waste
Optimize habitat and land
use
Improve human health and
safety
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Improve access and mobility
Improve transportation
choices
Improve economic prosperity
Improve business practice
Increase lifecycle savings
Increase lifecycle service
Increase awareness
Increase aesthetics
Create new information
Create energy
Peer Exchanges
• There is a desire for a self-evaluation
tool
• Constituents want sustainability
• States want something quantifiable
Parallel Efforts
• ASCE/ACEC/APWA Performance
Measurement System
• Needs to be consistent
• Incorporate the same goals and
values
Sustainable Projects
• Not every project should achieve the
highest levels of sustainability
• The highest level should be very difficult
to achieve
• It may cost more initially, but with lower
life costs or greater benefits
• Can help gain broader buy-in
What is STEP?
• Surface Transportation Environment and Planning
Cooperative Research Program
• Federally-administered nationally orientated
research program
• Improve the understanding of the complex
relationship between surface transportation,
planning and the environment
• Identify, address and reassess national research
priorities for environment, planning and realty
Stakeholder Feedback
• Requests for suggested lines of research for the proposed
FY2011 STEP are open through September 30, 2010.
• The Federal Register Notice was issued on July 2, 2010.
• To provide your feedback, please visit the STEP Web site
and review the draft FY 2011 STEP Implementation
Strategy: www.fhwa.dot.gov/HEP/STEP/strategy.htm.
• After reviewing the proposed strategy, please submit your
feedback at: http://knowledge.fhwa.dot.gov/cops/step.nsf.

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