SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM - Indian Institute of Technology

Report
SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM
A Project Report submitted
In ID1035 INDEPENDENT PROJECT
PROJECT CO-ORDINATER
Dr. Kiran K Khuchi
Indian Institute of Technology
Hyderabad
1. THE SOLAR OPTION
Solar energy is a very large, inexhaustible source of energy. The power
from the sun intercepted by the earth is approximately 1.8*1011MW,
which is many thousands of times larger than the present consumption
rate on the earth of all commercial energy sources.
Solar energy could supply all the present and future energy needs of the
world on a continuing basis. This makes it one of the most promising of
the unconventional energy sources.
Solar energy has two other factors in the favor.
Firstly, unlike fossil fuels and nuclear power, it is environmentally
clean source of energy.
Secondly, it is free and available in adequate quantities in almost
all parts of the world where people live. Also it has no heavy
mechanical section and is free from noise.
Problem with Solar
However, there are many problems
associated with its use, the main
problem is that it is dilute source of
energy. Even in the hottest regions
on the earth, the solar radiations flux
available rarely exceeds 1 KW/m,
which is a low value for technological
utilization.
Problem associated with the
use of solar energy is that its
availability varies widely with
time.
The
variation
in
availability
occurs
daily
because of the day night
cycle and also seasonally
because of the earth’s orbit
around the sun.
To rectify these above problems the solar panel should be such that it
always receives maximum intensity of light. For existing solar
panels, which are without any control systems typical level of efficiency
varies from 10% to 4% - a level that should improve measurably if the
present interest continues.
2. OBJECTIVE :
The aim of our projects is to utilize the maximum solar energy
through solar panel. For this a digital based automatic sun tracking
system is proposed. This project helps the solar power generating
equipment to get the maximum sunlight automatically thereby
The aim of our project is to utilize the maximum solar energy through
increasing
of automatic
the system.
The
solar the
panel . efficiency
For this a Digital based
sun tracking system
is solar panel tracks the
helps automatically
the solar power generating equipment
to
sun fromproposed.
eastThis
toproject
west
for maximum
intensity of light.
To
get the maximum sunlight automatically thereby increasing the
fabricate
a panel
DC tracks
motor
interfaced
with
efficiency of theTo
system.
The solar
thecontrol
sun from east
to
west automatically
for maximum
intensity of
light.
fabricate
a DC driver
motor
control
interfaced
with driver circuit.
circuit
To construct a model prototype solar cell movement system with a
mechanical assemble to move the panel from 180⁰ E to W.
To design an electronic circuit to sense the intensity of light and to control
DC motor driver for the panel movement.
To construct an emergency light inverter circuit i.e. to operate tube light
with the help of charged battery from the solar panel
4.How the Track Rack follow the sun
1.Sunrise "Wake- Up
2. Mid-Morning
The Track Rack begins the
The Track Rack moved by the shifting
day facing west. As the
weight of liquid flowing from one side
morning sun rises in the
of the tracker to the other through a
east, it heats the unshaded
copper tube that connects the east and
west-side canister with both. west canisters .When one canister is exposed to the sun
direct and reflected rays (from the inter surface more than the other, its vapor pressure increases, forcing
of the "shadow plate") forcing liquid into the liquid to the cooler, shaded side.
shaded east-side cannister.
3. Mid-Afternoon
As the sun moves, the Track
Rack follows (at approximately
15o per hour, continually
seeking equilibrium as liquid
moves from one side of the
tracker to the other. .
4. Sunset
The Track Rack completes its daily
cycle facing west. It remains in this
position overnight until it is
"awakened" by the rising sun the
following morning.
LDR
SENSOR
LM324
OpAmp
IC
AT89C4051
Microcontroller
ULN2003
STEPPER
MOTOR
+5V
1K
6. Circuit
22K
+5V
56K
LM
324
+5V
33P
10K
12MHz
10K
33P
22K
1K
+5V
AT89C2051
10K
10K
1µF
1
2
3
4
ULN
2003
1
7805
Voltage
Regulator
2
-
+12V
12V
Battery
3
8.Working with KEIL software
7.CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION
COMPONENT LIST
1. IC1
LM324
2. IC2
Microcontroller AT89C2051
3. Voltage Regulator
7805
4. IC3
ULN 2003
5. LDR1 & LDR2
Light Dependent Resistor
6. Oscillator
Crystal Oscillator 12MHz
7. Resistors
1K(2);10K(4);56K(1);
8. Capacitors
1µF(1);33P(2)
COMPONENT LIST
9.
Variable Resistor
250K(2)
10. Battery
12V
11.
1
Stepper Motor
12. LED
2 Red
Thank You...
Submitted by
Piyush Sharma[EE12B1024]
Ajay Dhakar[CE12B1001]
Mohit Chaudhary[CE12B1014]
Vikas Kumar Yadav[CH12B1027]
Rajkumar Meena[ME12B1029]

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