Allocation methodologies for the EU Emissions Trading System

Report
Phase III of the EU Emissions
Trading System (EU ETS)
Michelle Kennard
Policy Advisor – EU ETS team
Wednesday 26 May 2010
Contents
1. Revised EU ETS Directive
2. Carbon leakage provisions
3. Free allocation rules including new entrant and closures
4. National Implementation Measures – the process
Revised EU ETS Directive
The revised Directive includes:
• Centralised, EU-wide cap which will decline annually by 1.74%
delivering an overall reduction of 21% below 2005 verified
emissions by 2020.
• Adjustment of the EU ETS cap up to the 30% GHG reduction target
when the EU ratifies a future international climate agreement.
• A significant increase in auctioning levels – at least 50% of
allowances will be auctioned from 2013; compared to around 3% in
Phase II.
• 100% auctioning to the power sector in the UK and across most of
the EU from 2013.
Revised EU ETS Directive (2)
• Sectors at significant risk of carbon leakage will receive 100% of
their benchmark or other allocation methodology for free.
• 12% of the total allowances to be auctioned will be re-distributed to
Member States with lower GDP in the interests of solidarity.
• Non-legally binding commitment from EU member states to spend at
least half of the revenues from auctioning to tackle climate change
both in the EU and in developing countries.
• Access to international project credits from outside the EU will be
limited to 50% of the reductions required in the EU ETS.
• Potential for opting out small emitters and hospitals.
• Inclusion of aviation in the EU ETS from 2012.
Main elements of Phase III
Implementing Measures
There are 11 implementing measures contained in the revised Directive
Implementing Measure
Date specified in Directive
Agree sectors affected by carbon leakage
December 2009
Change access to project credit types following international
agreement
Following Int’l agreement
Regulation on Auctioning
June 2010
Agree application of new entrant definition
December 2010
Adopt harmonised measures for allocating allowances
December 2010
Regulation on monitoring and reporting
December 2011
Regulation on verification
December 2011
Extend scope/opt ins
No date specified
Changes to Registries Regulation
No date specified
Community projects
No date specified
Agree criteria for selection of CCS demonstration projects
No date specified
Carbon Leakage provisions
•
The European Commission’s proposed list of sectors at risk of carbon
leakage was agreed by Member States and the European Parliament in
December 2009.
•
Sectors were assessed on the basis of two quantitative criteria (EU ETS
related cost increase as a proportion of GVA and non-EU trade intensity)
and three qualitative criteria (abatement potential, market structure, profit
margins).
•
Sectors which exceeded the quantitative thresholds in the Directive were
deemed to be at risk. The thresholds are:
 combined threshold of >5% cost increase and > 10% non-EU trade
intensity
 single cost increase threshold of > 30%
 single non-EU trade intensity threshold of >30%
•
164 sectors were deemed to be at risk in the European Commission’s
assessment.
Carbon Leakage provisions (2)
•
Extraction of crude oil and petroleum had a cost increase of 0.8% and a
non-EU trade intensity of 60.2%. They were therefore included in the list
as the sector met the single 30% trade intensity threshold.
•
Revised Directive commits the European Commission to review sectors at
risk of carbon leakage by 30 June 2010. We expect the review is likely to
focus on measures and will not lead to a change in the list of sectors at risk.
•
Next substantive review of sectors will be in 2014, although Article 28 of the
revised Directive allows for a further review following the conclusion of the
international climate negotiations.
•
Timing of this review will be dependent on the progress of those
negotiations. There is also the possibility of adding sectors to the list on an
ad hoc, annual basis
Free allocation rules
The revised EU ETS Directive agreed in December 2008 sets out the principles
by which free EU allowances will be distributed to installations on a harmonised
EU-wide basis. These principles are that:
• the allocation should be ex-ante i.e. based on historic data and not
adjusted ex-post;
• the allocation should give incentives to reduce emissions and take into
account efficient techniques such as high efficiency Combined Heat and
Power (CHP);
• the allocation should be calculated for final products rather than inputs to
maximise emissions reductions and;
• the starting point shall be the average performance of the 10% most
efficient installations in a sector or sub-sector in the EU in 2007-2008.
The final EU-wide allocation rules are due to be agreed by 31 December
2010.
Free allocation rules
Allocation methodologies
Allocations will be determined through a hierarchy approach:
Product
benchmark
Heat
benchmark
Fuel
benchmark
Historic
emissions
allocation
DECC undertook a study to determine if a product benchmark was feasible for
the upstream oil and gas sector:
http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/change_energy/tackling_clima/emiss
ions/eu_ets/publications/publications.aspx#phase3
As product benchmarks are not feasible the fallback allocation methodologies
will apply.
In upstream oil and gas this is most likely to be the heat benchmark and fuel
benchmark.
Free allocation rules
Data collection
The UK has undertaken a data collection exercise to determine individual installation’s
allocations to include in the UK’s National Implementation Measures (NIMs).
Production and other relevant data was due to be submitted to the Environment
Agency by 30 April 2010.
The verifiers opinion of this data must be submitted to the Environment Agency by 30
June 2010.
The Environment Agency have produced guidance documents for operators on:
•
•
Inclusion criteria for Phase III (2013 - 2020) – Guidance Note 3
Baseline data verification for Phase III – Guidance Note 4
Both are available from the Environment Agency’s website:
http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/business/topics/pollution/32244.aspx#Phase_III
Free allocation rules
New entrants and closures
EU-wide new entrant and closures rules will be included in the
allocation rules.
The UK’s overarching objectives with the new entrant and closure rules
are:
• Create the right environmental incentives
• Equity between existing installations and new entrants
• Minimise intra-EU distortions
• Administrative simplicity
Free allocation rules
New entrants
•
5% of EU cap set aside for new entrants in an EU-wide reserve (Article 10a (7))
•
New entrants are defined as:
–
–
•
new builds which obtain a GHG permit for the first time after 30 June 2011.
“significant extensions” after 30 June 2010
European Commission shall adopt harmonised rules for “significant extension”
to ensure harmonised implementation across Member States. The revised
Directive sets basis for this definition (Recital 16):
–
“significant extension” should, wherever appropriate, be defined as an extension by at least
10% of the installation’s existing installed capacity or a substantial increase in the emissions
of the installation linked to the increase in the installed capacity.
•
No free allocation shall be made in respect of any electricity produced by new
entrants Article10a (7).
•
Allowances which remain in the new entrants’ reserve in 2020 should be
auctioned Article10a (7).
Free allocation rules
Closures
•
Provisions for installations that permanently and temporarily cease
operations Article 10a (19):
–
•
Provisions for installations which partially cease operations and significant
reductions of capacity Article 10a (20):
–
•
“No free allocation shall be given to an installation that has ceased its operations, unless the
operator demonstrates to the competent authority that this installation will resume production
within a specified and reasonable time.”
“The Commission shall...include measures for defining installations that have partially
ceased to operate or significantly reduced their capacity, and measures for adapting, as
appropriate, the level of free allocations given to them accordingly.”
Allowances from closed installations (both permanent and partial) shall be
auctioned Art 10(1).
Free allocation rules
European Commission inter services
consultation on decision – June/July 2010
Draft proposal to Member States –
Summer 2010
Vote in Climate Change Committee –
September 2010
3 months scrutiny by European Parliament
and Council – September to December 2010
Adoption by the European Commission –
December 2010
Ongoing: TWGs/ECCP/EC bilaterals
Timetable for adoption of the harmonised rules
National Implementation Measures
Provisional UK timetable
Calculation by DECC of provisional free allocation
to installations – June – September 2010
CCC vote on free
allocation rules
If necessary: Recalculation of provisional free
allocation for installations – October 2010
Public consultation on draft list of installations
and free allocation and content of UK NIMs –
November/December 2010
Government response to NIM consultation –
February 2011
Submission of UK NIM to European Commission September 2011
Any questions?
Contact
Michelle Kennard
[email protected]
0300 068 5268
Sarah Resouly
[email protected]
0300 068 5272
CCC vote on free
allocation rules

similar documents