EU Culture

Report
EU Culture
By Simone Caramel
Eurogems aps
What is culture?
• Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from
colere) meaning "to cultivate”
• Kroeber, A.L., & Kluckhohn compiled a list of
164 definitions of culture
• When the concept first emerged in eighteenth
and nineteenth century Europe, it connoted a
process of cultivation or improvement, as in
agriculture or horticulture
What is culture?
• In the nineteenth century it came to refer first
to the betterment or refinement of the
individual, especially through education, and
then to the fulfillment of national aspirations
or ideals
• In the mid-nineteenth century some scientists
began to argue that culture signifies a
universal human capacity
What is culture?
• In the twentieth century the term was used in
two senses:
• to refer to the evolved human capacity to classify
and represent experiences symbolically and to
act imaginatively and creatively
• it referred to distinct ways that people living in
different parts of the world classified and
represented their experiences, and acted
creatively
What is culture?
• "A culture is a configuration of learned
behaviors and results of behavior whose
component elements are shared and
transmitted by the members of a particular
society" (p. 32).
• Linton, R. (1945). The Cultural Background of
Personality. New York.
What is culture?
• "Culture...consists in those patterns relative to
behavior and the products of human action
which may be inherited, that is, passed on
from generation to generation independently
of the biological genes" (p. 8).
• Parson, T. (1949). Essays in Sociological
Theory. Glencoe, IL.
What is culture?
• "Culture has been defined in a number of
ways, but most simply, as the learned and
shared behavior of a community of
interacting human beings" (p. 169).
• Useem, J., & Useem, R. (1963). Human
Organizations, 22(3).
What is culture?
• "Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and
for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols,
constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups,
including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core
of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived
and selected) ideas and especially their attached values;
culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as
products of action, and on the other as conditioning
elements of further action.“
• Kroeber, A.L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical
review of concepts and definitions. Harvard University
Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology
Papers 47.
What is culture?
• "Most social scientists today view culture as consisting
primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects
of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its
artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how
the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive
them. It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and
perspectives that distinguish one people from another in
modernized societies; it is not material objects and other
tangible aspects of human societies. People within a
culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts,
and behaviors in the same or in similar ways."
• Banks, J.A., Banks, & McGee, C. A. (1989). Multicultural
education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Culture definition - Summary
• culture could be defined as the shared
patterns of behaviors and interactions,
cognitive
constructs,
and
affective
understanding that are learned through a
process of socialization. These shared
patterns identify the members of a culture
group while also distinguishing those of
another group.
Culture
•
•
•
•
•
•
Knowledge
Religions
Languages
Heritage
Customs
Traditions
Culture
•
•
•
•
•
•
Food
Dressing
Arts
Dance
Music
Songs
Culture: dynamic process
• Social behaviour
• Interaction
• “..constantly evolving values, beliefs,
knowledge and traditions”
• Change in time and in space
• Learning process
• Improvement
Cultural Heritage
Cultural heritage
• Cultural heritage is a group of resources inherited from
the past which people identify, independently of
ownership, as a reflection and expression of their
constantly evolving values, beliefs, knowledge and
traditions. It includes all aspects of the environment
resulting from the interaction between people and
places through time
• A heritage community consists of people who value
specific aspects of cultural heritage which they wish,
within the framework of public action, to sustain and
transmit to future generations
Cultural heritage
European Cultural Heritage
• All forms of cultural heritage in Europe together
constitute a shared source of remembrance,
understanding, identity, cohesion and creativity
• The ideals, principles and values, derived from
the experience gained through progress and past
conflicts, foster the development of a peaceful
and stable society, founded on respect for human
rights, democracy and the rule of law
Cultural heritage
Knowledge & Education
•
•
•
•
•
•
Family
School
Environment (friends, people in general)
Books
Media (TV, Radio, Newspapers)
Internet sources
Knowledge & Information
• Does the knowledge belong just to what we
learn from the books or from the school?
• Filtered information and secondary source
• Rigidity
• Stereotypes
• Pre-juices
• Imitation of models
Culture – dynamics
•
•
•
•
•
Culture changes in time and space
What we learn could be already old
Importance of learning
Pre-juices: to judge before…knowing
Importance of knowledge and information
A new book is already old
What kind of information?
•
•
•
•
•
Primary source
Direct knowledge
Direct experience
Learning
Dialogue
Touch by hand
•
•
•
•
Primary source could be trough:
To look with our eyes
To listen with our ears
To touch with our hands
Importance of..
• Dialogue
• Creativity
• Informal learning
EU Culture
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cultural identity
Cultural diversity
Intercultural dialogue
Intercultural learning
Non – formal learning
“Unity in Diversity”
Intercultural dialogue
Intercultural dialogue
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
European Cultural identity
European Cultural diversity
Diversity inside each country (space)
Diversity with the time spending i.e. Istambul 2005 is
different from Istambul 2008 (time)
Integration of minorities
Multicultural and intercultural exchange
Intercultural awareness
Cultural cooperation
Awareness of cultural diversities
Social Inclusion and integration
Culture & Values
• Culture, values and citizenship are strictly
related
• Culture is for instance connected with the
following values:
• Respect
• Tollerance
• Comprehension
Intercultural dialogue
• How intercultural dialogue can be translated
into concrete actions that can inspire others
and be adapted to different contexts?
• Best practices (booklet)
• Methods
• Results
EU Programs about culture
• Education and Culture
• Youth in Action Program
– Youth Exchanges
– European Voluntary Service
– Training Courses
– Seminars
Intercultural learning
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Learning
Flexibility
Adaptivity
Elasticity
Research
Seeking for the truth
Interactions
Cooperation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Comprehension
Tollerance
Solidarity
Respect
Communication
Mutual exchanges
Dialogue
Mutual understanding
No - learning
•
•
•
•
•
Rigidity
Fix ideas
Stereotypes
No research
Closed mind
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Conflicts
Walls
No dialogue
No respect
False perceptions
No comprehension
False knowledge
EU Cultural diversity
• Respect for people’s cultural origins is at the
heart of the EU programs, as is the desire to
fight against racism and xenophobia – forces
that undermine European values and people’s
solidarity
Open the mind
• to travel
• to go abroad
• to know other languages, other cultures,
other way of living
• to dialogue and interact with youngsters of
different cultures
EU - Education and Culture
• Life Long Learning Program
– Comenius
– Grundtvig
– Erasmus
– Leonardo da Vinci
Activities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Conferences
Seminars
Debates
Cultural workshops
Cultural visits
Exhibitions
Videos
Forum
Activities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Performances
Debates
Campaigns
Events
Mobilities
Creativity, Dialogue, Informal Learning
Outcome
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Best practice handbooks
Guidelines CD-ROM/books
Websites
Models
Brochures
Booklets
Follow up (dissemination, sharing experience
with other NGO’s, with other students)
EU motto
• “UNITY IN DIVERSITY”
Unity in diversity
• The motto means that, via the EU, Europeans
are united in working together for peace and
prosperity, and that the many different
cultures, traditions and languages in Europe
are a positive asset for the continent
• Preservation and valorization of local cultural
heritage and identity, and of cultural
minorities
Education & training
• EU objectives:
• improving the quality and effectiveness of
education and training systems;
• facilitating access to education and training
systems; and
• opening up EU education and training systems
to the wider world.
Erasmus
• Erasmus is the EU's flagship education and
training programme, enabling two hundred
thousand students to study and work abroad
each year, as well as supporting co-operation
actions between higher education institutions
across Europe. It caters not only for students,
but also for professors and business staff who
want to teach abroad and for university staff
who want to be trained abroad.
Erasmus
• the Erasmus programme places great importance
on mobility and furthering career prospects
• Studies show that a period spent abroad not only
enriches students' lives in the academic field but
also in the acquisition of intercultural skills and
self-reliance.
• Around 90% of European universities take part in
Erasmus and 1.9 million students have
participated since it started in 1987.
Erasmus
For students:
• studying abroad
• working abroad
• linguistic preparation
EU Culture program
• Objectives:
• to promote cross-border mobility
• to encourage the transnational circulation of
cultural and artistic output
• to foster intercultural dialogue

similar documents