The Industrial Revolution was a time of dramatic change

Report
PERIOD 4: 1800–1848
The new republic struggled to define
and extend democratic ideals in the
face of rapid economic, territorial,
and demographic changes.
Chapter 8 - 10
Updated 3/16/2015
The Growth of a
National Economy
Part 1
The Industrial Revolution
was a time of dramatic
change, from hand tools
and handmade items, to
products which were mass
produced by machines.
Workers became more
productive, and since more
items were manufactured,
prices dropped, making
exclusive and hard to make
items available to the poor,
not only the rich and elite.
Life generally improved, but the
industrial revolution also proved
harmful.
Pollution increased, working
conditions were dangerous, and
capitalists employed women and
young children, making them work
long and hard hours.
Child Labor
The industrial
revolution was a
time of change, for
better or worse.
Pre-Industrial Age
• China further advanced than Europe
• They used gunpowder, silk, linen,
cotton, spices, and the compass
• Europe does not catch up until the
Age of Exploration (1500)
Pre-Industrial Age
• Europeans and Americans grew
their own food, made their own
clothing and household items,
and rarely traveled more than 10
miles from home
Pre-Industrial Age
• Energy used was wind,
water, people and animals
• Coal could be burned for
fuel but it wasn’t possible
to mine deeply into the
ground
Pre-Industrial Age
• Materials used for
products included wood,
wool, and precious
metals
• Iron could be produced
but it was expensive,
brittle, and a slow
process
Pig Iron Molds
Agricultural Revolution
• By 1600, the world was experiencing
changes in the production of food
• New techniques were introduced fertilizers, crop rotation, flood
control and irrigation
• Less people were needed to grow
more crops
Cottage Industries
• People bartered extra goods with
neighbors, or in the nearest village
• Over time, cottage industries arose,
in which a family would produce 1
product (start to finish)
• They traded this product for other
items they needed
Pre-Industrial Cities
• Centers for government and
trade
• Unhealthy
• Lack of sanitation
• Fire hazards
• Contagious diseases
Industrial Revolution
• By the early 1700s, conditions in
England were right for an industrial
revolution
• Stable government
• Food supply
• Population increase
• Education/innovation encouraged by
the Enlightenment
Industrial Revolution
• Begins with the textile industry
• Process of making clothing
1. Gather fibers from plants or sheep
2. Spin yarn from fibers
3. Weave cloth from yarn
4. Dye cloth with native materials
5. Cut cloth to size
6. Sew pieces together and add fasteners
hand-made from wood or metals
Industrialization of
the Textile Industry
• In 1733, the flying
shuttle was invented
by John Kay
• It wove fabric using a
machine that wove
more than one strand
at a time
• Spinners were needed
to keep up with the
weavers
• Spinsters were hired
Industrialization
•
In 1765, the
 Spinners spun 1
spinning jenny was
thread at a time,
using a spinning
wheel
invented by J.
Hargreaves - it
could spin 100
threads at a time
Industrialization of the Textile
Industry
• In 1790, a water powered spinning
jenny was invented
• It no longer fit in the home
• Laborers needed to be hired to work
in the factories
• Capital was needed to build factories
• Factories had to be located near water
Industrialization of the Textile
Industry
Industrialization of the Textile
Industry
• Adults did not want to
work in factories
• To fill the shortfall,
factories bought paupers,
or orphans to work in
their factories
The Spread of the Industrial
Revolution
• Products and patents were sold
abroad
• Immigrants brought ideas to
new countries
• Espionage was common
• Key Concept 4.2:
Developments in technology,
agriculture, and commerce
precipitated profound changes in
U.S. settlement patterns, regional
identities, gender and family
relations, political power, and
distribution of consumer goods.
I. A global market and
communications revolution,
influencing and influenced by
technological innovations, led to
dramatic shifts in the nature of
agriculture and manufacturing.
A. Innovations including textile
machinery, steam engines,
interchangeable parts, canals,
railroads, and the telegraph, as
well as agricultural inventions,
both extended markets and
brought efficiency to
production for those markets.
Required terms:
• Mechanical
Samuel Slater
• What/Who
Steel Tipped Plow
• What/Who
• What/Who
• Importance
• Importance
• Importance
Reaper
Farming to production – working class
Production to finance – entrepreneurs
B.
Increasing numbers of Americans,
especially women in factories and low
skilled male workers, no longer relied on
semi-subsistence agriculture but made their
livelihoods producing goods for distant
markets,
even as some urban entrepreneurs went into
finance rather than manufacturing.
Required terms:
Lowell system
• What/Who
Baldwin
Locomotive Works
• What/Who
Anthracite
coal mining
• What/Who
• Importance
• Importance
• Importance
The Spread of the Industrial
Revolution
• Samuel Slater
memorized the plans
for a textile mill
before leaving
England
• When he came to the
Slater Factory
USA, he built an
improved version in
Pawtucket, RI
The Spread of the Industrial
Revolution
• Factories in Lowell,
Mass recruited
farmers’ daughters
• Furnished them with
dormitories and
eating facilities
Bootmill in Lowell, Mass
Innovations to Farming
• The most wide-ranging
effect came from the
invention of the cotton
gin
• It furthered the
industrialization of the
textile industry by
making cotton readily
available
Innovations to Farming
• Invented in 1794 by Eli
Whitney, it had many effects
on the country
• Made cotton more
profitable
• Planters changed to
growing cotton exclusively
• Planter sought new land,
settled Alabama,
Mississippi, and Louisiana
• Increased dependency on
slavery
Innovations to Manufacturing
• Principles of
manufacturing textiles
were soon applied to many
products, from household
items to military arms
• Eli Whitney developed the
idea of manufacturing
interchangeable parts in
1798
• This increased the speed
of production and the ease
of repairing machinery
Energy & Transportation
• In 1705 a steam pump
was invented for
pumping water out of
the mines
• In 1760, James Watts
invented the first
potable, or
commercial steam
engine
Energy & Transportation
• In 1805, the 1st
successful steam boat
was built by Robert
Fulton
• Very practical for
The Clermont
transporting people
and goods upriver
Energy & Transportation
• In 1810, Macadam
was invented in
Scotland
• Turnpikes soon
followed
(1st section of PA
Turnpike completed in
1822)
Energy & Transportation
• In 1811 work began in the USA
on the Cumberland Road
• It started in Maryland and
stretched west (It is now part of
route 40)
Energy & Transportation
• In 1825, the 1st
successful
locomotive was
invented by
George
Stephenson
Energy & Transportation
• Within 25 years,
tracks were
crisscrossing
England,
America, and the
Continent
• Stations became
town centers
Energy & Transportation
• Canals were important transportation
marvels
• The Erie Canal stretched from Lake Erie
to Albany, NY
• Cost of freight from Cincinnati to New
York City went from $100 a ton to $10
• Perishable goods became available
further from farms and processing plants
Key Concept 4.2
III. The economic changes caused by
the market revolution had
significant effects on migration
patterns, gender and family
relations, and the distribution of
political power.
A. With the opening of canals and new roads into
the western territories, native-born white citizens
relocated westward, relying on new community
systems to replace their old family and local
relationships.
B. Migrants from Europe increased the population
in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds
of interdependence between the Northeast and
the Old Northwest.
C. The South remained politically, culturally, and
ideologically distinct from the other sections,
while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe
for economic growth.
Required terms:
Cult of
domesticity
Lydia Maria
Child
• What/Who
• What/Who
• What/Who
• Importance
• Importance
• Importance
• Early labor
unions
Capitalism
• Economic system based on profit
• Supply and demand determine
what will be manufactured, when,
and at what price
• Depends on entrepreneurs for
success
• Government plays a limited role
Monetary System
• Bartering no longer practical – more
money needed in circulation
• Government used “specie”,
coins from precious metals – value
dependent on value of metals they
contained
• Banks took specie deposits but used
bank notes for currency –
theoretically bank notes could be
redeemed for specie
•
•
•
•
2nd Bank of the USA
Established after War of 1812
Privately owned
Repository for government gold & silver
Supposed to have conservative lending policies
to improve the banking system
• Instead made speculative loans to western
banks – loaned 10X as much as deposits
• Recovered but halted most loans to the west,
making it advantageous to eastern
manufacturers
Banking System in USA
• All banks except for the Bank of the
USA were independently owned
• Virtually no banking regulations until
the 1930s
• Many banks failed or experienced
severe shortages; led to several
recessions
Key Concept 4.2, III.
D. The market revolution helped to widen a
gap between rich and poor, shaped
emerging middle and working classes,
and caused an increasing separation
between home and workplace, which led
to dramatic transformations in gender
and in family roles and expectations.
Labor
• People were used to being self-employed and did
not want to work in factories
• Factories attracted workers by advertising and
providing lodging
• Single females from farming families became
“Lowell Girls”
• Later replaced by new immigrants
• Middle class of managers and investors began to
emerge
• Labor unions were formed to protect rights of
laborers.
Part 2
Sectionalism
Key Concept 4.2, III
E. Regional interests continued to
trump national concerns as the
basis for many political leaders’
positions on economic issues
including slavery, the national
bank, tariffs, and internal
improvements.
Sectional Differences
The Northern Section
The Northwest (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota) depended
on agriculture and agricultural processing
The Northeast (New England and the
middle states) depended on manufacturing
and trade
Key Concept 4.2
II. Regional economic specialization,
especially the demands of
cultivating southern cotton, shaped
settlement patterns and the
national and international
economy.
The Northern Section
 The Northwest was influenced by the
climate and fertile soil of the region
Once the mechanical reaper and steel
tipped plow were invented, farming became a
major industry
Agricultural products like whiskey and beer
made preservation of grains easier
Feeding grains to animals provided farmers
with both meat and fat; keeping the animals
alive until slaughter preserved the meat
The Northern Section
• Cities in the Northwest grew up around the
agricultural processing industry
•Cincinnati was a center for hog slaughtering
•Chicago would grow around the cattle
industry
•Grand Rapids would grow around the cereal
/ grain industry
The Northern Section
Goods from the Northwest were
transported primarily by water
They could be floated down-river on
the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi to
New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico
Goods could also be transported
across the Great Lakes to the Erie
Canal, to the Hudson River and the
Atlantic Ocean
The Northern Section
While many people continued to farm in
the Northeast, more and more people moved into
urban areas
The Northeast was the 1st area of the
country to become industrialized
They depended on food and natural
resources from other areas to survive
Their economy revolved around the trade
of processed foods and manufactured goods
The Northern Section
Textile mills and their surrounding
towns grew up in Rhode Island and
Massachusetts
Eli Whitney built a manufacturing
plant in Connecticut to make rifles
based on his system of interchangeable
parts
Other plants produced furniture,
clocks, glass and tinware
The Northern Section
• In Lowell, Mass young ladies
earned $3.25 for a 72-hour week
•They were charged $1.25 for
room and board, leaving them
$2.00 for basic necessities
•That is the equivalent of earning
$69.14 per week today!
The Growth of Cities
• Between 1810 and 1840, the percentage of
people living in cities doubled from 6% to 12%
• Approximately 500,000 people lived in
Manhattan in 1850
• Public institutions like hospitals and schools
became more important as people no longer
lived with extended families
The Growth of Cities
• Cities developed neighborhoods for the
rich and poor
• Poor people lived near industrial centers
in overcrowded tenements
• Wealthy people lived ‘uptown’ in cleaner
neighborhoods with parks and
multistoried townhouses
Key Concept 4.2 (II.)
A. Southern cotton furnished the raw
material for manufacturing in the
Northeast, while the growth in
cotton production and trade
promoted the development of
national economic ties, shaped the
international economy, and fueled
the internal slave trade
Southern Farming
• Varied from large plantations to small
farms
• Fertile soil, long growing season, and
humidity made agriculture attractive
• Investment in industry was minimal
• Cities were generally ports
The Cotton Belt
• Delaware
• Maryland
• Virginia
• North Carolina
• South Carolina
• Georgia
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Kentucky
Tennessee
Alabama
Mississippi
Louisiana
Texas
Arkansas
The Southern Section
• Cotton was ‘king’
• Pounds of raw cotton produced:
• 1820 - 160 million
• 1830 - 320 million (doubled)
• 1850 - exceeded 1billion
The Southern Section
• Cotton was ‘king’
• Slaves investments
• Slave laws became more restrictive
• Slaves were illegally imported
Southern Economy
• 100% of cotton was grown in the south
• More than 80% of the cotton was
exported to England and New England
• Most cargo ships were built in the north;
most commercial trade enterprises were
from the north
B. Despite some governmental and
private efforts to create a unified
national economy, most notably the
American System, the shift to market
production linked the North and the
Midwest more closely than either was
linked to the South.
American System – (Slide 83)
The West
• Frontier was west of Appalachian Mountains
to the Mississippi River
• Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio
•
•
•
•
Independent frontiersmen
Needed infrastructure to get goods to market
Produced food crops – sold to South and North
Jackson (Tennessee) Clay (Kentucky)
Part 3
Era of Good Feelings
to 2nd Party System
The Growth of Nationalism
• National pride was strengthened
after the War of 1812
• Era of Good Feeling (1816 - 1824)
• Americans began to respect their
own unique culture
• America would continue to grow
geographically, economically and
militarily
Foreign Policy
• After the War of 1812, relations with Great
Britain improved tremendously
• During the Napoleonic Wars, Spain lost several
colonies in Latin America
• Great Britain wanted those countries to remain
independent and the USA wanted to keep
European countries away from our shores
Key Concept 4.3:
U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade,
expanding its national borders, and
isolating itself from European conflicts
shaped the nation’s foreign policy and
spurred government and private
initiatives.
Required terms:
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Webster – Ashburton Treaty (1842)
I. Struggling to create an independent global
presence, U.S. policymakers sought to
dominate the North American continent and
to promote its foreign trade.
B. The U.S. sought dominance over the North
American continent through a variety of
means, including military actions, judicial
decisions, and diplomatic efforts.
Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine
• (1823) President Monroe and his Sec. of State, John
Q. Adams, wrote the Monroe Doctrine
• Countries that were already independent would
remain that way
• European countries could keep their existing
colonies
• USA would stay out of affairs in Europe
• Monroe Doctrine backed by the British navy!
Era of Good Feeling
• 1816-1824
• 1 political party
• economic prosperity
• Exception – Panic of 1819
Election of 1820
Interesting facts:
Monroe ran for his 2nd term
unopposed
Out of 235 electoral votes,
Monroe received 231
1 elector voted for J.Q. Adams
so that Washington would be the
only one voted in unanimously
1820 was the last
election of the Era of
Good Feelings
3 electors died before the vote
and couldn’t be replaced in time
Election of 1824
• Four major candidates vied for the presidency
• Democratic-Republicans
• John Quincy Adams, (Mass)
• Henry Clay, (Kentucky)
• John C. Calhoun (South Carolina)
• General Andrew Jackson (Tennessee)
Election of 1824
• Ended Era of Good Feelings
• The Democratic-Republicans split into:
• National Republicans
• Jacksonian Democrats
Election of 1824
• Jackson won plurality, not majority
• House of Representatives decided the winner after
many votes
• Corrupt bargain – Clay withdrew and supported JQA
• JQA appointed Clay his Sec. of State
National Power John Quincy Adams
• National program for the arts and sciences
• Observatory
• Library
• Museums
• ahead of his time; many would be authorized
after his term
The American System –
Henry Clay
• Government should build infrastructure
• bridges, roads, canals
• Protective tariffs
• Supported by many businessmen
• Opponents did not want to pay taxes for
programs that did not directly benefit them
• Few of his programs were passed in
Congress
Election of 1828
• John Quincy Adams and Andrew
Jackson again squared off
• Jackson had the support of Congress
and the new western states
• For the first time, there were over 1
million voters
• New states had entered, the population
grew, and property requirements were
dropped
“The Peoples’ President”
• Jackson capitalized on his war record
and his tough childhood
• By the time of the election, he was a
wealthy plantation owner
• He endured a scandal involving his
wife, Rachel
• She died immediately before he took
office
Andrew Jackson participated in
many duels. He was shot at least
twice as a result of dueling. While
President, one of Jackson's
strongest supporters was Thomas
Benton, a United States Senator
who shot Jackson 20 years earlier.
“The Peoples’ President”
• After Jackson won in 1828, he invited
the common people to his
inauguration party!
“The Peoples’ President”
• Patronage – Spoils System
• “To the victor goes the spoils”
• Jackson appointed his supporters to
positions of authority
• Good idea or a bad one?
King Andrew
• Jackson had long
advocated a limited
role for the national
government
• He vetoed more
legislation than the
previous 6
presidents
combined
Peggy Eaton Affair
• Previously married
• Husband died in the navy – questions about suicide
• Rumor that she was having an affair with John Eaton (Sec.
of the War)
• Married Eaton after husband’s death
• V.P. Calhoun’s wife refused to socialize with her
• Split sides Peggy’s supporters (Pres. Jackson) and
detractors (VP Calhoun)
Key Concept 4.2, III
E. Regional interests continued to
trump national concerns as the
basis for many political leaders’
positions on economic issues
including slavery, the national
bank, tariffs, and internal
improvements.
Tariff of Abominations
1828
• Passed during JQA’s presidency
• May have been passed by Jackson
supporters to embarrass JQA
• High, protective tariffs benefiting N.E.
• Hurt South – consumers and exporters
Key Concept 4.3, III
B. Federal government attempts to assert
authority over the states brought
resistance from state governments in the
North and the South at different times.
Required term: Nullification Crisis
Tariffs and Nullification
(1832-1833)
 South Carolina Exposition and Protest
• states could nullify federal laws if
they were unconstitutional
• they could secede if they desired
• secretly written by V.P. Calhoun in
1828; adopted by SC legislature in
1832
“The Toast”
• 1830 – Tensions between Jackson and
Calhoun escalated
• Celebration of Jefferson’s Birthday,
Jackson gave a toast
• “Our Union – it must be preserved”
• Taken as direct insult to Calhoun
Webster – Hayne Debate - 1830
• Started as a debate on selling western lands
• Daniel Webster of Massachusetts vs. Robert Haynes of
South Carolina
• Northerners wanted to keep cheap laborers from
moving West; Southerners wanted to continue
expanding West and form an alliance with new Western
states
• Debate continued about state vs. federal control
Compromise Tariff of 1833
• Proposed by Henry Clay
• Reduced or eliminated tariffs
• Accepted by Southerners
• Ended tariff crisis but did not
resolve the issues of nullification or
secession
Force Act of 1833
• Proposed by Jackson
• Passed the same day as the Compromise
Tariff
• Federal troops would be used to enforce
federal laws and collect tariffs, if necessary
• South Carolina then nullified the Force Act!
Key Concept 4.2, II
C.
Efforts to exploit the nation’s natural resources led
to government efforts to promote free and forced
migration of various American peoples across the
continent, as well as to competing ideas about
defining and managing labor systems,
geographical boundaries, and natural resources.
**Gold found in Georgia & North Carolina resulted in
the Trail of Tears
The Bank War
• Jackson vowed to destroy the 2nd Bank
of the USA
• Because it was 80% privately owned, the
bank could make decisions that benefited
one group over others
• In 1832, Nicholas Biddle requested the
bank’s charter be renewed (4 years early)
• Although it passed in Congress, Jackson
vetoed it
The Bank War
• Jackson then withdrew all of the
deposits of the United States
government and deposited them in
‘pet banks’
• The dissatisfied members of the
National Republican Party started the
Whigs
• In 1836, Jackson supported his V.P.,
Martin Van Buren
Specie Circular - 1836
• Executive order by Jackson
• Land speculation and paper money were
causing rampant inflation
• Public lands had to be purchased with
gold or silver
• Contributed to Panic of 1837
• Left mess to “Van Ruin” to deal with
• Causes:
The Indian Crisis
• 1829 gold was found in Georgia
• more land was needed for cotton
• “The only good Indian is a dead
Indian”
• Only the 5 civilized tribes remained in
the Southeast
• The Cherokee had adopted the white
culture and were successful farmers,
lawyers, teachers, etc.
Key Concept 4.3, II
C. Whites living on the frontier tended to
champion expansion efforts, while
resistance by American Indians led to a
sequence of wars and federal efforts to
control American Indian populations.
Required terms:
Indian Removal Act
War Hawks
Seminole Wars
Worcester v. Georgia
Indian Removal Act - 1830
• Land in Indian Territory was to be exchanged for the tribal lands in
the southeast
• Georgia enacted laws that allowed them to confiscate land
• Cherokee fought the removal in court
• 1831 – Cherokee Nation V. Georgia
• Court ruled that it did not have the authority to overturn Georgia’s laws
• Ruled that Cherokee were not a foreign power and had no standing in
court
• 1832 – Worchester v. Georgia (brought by Worchester, a non-Indian)
• Court ruled that Cherokee were a separate, sovereign nation based on
treaties with USA
• Georgia was infringing on federal authority when they attempted to
confiscate Cherokee land
• “John Marshall made his decision. Now let him enforce it.”
The Indian Crisis
• 1835 – Treaty of New Enchota
• Small group of Indians signed treaty on behalf of all of them
and started to move west
• 1838- US Army forcibly marched 15,000 to Indian
Territory
• The journey of 1000 miles took 116 days
• The ‘Trail of Tears’ ended with 25% of the Indians
dead from disease, exhaustion, and cold
The Indian Uprisings
• Black Hawk War occurred in the Illinois
Territory in 1831
• The Fox & Sauk Indians were hunted
down and killed in Wisconsin
• The 2nd Seminole War lasted from 1835 to
1842
• In the end, only a few hundred Seminole
survived by hiding deep in the Everglades
Election of 1840
• William Henry Harrison ran his
log-cabin campaign
• Died 1 month after taking office
• John Tyler became president but
was in conflict with Congress
over his role - Constitution was
not clear about the succession of
presidents
John Tyler
• “His accidency”
• 1842 – Webster-Ashburton Treaty ended the
boundary dispute and “Aristook Wars” in Maine
• 1844 – After Polk won the election, Tyler pushed
annexation of Texas through Congress
Election of 1844
James Polk
•
•
•
•
Manifest Destiny
Annexation of Texas
“54’40 or fight” (Settled peacefully in 1846)
Dark Horse - Democrat
The End !

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