PERIOD 4: 1800–1848 The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes. Chapter 8 - 10 Updated 3/16/2015 The Growth of a National Economy Part 1 The Industrial Revolution was a time of dramatic change, from hand tools and handmade items, to products which were mass produced by machines. Workers became more productive, and since more items were manufactured, prices dropped, making exclusive and hard to make items available to the poor, not only the rich and elite. Life generally improved, but the industrial revolution also proved harmful. Pollution increased, working conditions were dangerous, and capitalists employed women and young children, making them work long and hard hours. Child Labor The industrial revolution was a time of change, for better or worse. Pre-Industrial Age • China further advanced than Europe • They used gunpowder, silk, linen, cotton, spices, and the compass • Europe does not catch up until the Age of Exploration (1500) Pre-Industrial Age • Europeans and Americans grew their own food, made their own clothing and household items, and rarely traveled more than 10 miles from home Pre-Industrial Age • Energy used was wind, water, people and animals • Coal could be burned for fuel but it wasn’t possible to mine deeply into the ground Pre-Industrial Age • Materials used for products included wood, wool, and precious metals • Iron could be produced but it was expensive, brittle, and a slow process Pig Iron Molds Agricultural Revolution • By 1600, the world was experiencing changes in the production of food • New techniques were introduced fertilizers, crop rotation, flood control and irrigation • Less people were needed to grow more crops Cottage Industries • People bartered extra goods with neighbors, or in the nearest village • Over time, cottage industries arose, in which a family would produce 1 product (start to finish) • They traded this product for other items they needed Pre-Industrial Cities • Centers for government and trade • Unhealthy • Lack of sanitation • Fire hazards • Contagious diseases Industrial Revolution • By the early 1700s, conditions in England were right for an industrial revolution • Stable government • Food supply • Population increase • Education/innovation encouraged by the Enlightenment Industrial Revolution • Begins with the textile industry • Process of making clothing 1. Gather fibers from plants or sheep 2. Spin yarn from fibers 3. Weave cloth from yarn 4. Dye cloth with native materials 5. Cut cloth to size 6. Sew pieces together and add fasteners hand-made from wood or metals Industrialization of the Textile Industry • In 1733, the flying shuttle was invented by John Kay • It wove fabric using a machine that wove more than one strand at a time • Spinners were needed to keep up with the weavers • Spinsters were hired Industrialization • In 1765, the Spinners spun 1 spinning jenny was thread at a time, using a spinning wheel invented by J. Hargreaves - it could spin 100 threads at a time Industrialization of the Textile Industry • In 1790, a water powered spinning jenny was invented • It no longer fit in the home • Laborers needed to be hired to work in the factories • Capital was needed to build factories • Factories had to be located near water Industrialization of the Textile Industry Industrialization of the Textile Industry • Adults did not want to work in factories • To fill the shortfall, factories bought paupers, or orphans to work in their factories The Spread of the Industrial Revolution • Products and patents were sold abroad • Immigrants brought ideas to new countries • Espionage was common • Key Concept 4.2: Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods. I. A global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing. A. Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets. Required terms: • Mechanical Samuel Slater • What/Who Steel Tipped Plow • What/Who • What/Who • Importance • Importance • Importance Reaper Farming to production – working class Production to finance – entrepreneurs B. Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low skilled male workers, no longer relied on semi-subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing. Required terms: Lowell system • What/Who Baldwin Locomotive Works • What/Who Anthracite coal mining • What/Who • Importance • Importance • Importance The Spread of the Industrial Revolution • Samuel Slater memorized the plans for a textile mill before leaving England • When he came to the Slater Factory USA, he built an improved version in Pawtucket, RI The Spread of the Industrial Revolution • Factories in Lowell, Mass recruited farmers’ daughters • Furnished them with dormitories and eating facilities Bootmill in Lowell, Mass Innovations to Farming • The most wide-ranging effect came from the invention of the cotton gin • It furthered the industrialization of the textile industry by making cotton readily available Innovations to Farming • Invented in 1794 by Eli Whitney, it had many effects on the country • Made cotton more profitable • Planters changed to growing cotton exclusively • Planter sought new land, settled Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana • Increased dependency on slavery Innovations to Manufacturing • Principles of manufacturing textiles were soon applied to many products, from household items to military arms • Eli Whitney developed the idea of manufacturing interchangeable parts in 1798 • This increased the speed of production and the ease of repairing machinery Energy & Transportation • In 1705 a steam pump was invented for pumping water out of the mines • In 1760, James Watts invented the first potable, or commercial steam engine Energy & Transportation • In 1805, the 1st successful steam boat was built by Robert Fulton • Very practical for The Clermont transporting people and goods upriver Energy & Transportation • In 1810, Macadam was invented in Scotland • Turnpikes soon followed (1st section of PA Turnpike completed in 1822) Energy & Transportation • In 1811 work began in the USA on the Cumberland Road • It started in Maryland and stretched west (It is now part of route 40) Energy & Transportation • In 1825, the 1st successful locomotive was invented by George Stephenson Energy & Transportation • Within 25 years, tracks were crisscrossing England, America, and the Continent • Stations became town centers Energy & Transportation • Canals were important transportation marvels • The Erie Canal stretched from Lake Erie to Albany, NY • Cost of freight from Cincinnati to New York City went from $100 a ton to $10 • Perishable goods became available further from farms and processing plants Key Concept 4.2 III. The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power. A. With the opening of canals and new roads into the western territories, native-born white citizens relocated westward, relying on new community systems to replace their old family and local relationships. B. Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest. C. The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections, while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth. Required terms: Cult of domesticity Lydia Maria Child • What/Who • What/Who • What/Who • Importance • Importance • Importance • Early labor unions Capitalism • Economic system based on profit • Supply and demand determine what will be manufactured, when, and at what price • Depends on entrepreneurs for success • Government plays a limited role Monetary System • Bartering no longer practical – more money needed in circulation • Government used “specie”, coins from precious metals – value dependent on value of metals they contained • Banks took specie deposits but used bank notes for currency – theoretically bank notes could be redeemed for specie • • • • 2nd Bank of the USA Established after War of 1812 Privately owned Repository for government gold & silver Supposed to have conservative lending policies to improve the banking system • Instead made speculative loans to western banks – loaned 10X as much as deposits • Recovered but halted most loans to the west, making it advantageous to eastern manufacturers Banking System in USA • All banks except for the Bank of the USA were independently owned • Virtually no banking regulations until the 1930s • Many banks failed or experienced severe shortages; led to several recessions Key Concept 4.2, III. D. The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes, and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations. Labor • People were used to being self-employed and did not want to work in factories • Factories attracted workers by advertising and providing lodging • Single females from farming families became “Lowell Girls” • Later replaced by new immigrants • Middle class of managers and investors began to emerge • Labor unions were formed to protect rights of laborers. Part 2 Sectionalism Key Concept 4.2, III E. Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on economic issues including slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements. Sectional Differences The Northern Section The Northwest (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota) depended on agriculture and agricultural processing The Northeast (New England and the middle states) depended on manufacturing and trade Key Concept 4.2 II. Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy. The Northern Section The Northwest was influenced by the climate and fertile soil of the region Once the mechanical reaper and steel tipped plow were invented, farming became a major industry Agricultural products like whiskey and beer made preservation of grains easier Feeding grains to animals provided farmers with both meat and fat; keeping the animals alive until slaughter preserved the meat The Northern Section • Cities in the Northwest grew up around the agricultural processing industry •Cincinnati was a center for hog slaughtering •Chicago would grow around the cattle industry •Grand Rapids would grow around the cereal / grain industry The Northern Section Goods from the Northwest were transported primarily by water They could be floated down-river on the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi to New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico Goods could also be transported across the Great Lakes to the Erie Canal, to the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean The Northern Section While many people continued to farm in the Northeast, more and more people moved into urban areas The Northeast was the 1st area of the country to become industrialized They depended on food and natural resources from other areas to survive Their economy revolved around the trade of processed foods and manufactured goods The Northern Section Textile mills and their surrounding towns grew up in Rhode Island and Massachusetts Eli Whitney built a manufacturing plant in Connecticut to make rifles based on his system of interchangeable parts Other plants produced furniture, clocks, glass and tinware The Northern Section • In Lowell, Mass young ladies earned $3.25 for a 72-hour week •They were charged $1.25 for room and board, leaving them $2.00 for basic necessities •That is the equivalent of earning $69.14 per week today! The Growth of Cities • Between 1810 and 1840, the percentage of people living in cities doubled from 6% to 12% • Approximately 500,000 people lived in Manhattan in 1850 • Public institutions like hospitals and schools became more important as people no longer lived with extended families The Growth of Cities • Cities developed neighborhoods for the rich and poor • Poor people lived near industrial centers in overcrowded tenements • Wealthy people lived ‘uptown’ in cleaner neighborhoods with parks and multistoried townhouses Key Concept 4.2 (II.) A. Southern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade Southern Farming • Varied from large plantations to small farms • Fertile soil, long growing season, and humidity made agriculture attractive • Investment in industry was minimal • Cities were generally ports The Cotton Belt • Delaware • Maryland • Virginia • North Carolina • South Carolina • Georgia • • • • • • • Kentucky Tennessee Alabama Mississippi Louisiana Texas Arkansas The Southern Section • Cotton was ‘king’ • Pounds of raw cotton produced: • 1820 - 160 million • 1830 - 320 million (doubled) • 1850 - exceeded 1billion The Southern Section • Cotton was ‘king’ • Slaves investments • Slave laws became more restrictive • Slaves were illegally imported Southern Economy • 100% of cotton was grown in the south • More than 80% of the cotton was exported to England and New England • Most cargo ships were built in the north; most commercial trade enterprises were from the north B. Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South. American System – (Slide 83) The West • Frontier was west of Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River • Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio • • • • Independent frontiersmen Needed infrastructure to get goods to market Produced food crops – sold to South and North Jackson (Tennessee) Clay (Kentucky) Part 3 Era of Good Feelings to 2nd Party System The Growth of Nationalism • National pride was strengthened after the War of 1812 • Era of Good Feeling (1816 - 1824) • Americans began to respect their own unique culture • America would continue to grow geographically, economically and militarily Foreign Policy • After the War of 1812, relations with Great Britain improved tremendously • During the Napoleonic Wars, Spain lost several colonies in Latin America • Great Britain wanted those countries to remain independent and the USA wanted to keep European countries away from our shores Key Concept 4.3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives. Required terms: Monroe Doctrine (1823) Webster – Ashburton Treaty (1842) I. Struggling to create an independent global presence, U.S. policymakers sought to dominate the North American continent and to promote its foreign trade. B. The U.S. sought dominance over the North American continent through a variety of means, including military actions, judicial decisions, and diplomatic efforts. Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine • (1823) President Monroe and his Sec. of State, John Q. Adams, wrote the Monroe Doctrine • Countries that were already independent would remain that way • European countries could keep their existing colonies • USA would stay out of affairs in Europe • Monroe Doctrine backed by the British navy! Era of Good Feeling • 1816-1824 • 1 political party • economic prosperity • Exception – Panic of 1819 Election of 1820 Interesting facts: Monroe ran for his 2nd term unopposed Out of 235 electoral votes, Monroe received 231 1 elector voted for J.Q. Adams so that Washington would be the only one voted in unanimously 1820 was the last election of the Era of Good Feelings 3 electors died before the vote and couldn’t be replaced in time Election of 1824 • Four major candidates vied for the presidency • Democratic-Republicans • John Quincy Adams, (Mass) • Henry Clay, (Kentucky) • John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) • General Andrew Jackson (Tennessee) Election of 1824 • Ended Era of Good Feelings • The Democratic-Republicans split into: • National Republicans • Jacksonian Democrats Election of 1824 • Jackson won plurality, not majority • House of Representatives decided the winner after many votes • Corrupt bargain – Clay withdrew and supported JQA • JQA appointed Clay his Sec. of State National Power John Quincy Adams • National program for the arts and sciences • Observatory • Library • Museums • ahead of his time; many would be authorized after his term The American System – Henry Clay • Government should build infrastructure • bridges, roads, canals • Protective tariffs • Supported by many businessmen • Opponents did not want to pay taxes for programs that did not directly benefit them • Few of his programs were passed in Congress Election of 1828 • John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson again squared off • Jackson had the support of Congress and the new western states • For the first time, there were over 1 million voters • New states had entered, the population grew, and property requirements were dropped “The Peoples’ President” • Jackson capitalized on his war record and his tough childhood • By the time of the election, he was a wealthy plantation owner • He endured a scandal involving his wife, Rachel • She died immediately before he took office Andrew Jackson participated in many duels. He was shot at least twice as a result of dueling. While President, one of Jackson's strongest supporters was Thomas Benton, a United States Senator who shot Jackson 20 years earlier. “The Peoples’ President” • After Jackson won in 1828, he invited the common people to his inauguration party! “The Peoples’ President” • Patronage – Spoils System • “To the victor goes the spoils” • Jackson appointed his supporters to positions of authority • Good idea or a bad one? King Andrew • Jackson had long advocated a limited role for the national government • He vetoed more legislation than the previous 6 presidents combined Peggy Eaton Affair • Previously married • Husband died in the navy – questions about suicide • Rumor that she was having an affair with John Eaton (Sec. of the War) • Married Eaton after husband’s death • V.P. Calhoun’s wife refused to socialize with her • Split sides Peggy’s supporters (Pres. Jackson) and detractors (VP Calhoun) Key Concept 4.2, III E. Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on economic issues including slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements. Tariff of Abominations 1828 • Passed during JQA’s presidency • May have been passed by Jackson supporters to embarrass JQA • High, protective tariffs benefiting N.E. • Hurt South – consumers and exporters Key Concept 4.3, III B. Federal government attempts to assert authority over the states brought resistance from state governments in the North and the South at different times. Required term: Nullification Crisis Tariffs and Nullification (1832-1833) South Carolina Exposition and Protest • states could nullify federal laws if they were unconstitutional • they could secede if they desired • secretly written by V.P. Calhoun in 1828; adopted by SC legislature in 1832 “The Toast” • 1830 – Tensions between Jackson and Calhoun escalated • Celebration of Jefferson’s Birthday, Jackson gave a toast • “Our Union – it must be preserved” • Taken as direct insult to Calhoun Webster – Hayne Debate - 1830 • Started as a debate on selling western lands • Daniel Webster of Massachusetts vs. Robert Haynes of South Carolina • Northerners wanted to keep cheap laborers from moving West; Southerners wanted to continue expanding West and form an alliance with new Western states • Debate continued about state vs. federal control Compromise Tariff of 1833 • Proposed by Henry Clay • Reduced or eliminated tariffs • Accepted by Southerners • Ended tariff crisis but did not resolve the issues of nullification or secession Force Act of 1833 • Proposed by Jackson • Passed the same day as the Compromise Tariff • Federal troops would be used to enforce federal laws and collect tariffs, if necessary • South Carolina then nullified the Force Act! Key Concept 4.2, II C. Efforts to exploit the nation’s natural resources led to government efforts to promote free and forced migration of various American peoples across the continent, as well as to competing ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries, and natural resources. **Gold found in Georgia & North Carolina resulted in the Trail of Tears The Bank War • Jackson vowed to destroy the 2nd Bank of the USA • Because it was 80% privately owned, the bank could make decisions that benefited one group over others • In 1832, Nicholas Biddle requested the bank’s charter be renewed (4 years early) • Although it passed in Congress, Jackson vetoed it The Bank War • Jackson then withdrew all of the deposits of the United States government and deposited them in ‘pet banks’ • The dissatisfied members of the National Republican Party started the Whigs • In 1836, Jackson supported his V.P., Martin Van Buren Specie Circular - 1836 • Executive order by Jackson • Land speculation and paper money were causing rampant inflation • Public lands had to be purchased with gold or silver • Contributed to Panic of 1837 • Left mess to “Van Ruin” to deal with • Causes: The Indian Crisis • 1829 gold was found in Georgia • more land was needed for cotton • “The only good Indian is a dead Indian” • Only the 5 civilized tribes remained in the Southeast • The Cherokee had adopted the white culture and were successful farmers, lawyers, teachers, etc. Key Concept 4.3, II C. Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control American Indian populations. Required terms: Indian Removal Act War Hawks Seminole Wars Worcester v. Georgia Indian Removal Act - 1830 • Land in Indian Territory was to be exchanged for the tribal lands in the southeast • Georgia enacted laws that allowed them to confiscate land • Cherokee fought the removal in court • 1831 – Cherokee Nation V. Georgia • Court ruled that it did not have the authority to overturn Georgia’s laws • Ruled that Cherokee were not a foreign power and had no standing in court • 1832 – Worchester v. Georgia (brought by Worchester, a non-Indian) • Court ruled that Cherokee were a separate, sovereign nation based on treaties with USA • Georgia was infringing on federal authority when they attempted to confiscate Cherokee land • “John Marshall made his decision. Now let him enforce it.” The Indian Crisis • 1835 – Treaty of New Enchota • Small group of Indians signed treaty on behalf of all of them and started to move west • 1838- US Army forcibly marched 15,000 to Indian Territory • The journey of 1000 miles took 116 days • The ‘Trail of Tears’ ended with 25% of the Indians dead from disease, exhaustion, and cold The Indian Uprisings • Black Hawk War occurred in the Illinois Territory in 1831 • The Fox & Sauk Indians were hunted down and killed in Wisconsin • The 2nd Seminole War lasted from 1835 to 1842 • In the end, only a few hundred Seminole survived by hiding deep in the Everglades Election of 1840 • William Henry Harrison ran his log-cabin campaign • Died 1 month after taking office • John Tyler became president but was in conflict with Congress over his role - Constitution was not clear about the succession of presidents John Tyler • “His accidency” • 1842 – Webster-Ashburton Treaty ended the boundary dispute and “Aristook Wars” in Maine • 1844 – After Polk won the election, Tyler pushed annexation of Texas through Congress Election of 1844 James Polk • • • • Manifest Destiny Annexation of Texas “54’40 or fight” (Settled peacefully in 1846) Dark Horse - Democrat The End !