Slide 1

Report
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
An Overview of the Role of Systems Analysis
in NASA’s Hypersonics Project
Jeffrey S. Robinson and John G. Martin
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA
Jeffrey V. Bowles and Unmeel B. Mehta
NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA
and
Christopher A. Snyder
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Background & Introduction
• NASA’s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate
recently restructured its technology programs.
• The newly formed Fundamental Aeronautics Program
(FAP) was chartered and focused towards increased
understanding of the fundamental physics that govern
flight in all speed regimes.
• This presentation will provide a brief overview of the
Hypersonics Project, one of four new projects under FAP
• The project organization and the role that systems
analysis plays within the project is given, as well as the
plans and current status of the systems analysis discipline
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
2
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Fundamental Aero Projects Charter
Fundamental Research Areas
Subsonics:
Rotary Wing
Subsonics:
Fixed Wing
Supersonics
Hypersonics
Objective: Expand science & engineering base knowledge of aeronautics challenges
Four Level Approach
Level
4
3
2
1
Predictive Capabilities for:
Integrated Systems
Multi-Disciplinary Interactions and Sub-systems
Disciplines and Technologies
Natural Phenomena and Fundamental Physics
Expected Outcomes
Developed Capabilities
• Prediction of technology influence on
mission performance, cost, risk
• Computational and experimental
validation of simulations and models
Acquired Knowledge
• Technical peer-reviewed
documentation and papers of
research progress
• Technical presentations at
professional conferences
Results: Validated physics-based multidisciplinary analyses and optimization tool
suite with the predictive capability to design for any mission and fly as designed
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Technical Project Structure
• Four levels from foundational
physics up to system design
• Guided by “push – pull”
technology development
philosophy; technologies &
capabilities flow up,
requirements flow down
• Example:
L1: New boundary layer
transition model developed
L2: Incorporated into CFD code
w/ increased heat transfer
prediction capability
L3: CFD analysis coupled with
TPS sizing to determine
material distribution and
thicknesses
L4: Reduced uncertainty in
prediction translates to
lower required margins,
yielding either a lighter or
more capable overall
system
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
4
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Hypersonic Systems and Missions
• The project’s original plan was to
tackle, one at a time, each of the
columns and develop reference
vehicles for each
• Following a NASA HQ review, the
project decided to focus in on one or
two missions
• The project has selected Highly
Reliable Reusable Launch Systems
(HRRLS) and High Mass Mars Entry
Systems (HMMES) as the two focus
mission classes.
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
5
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Why Highly Reliable Reusable Launch Systems?
Overall Loss Of Vehicle
•
•
(Longer Bar = Higher Reliability)
Reliability
Recent studies (NGLT) have
indicated the potential for order of
magnitude increases in system
reliability for airbreathing
horizontal takeoff launch vehicles
Builds on previous investments in
turbine and scramjet technology
DoD is currently investing in
operationally responsive and low
cost systems; having NASA work
high reliability is highly
complementary
The HRRLS covers many of the
other challenges for the cruise
systems and Earth entry from
orbit
(1 in odds of Loss of Vehicle)
•
140000
High
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
Low
1
TSTO All
Rocket
VTHL
AIAA 2003-5265
Airframe
•
0
2
TSTO
TBCC
3
4
TSTO
RBCC
SSTO
TBCC
Structures and Materials
• Long life, high temperature
structures & materials
• TPS
• Leading Edges
• Control Surfaces
• High-Temperature Seals
• Reusable Cryo Tanks
Integrated Systems
•
•
•
•
•
Aero-Propulsion Integration
• Mode Transition
• Aero-Propulsive Performance
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
Staging
Thermal Management
Health Management
Power and Actuators
Intelligent/autonomous
controls
Propulsion
•
•
•
•
Advanced Turbojets
Ramjet
Dual-Mode Scramjet
RBCC
www.nasa.gov
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National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Why High Mass Mars Entry Systems?
• Only five successful U.S. landings on Mars: Mars surface above -1.0km MOLA in black
– Vikings I and II (1976)
– Mars Pathfinder (1997)
– Mars Exploration Rovers,
Spirit and Opportunity (2004)
• All five of these successful systems:
– Had landed masses of less than 0.6 MT
– Landed at low elevation sites
(below –1 km MOLA)
– Had large uncertainty in landing location
(uncertainty in targeting landing site of 100s km)
• All of the current Mars missions have relied on large technology investments
made in the late 1960s and early 1970’s as part of the Viking Program
–
–
–
–
–
Aerodynamic characterization of 70-deg sphere cone forebody heatshield
SLA-561V TPS
Supersonic disk-gap-band parachute
Autonomous terminal descent propulsion
MSL relying on modified Viking engines
• Studies show requirements for landing large robotic or human missions on Mars
include landing 40-80 MT payloads with a precision of tens of meters, possibly at
high altitude. Studies also indicate that these requirements can not be met with
Viking era technology.
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
7
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Systems Analysis Roles
•
•
Level 4 / Systems Analysis Team is a
multi-center analysis organization
Systems Analysis primary roles within
the Hypersonics Project is to:
1. Develop and analyze reference vehicle
concepts in support of HRRLS and
HMMES in order to determine potential
system capabilities and to provide
technology goals and requirements to
lower levels.
2. Track technology and analytical tool
development progress by analyzing
technology benefits and exercising
tools on reference vehicles.
3. Identify and help to fill gaps in
analytical tool capability and design
environments.
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
Reference
Vehicle
Development
Technology
Assessment
Tool &
Environment
Development
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
8
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Systems Analysis Work Plan
•
•
•
•
Our plan is to try and keep a balanced
approach between developing / analyzing
reference vehicles, performing technology
assessments, and developing and improving
our design & analysis tools
Tool improvements will be a continuous
process running throughout each FY and will
ideally consume 1/3 of our time
The other 2/3 of our time will be spent
serially working system studies (for about 68 months), followed by technology
assessment (for 4-6 months)
Annual reviews of tool and technology
development status will be conducted
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
Tool &
Environment
Development
System
Studies
Technology
Assessment
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
9
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
HRRLS System Studies
• Work has begun on an updated
TSTO concept for HRRLS. The
system has a TBCC first stage
and rocket powered second
stage (both expendable and
reusable options will be
examined).
• Currently working on keel line
design for first stage.
• Beginning initial sizing of
reusable upper stage.
• TSTO concept provides flight
loads to materials & structures
discipline for design.
• Integrated environment being
worked concurrently.
Hypersonic Vehicle Design Environment
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
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National Aeronautics and Space Administration
HMMES System Studies
Options for
Hypersonic
Decelerators
Today’s
Viking Baseline
Options for
Supersonic
Decelerators
Options for
Subsonic
Decelerators
Options for
Terminal
Descent
Systems
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
11
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Tool & Environment Development
Integrated Design Environments
Individual Discipline Tools
(primarily level 4 specific)
Config &
Geometry
Aero/CFD
Mass Props
& Subsys
Vehicle
Closure
Propulsion
Vehicle
Design
Thermal
& TPS
Trajectory
Structures
Optimization
Life Cycle
Analysis
Concept of Operations
Advanced Vehicle Integration &
Synthesis Environment (AdVISE)
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
12
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Other Tool Development Efforts Underway
• Finishing POST2 interface / integration into design environment
– Completing debug, adding hooks for other codes and for trade study
and Monte Carlo run management
• Starting contracted
efforts for upgrades
to safety tool for
hypersonic systems
and for scramjet
weights modeling.
• Work continuing on
aeroheating methods
in support of HMMES
– New capability uses
engineering methods
to extend a few high
fidelity CFD solutions
over entire trajectory
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
13
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Special Project Support
• Level 4 has been supporting
Fresh-FX with aerodynamic
database development (Missile
Datcom, APAS, and USM3D)
and trajectory analysis
• At the same time, L4 is working
to improve design and analysis
tools
USM3D solution
– Developed rapid missile
geometry generation
– Automated execution of Missile
Datcom
– Automated generation of
panels for APAS, structured
grids for CFD (.stl format), and
IGES surfaces
Missile Design Environment
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
14
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Next Steps
• Near term plan is to finish TSTO system study, including sensitivity
and uncertainty analysis, followed by tech assessment. System study
should finish by early spring, tech assessment by late spring.
• While higher fidelity analysis will continue on the TSTO, work will
begin in summer ’07 on the HMMES system study in cooperation with
ESMD.
• The project’s next NRA call is scheduled for February 07 and should
contain several systems analysis topic areas.
• Work will continue on the integrated design and analysis
environment, finishing the trajectory, sizing & closure, subsystems,
and optimization modules.
• We will hold our first tools & methods workshop in the fall of ’07.
• The goal is to have all performance related disciplines included within
three years while work continues on improved reliability and cost
models. Once those models are complete, they will be integrated and
the full environment completed.
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
15
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Summary
• NASA has formally established the Hypersonics Project
as part of its new Fundamental Aeronautics Program.
• Technology development within the Hypersonics Project
will be guided by the classic “push-pull” philosophy, with
the highest level goal of providing improved predictive
design capability at the system level.
• The systems analysis team supports the project by
providing reference concepts and technology assessment
guidance. The team will also work to improve their tools &
processes, including individual discipline tools as well as
integrated design and analysis environments.
• All tasks undertaken by the team will support the project’s
two primary mission classes, HRRLS and HMMES.
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
16
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
backup slides
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
17
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Hypersonic Systems Taxonomy
Entry Systems
V∞ > 9 km/s
V∞ < 9 km/s
Ascent Systems
Ma/bmax > 15
Cruise Systems
Ma/bmax < 12
4 < Ma/b < 12
• Lowspeed (0<M<3-4) systems include turbines, rockets, pdes, lace, etc.
•Deployable decelerating devices
• Highspeed (3-4<M<6-15+) systems include ramjets, scramjets, DMSJ
• RCS and/or aero control surface
• Powered transonic and takeoff performance critical; external burning
•Hazard detection & avoidance; pinpoint autonomous landing
• Flow control / manipulation; MHD / plasma dynamics
•Direct entry for human; aerocapture, aerobraking for robotic
•Propulsion systems integrated/combined in multiple ways and on both stages
•Air/ non-air atmospheres
•Radiation becomes
•Convection dominant
•Hydrogen fueled highspeed •Hydrogen and/or HC
•Hydrogen and/or HC
significant / dominant
(radiation potential for
•Reusable
•Reusable
•Reusable aircraft;
non-air)
•Single use heat shield;
expendable missiles
expendable/reusable other •Multi-use / reusable for •Airbreathing flight envelope: •Airbreathing max Mach: •Higher qbar (1000-2000+
• 0 < Mach < 15+
• M5-6 (no or metallic
manned; single use for
•Ablative materials
TPS?), ramjet/turboram psf) during accel to cruise
robotic
• 500 < qbar < 2000+ psf
reduced qbar (500•Blunt bodies / edges
• M7-8 (max for HC) Mach;
•Blunt and sharp bodies / •Efficient / lightweight
1000 psf) for extended cruise
• M8-12 (H2 only)
edges
Sphere-cones, biconics,
structure crucial
•Reduced throttle operation
blunt bodies; very low
• 500 < qbar < 2000+ psf
Capsules,
lifting
bodies,
•Packing
efficiency
critical
hypersonic L/D
•Sharp leading edges
winged bodies; moderate
•Sharp leading edges
(0<L/D<0.5)
•Sharp
leading
edges,
actively
to high hypersonic L/D
•Aero control surfaces
cooled
•Stage separation
Ex: Apollo, CEV, Galileo, (0.3<L/D<5)
Lifting & winged bodies;
Stardust
•Aero control surfaces
Ex: STS, HL-20, MER •RCS and aero control surf.
high L/D (3<L/D<5)
(RCS possible)
•Significant fuel cooling
Ex: DF-9, X-51
Lifting & winged bodies;
Lifting & winged bodies;
high L/D (3/L/D/5)
high L/D (3<L/D<5)
Ex: ATS-Opt 3
Ex: NASP, GTX
*Ma/b=airbreathing Mach number
14th AIAA/AHI Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference
November 6-9, 2006
www.nasa.gov
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